Numbers 31:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
The LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

King James Bible
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

American Standard Version
And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

English Revised Version
And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,

Webster's Bible Translation
And the LORD spoke to Moses, saying,

Numbers 31:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Numbers 30:3-15 contain the rules relating to positive and negative vows made by a woman, and four different examples are given. The first case (Numbers 30:3-5) is that of a woman in her youth, while still unmarried, and living in her father's house. If she made a vow of performance or abstinence, and her father heard of it and remained silent, it was to stand, i.e., to remain in force. But if her father held her back when he heard of it, i.e., forbade her fulfilling it, it was not to stand or remain in force, and Jehovah would forgive her because of her father's refusal. Obedience to a father stood higher than a self-imposed religious service. - The second case (Numbers 30:6-8) was that of a vow of performance or abstinence, made by a woman before her marriage, and brought along with her (עליה, "upon herself") into her marriage. In such a case the husband had to decide as to its validity, in the same way as the father before her marriage. In the day when he heard of it he could hold back his wife, i.e., dissolve her vow; but if he did not do this at once, he could not hinder its fulfilment afterwards. שׂפתיה מבטא, gossip of her lips, that which is uttered thoughtlessly or without reflection (cf. Leviticus 5:4). This expression implies that vows of abstinence were often made by unmarried women without thought or reflection. - The third case (Numbers 30:9) was that of a vow made by a widow or divorced woman. Such a vow had full force, because the woman was not dependent upon a husband. - The fourth case (Numbers 30:10-12) was that of a vow made by a wife in her married state. Such a vow was to remain in force if her husband remained silent when he heard of it, and did not restrain her. On the other hand, it was to have no force if her husband dissolved it at once. After this there follows the general statement (Numbers 30:13-16), that a husband could establish or dissolve every vow of performance or abstinence made by his wife. If, however, he remained silent "from day to day," he confirmed it by his silence; and if afterwards he should declare it void, he was to bear his wife's iniquity. עונה, the sin which the wife would have had to bear if she had broken the vow of her own accord. This consisted either in a sin-offering to expiate her sin (Leviticus 5:4.); or if this was omitted, in the punishment which God suspended over the sin (Leviticus 5:1).

Numbers 31:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Numbers 30:16 These are the statutes which the LORD commanded Moses, as between a man and his wife, and as between a father and his daughter, while she is in her youth in her father's house.

Numbers 31:2 "Take full vengeance for the sons of Israel on the Midianites; afterward you will be gathered to your people."

Cross References
Numbers 22:4
And Moab said to the elders of Midian, "This horde will now lick up all that is around us, as the ox licks up the grass of the field." So Balak the son of Zippor, who was king of Moab at that time,

Numbers 25:17
"Harass the Midianites and strike them down,

Numbers 30:16
These are the statutes that the LORD commanded Moses about a man and his wife and about a father and his daughter while she is in her youth within her father's house.

Numbers 31:2
"Avenge the people of Israel on the Midianites. Afterward you shall be gathered to your people."

Judges 6:1
The people of Israel did what was evil in the sight of the LORD, and the LORD gave them into the hand of Midian seven years.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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