Proverbs 22:28
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Do not move the ancient landmark that your fathers have set.

King James Bible
Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set.

American Standard Version
Remove not the ancient landmark, Which thy fathers have set.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Pass not beyond the ancient bounds which thy fathers have set.

English Revised Version
Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set.

Webster's Bible Translation
Remove not the ancient landmark, which thy fathers have set.

Proverbs 22:28 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

After these ten lines of preliminary exhortation, there now begins the collection of the "Words of the Wise" thus introduced. A tetrastich which, in its contents, connects itself with the last proverb of the Solomonic collection, Proverbs 22:16, forms the commencement of this collection:

22 Rob not the lowly because he is lowly;

     And oppress not the humble in the gate.

23 For Jahve will conduct their cause,

     And rob their spoilers of life.

Though it may bring gain, as said Proverbs 22:16, to oppress the דּל, the lowly or humble, yet at last the oppressor comes to ruin. The poet here warns against robbing the lowly because he is lowly, and thus without power of defence, and not to be feared; and against doing injustice to the עני, the bowed down, and therefore incapable of resisting in the gate, i.e., in the court of justice. These poor men have not indeed high human patrons, but One in heaven to undertake their cause: Jahve will conduct their cause (יריב ריבם, as at Proverbs 23:10), i.e., will undertake their vindication, and be their avenger. דּכּא (דּכּה), Aram. and Arab. daḳḳ (cf. דּקק, Arab. daḳḳ), signifies to crush anything so that it becomes broad and flat, figuratively to oppress, synon. עשׁק (Fleischer). The verb קבע has, in Chald. and Syr., the signification to stick, to fix (according to which Aquila here translates καθηλοῦν, to nail; Jerome, configere); and as root-word to קבּעת, the signification to be arched, like (Arab.) ḳab', to be humpbacked; both significations are here unsuitable. The connection here requires the meaning to rob; and for Malachi 3:8 also, this same meaning is to be adopted, robbery and taking from one by force (Parchon, Kimchi), not: to deceive (Khler, Keil), although it might have the sense of robbing by withholding or refraining from doing that which is due, thus of a sacrilege committed by omission or deception. The Talm. does not know the verb קבע in this meaning; but it is variously found as a dialectic word for גזל.

(Note: Thus Rosch ha-schana 26b: Levi came once to N.N. There a man came to meet him, and cried out קבען פלניא. Levi knew not what he would say, and went into the Madrash-house to ask. One answered him: He is a robber (גזלן) said that one to thee; for it is said in the Scriptures (Malachi 3:8), "Will a man rob God?" etc. (vid., Wissenschaft Kunst Judenthum, p. 243). In the Midrash, שׁוחר טוב, to Psalm 57:1-11, R. Levi says that אתה קיבע לי is used in the sense of אתה גוזל לי. And in the Midrash Tanchuma, P. תרומה, R. Levi answers the question, "What is the meaning of קבע, Malachi 3:8?" - It is an Arabic expression. An Arabian, when he wishes to say to another מה אתה גוזלני, says instead of it, מה אתה קובעני. Perhaps קבע is cogn. to קבץ; the R. קב coincides in several groups of languages (also the Turkish ḳb) with the Lat. capere.)

Schultens' etymological explanation, capitium injicere (after Arab. ḳab', to draw back and conceal the head), is not satisfactory. The construction, with the double accus., follows the analogy of הכּהוּ נפשׁ and the like, Gesen. 139. 2. Regarding the sing. נפשׁ, even where several are spoken of, vid., under Proverbs 1:19.

Proverbs 22:28 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

remove

Proverbs 23:10 Remove not the old landmark; and enter not into the fields of the fatherless:

Deuteronomy 19:14 You shall not remove your neighbor's landmark, which they of old time have set in your inheritance...

Deuteronomy 27:17 Cursed be he that removes his neighbor's landmark. And all the people shall say, Amen.

Job 24:2 Some remove the landmarks; they violently take away flocks, and feed thereof.

landmark or bound

Cross References
Deuteronomy 19:14
"You shall not move your neighbor's landmark, which the men of old have set, in the inheritance that you will hold in the land that the LORD your God is giving you to possess.

Deuteronomy 27:17
"'Cursed be anyone who moves his neighbor's landmark.' And all the people shall say, 'Amen.'

Job 24:2
Some move landmarks; they seize flocks and pasture them.

Proverbs 23:10
Do not move an ancient landmark or enter the fields of the fatherless,

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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