Proverbs 27:4
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Wrath is cruel, anger is overwhelming, but who can stand before jealousy?

King James Bible
Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy?

American Standard Version
Wrath is cruel, and anger is overwhelming; But who is able to stand before jealousy?

Douay-Rheims Bible
Anger hath no mercy, nor fury when it breaketh forth: and who can bear the violence of one provoked?

English Revised Version
Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before jealousy?

Webster's Bible Translation
Wrath is cruel, and anger is outrageous; but who is able to stand before envy?

Proverbs 27:4 Parallel
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

26 Hatred may conceal itself behind deceit:

     Its wickedness shall be exposed in the assembly.

Proverbs which begin with the fut. are rarely to be found, it is true; yet, as we have seen, Proverbs 12:26, they are sometimes to be met with in the collection. This is one of the few that are of such a character; for that the lxx and others translate ὁ κρύπτων, which gives for רעתו a more appropriate reference, does not require us to agree with Hitzig in reading הכּסה (Proverbs 12:16, Proverbs 12:23) - the two clauses rendered fut. stand in the same syntactical relation, as e.g., Job 20:24. Still less can the rendering of במשׁאון by συνίστησι δόλον, by the lxx, induce us to read with Hitzig חרשׁ און, especially since it is doubtful whether the Heb. words which floated before those translators (the lxx) have been fallen upon. משּׁאון (beginning and ending with a formative syllable) is certainly a word of rare formation, to be compared only to מסדּרון, Judges 3:23; but since the nearest-lying formation משּׁא signifies usury (from נשׁא, to credit) (according to which Symmachus, διὰ λήμματα, to desire gain), it is obvious that the language preferred this double formation for the meaning deceiving, illusion, or, exactly: fraud. It may also be possible to refer it, like משּׁוּאות (vid., under Psalm 23:1-6 :18), to שׁוא equals שׁאה, to be confused, waste, as this is done by Parchon, Kimchi (Venet. ἐν ἐρημίᾳ), Ralbag, and others; משׁאון, in this sense of deepest concealment, certainly says not a little as the contrast of קהל [an assembly], but ישׁימום [a desert] stood ready for the poet to be used in this sense; he might also have expressed himself as Job 30:3; Job 38:27. The selection of this rare word is better explained if it denotes the superlative of deceit - a course of conduct maliciously directed toward the deception of a neighbour. That is also the impression which the word has made on Jerome (fraudulenter), the Targ. (בּמוּרסתא, in grinding), Luther (to do injury), and according to which it has already been explained, e.g., by C. B. Michaelis and Oetinger ("with dissembled, deceitful nature"). The punctuation of תכסה, Codd. and editions present in three different forms. Buxtorf in his Concordance (also Frst), and the Basel Biblia Rabbinica, have the form תּכסּה; but this is a mistake. Either תּכּסה (Niph.) תּכּסּה (Hithpa., with the same assimilation of the preformative ת as in הכּבּס, Leviticus 13:55; נכּפּר, Deuteronomy 21:8) is to be read; Kimchi, in his Wrterbuch, gives תּכּסּה, which is certainly better supported. A surer contrast of במשׁאון and בקהל remains in our interpretation; only we translate not as Ewald: "hatred seeks to conceal itself by hypocrisy," but: in deceitful work. Also we refer רעתו, not to במשׁאון, but to שׂנאה, for hatred is thought of in connection with its personal representative. We see from 26b that hatred is meant which not only broods over evil, but also carries it into execution. Such hatred may conceal itself in cunningly-contrived deception, yet the wickedness of the hater in the end comes out from behind the mask with the light of publicity.

Proverbs 27:4 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

cruel, and anger is outrageous or cruelty and anger are overflowing

James 1:19-21 Why, my beloved brothers, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath...


Proverbs 14:30 A sound heart is the life of the flesh: but envy the rottenness of the bones.

Genesis 26:14 For he had possession of flocks, and possession of herds, and great store of servants: and the Philistines envied him.

Genesis 37:11 And his brothers envied him; but his father observed the saying.

Job 5:2 For wrath kills the foolish man, and envy slays the silly one.

Matthew 27:18 For he knew that for envy they had delivered him.

Acts 5:17 Then the high priest rose up, and all they that were with him, (which is the sect of the Sadducees,) and were filled with indignation,

Acts 7:9 And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt: but God was with him,

Acts 17:5 But the Jews which believed not, moved with envy, took to them certain lewd fellows of the baser sort, and gathered a company...

Romans 1:29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder...

James 3:14-16 But if you have bitter envying and strife in your hearts, glory not, and lie not against the truth...

James 4:5,6 Do you think that the scripture said in vain, The spirit that dwells in us lusts to envy...

1 John 3:12 Not as Cain, who was of that wicked one, and slew his brother. And why slew he him? Because his own works were evil...


Proverbs 6:34 For jealousy is the rage of a man: therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance.

Songs 8:6 Set me as a seal on your heart, as a seal on your arm: for love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave...

Cross References
1 John 3:12
We should not be like Cain, who was of the evil one and murdered his brother. And why did he murder him? Because his own deeds were evil and his brother's righteous.

Proverbs 6:34
For jealousy makes a man furious, and he will not spare when he takes revenge.

Proverbs 27:3
A stone is heavy, and sand is weighty, but a fool's provocation is heavier than both.

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