Psalm 91:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High will abide in the shadow of the Almighty.

King James Bible
He that dwelleth in the secret place of the most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.

American Standard Version
He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High Shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.

Douay-Rheims Bible
The praise of a canticle for David. He that dwelleth in the aid of the most High, shall abide under the protection of the God of Jacob.

English Revised Version
He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.

Webster's Bible Translation
He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.

Psalm 91:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

After the transitoriness of men has now been confirmed in Psalm 90:6. out of the special experience of Israel, the fact that this particular experience has its ground in a divine decree of wrath is more definitely confirmed from the facts of this experience, which, as Psalm 90:11. complain, unfortunately have done so little to urge them on to the fear of God, which is the condition and the beginning of wisdom. In Psalm 90:9 we distinctly hear the Israel of the desert speaking. That was a generation that fell a prey to the wrath of God (דּור עברתו, Jeremiah 7:29). עברה is wrath that passes over, breaks through the bounds of subjectivity. All their days (cf. Psalm 103:15) are passed away (פּנה, to turn one's self, to turn, e.g., Deuteronomy 1:24) in such wrath, i.e., thoroughly pervaded by it. They have spent their years like a sound (כּמו־הגה), which has hardly gone forth before it has passed away, leaving no trace behind it; the noun signifies a gentle dull sound, whether a murmur (Job 37:2) or a groan (Ezekiel 2:10). With בּהם in Psalm 90:10 the sum is stated: there are comprehended therein seventy years; they include, run up to so many. Hitzig renders: the days wherein (בהם) our years consist are seventy years; but שׁנותינו side by side with ימי must be regarded as its more minute genitival definition, and the accentuation cannot be objected to. Beside the plural שׁנים the poetic plural שׁנות appears here, and it also occurs in Deuteronomy 32:7 (and nowhere else in the Pentateuch). That of which the sum is to be stated stands first of all as a casus absol. Luther's rendering: Siebenzig Jar, wens hoch kompt so sinds achtzig (seventy years, or at the furthest eighty years), as Symmachus also meant by his ἐν παραδόξῳ (in Chrysostom), is confirmed by the Talmudic הגיע לגבורות, "to attain to extreme old age" (B. Moכd katan, 28a), and rightly approved of by Hitzig and Olshausen. גבוּרת signifies in Psalm 71:16 full strength, here full measure. Seventy, or at most eighty years, were the average sum of the extreme term of life to which the generation dying out in the wilderness attained. ורהבּם the lxx renders τὸ πλεῖον αὐτῶν, but רהבּם is not equivalent to רבּם. The verb רהב signifies to behave violently, e.g., of importunate entreaty, Proverbs 6:3, of insolent treatment, Isaiah 3:5, whence רהב (here רהב), violence, impetuosity, and more especially a boastful vaunting appearance or coming forward, Job 9:13; Isaiah 30:7. The poet means to say that everything of which our life is proud (riches, outward appearance, luxury, beauty, etc.), when regarded in the right light, is after all only עמל, inasmuch as it causes us trouble and toil, and און, because without any true intrinsic merit and worth. To this second predicate is appended the confirmatory clause. חישׁ is infin. adverb. from חוּשׁ, הישׁ, Deuteronomy 32:35 : speedily, swiftly (Symmachus, the Quinta, and Jerome). The verb גּוּז signifies transire in all the Semitic dialects; and following this signification, which is applied transitively in Numbers 11:31, the Jewish expositors and Schultens correctly render: nam transit velocissime. Following upon the perfect גּז, the modus consecutivus ונּעפה maintains its retrospective signification. The strengthening of this mood by means of the intentional ah is more usual with the 1st pers. sing., e.g., Genesis 32:6, than with the 1st pers. plur., as here and in Genesis 41:11; Ew. 232, g. The poet glances back from the end of life to the course of life. And life, with all of which it had been proud, appears as an empty burden; for it passed swiftly by and we fled away, we were borne away with rapid flight upon the wings of the past.

Such experience as this ought to urge one on to the fear of God; but how rarely does this happen! and yet the fear of God is the condition (stipulation) and the beginning of wisdom. The verb ידע in Psalm 90:11, just as it in general denotes not merely notional but practically living and efficient knowledge, is here used of a knowledge which makes that which is known conduce to salvation. The meaning of וּכיראתך is determined in accordance with this. The suffix is here either gen. subj.: according to Thy fearfulness (יראה as in Ezekiel 1:18), or gen. obj.: according to the fear that is due to Thee, which in itself is at once (cf. Psalm 5:8; Exodus 20:20; Deuteronomy 2:25) more natural, and here designates the knowledge which is so rarely found, as that which is determined by the fear of God, as a truly religious knowledge. Such knowledge Moses supplicates for himself and for Israel: to number our days teach us rightly to understand. 1 Samuel 23:17, where כּן ידע signifies "he does not know it to be otherwise, he is well aware of it," shows how כּן is meant. Hitzig, contrary to the accentuation, draws it to למנות ימינו; but "to number our days" is in itself equivalent to "hourly to contemplate the fleeting character and brevity of our lifetime;" and כּן הודע prays for a true qualification for this, and one that accords with experience. The future that follows is well adapted to the call, as frequently aim and result. But הביא is not to be taken, with Ewald and Hitzig, in the signification of bringing as an offering, a meaning this verb cannot have of itself alone (why should it not have been ונקריב?). Bttcher also erroneously renders it after the analogy of Proverbs 2:10 : "that we may bring wisdom into the heart," which ought to be בּלב. הביא, deriving its meaning from agriculture, signifies "to carry off, obtain, gain, prop. to bring in," viz., into the barn, 2 Samuel 9:10, Hagg. Psa 1:6; the produce of the field, and in a general way gain or profit, is hence called תּבוּאה. A wise heart is the fruit which one reaps or garners in from such numbering of the days, the gain which one carries off from so constantly reminding one's self of the end. לבב חכמה is a poetically intensified expression for לב חכם, just as לב מרפּא in Proverbs 14:30 signifies a calm easy heart.

Psalm 91:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

This Psalm is supposed by some to have been composed by Moses on the same occasion as the preceding; but others think it was written by David, after his advice to his son Solomon.

1 Chronicles 28:1 And David assembled all the princes of Israel, the princes of the tribes...

dwelleth

Psalm 27:5 For in the time of trouble he shall hide me in his pavilion: in the secret of his tabernacle shall he hide me...

Psalm 31:20 You shall hide them in the secret of your presence from the pride of man...

Psalm 32:7 You are my hiding place; you shall preserve me from trouble; you shall compass me about with songs of deliverance. Selah.

Psalm 52:8 But I am like a green olive tree in the house of God: I trust in the mercy of God for ever and ever.

Psalm 61:3,4 For you have been a shelter for me, and a strong tower from the enemy...

Psalm 90:1 Lord, you have been our dwelling place in all generations.

Isaiah 8:14 And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offense to both the houses of Israel...

Ezekiel 11:16 Therefore say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Although I have cast them far off among the heathen...

Hosea 14:5,6 I will be as the dew to Israel: he shall grow as the lily, and cast forth his roots as Lebanon...

1 John 4:15,16 Whoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God dwells in him, and he in God...

abide. Heb. lodge

Psalm 25:13 His soul shall dwell at ease; and his seed shall inherit the earth.

under

Psalm 17:8 Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me under the shadow of your wings,

Psalm 36:7 How excellent is your loving kindness, O God! therefore the children of men put their trust under the shadow of your wings.

Psalm 57:1 Be merciful to me, O God, be merciful to me: for my soul trusts in you: yes, in the shadow of your wings will I make my refuge...

Judges 9:15 And the bramble said to the trees, If in truth you anoint me king over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow: and if not...

Songs 2:3 As the apple tree among the trees of the wood, so is my beloved among the sons. I sat down under his shadow with great delight...

Isaiah 4:5,6 And the LORD will create on every dwelling place of mount Zion, and on her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day...

Lamentations 4:20 The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of the LORD, was taken in their pits, of whom we said...

Cross References
Exodus 33:22
and while my glory passes by I will put you in a cleft of the rock, and I will cover you with my hand until I have passed by.

Psalm 17:8
Keep me as the apple of your eye; hide me in the shadow of your wings,

Psalm 27:5
For he will hide me in his shelter in the day of trouble; he will conceal me under the cover of his tent; he will lift me high upon a rock.

Psalm 31:20
In the cover of your presence you hide them from the plots of men; you store them in your shelter from the strife of tongues.

Psalm 32:7
You are a hiding place for me; you preserve me from trouble; you surround me with shouts of deliverance. Selah

Psalm 90:1
Lord, you have been our dwelling place in all generations.

Psalm 119:114
You are my hiding place and my shield; I hope in your word.

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