Song of Solomon 7:4
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Your neck is like an ivory tower. Your eyes are pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim. Your nose is like a tower of Lebanon, which looks toward Damascus.

King James Bible
Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; thine eyes like the fishpools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bathrabbim: thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus.

American Standard Version
Thy neck is like the tower of ivory; Thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, By the gate of Bath-rabbim; Thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon Which looketh toward Damascus.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thy neck as a tower of ivory. Thy eyes like the fishpools in Hesebon, which are in the gate of the daughter of the multitude. Thy nose is as the tower of Libanus, that looketh toward Damascus.

English Revised Version
Thy neck is like the tower of ivory; thine eyes as the pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim; thy nose is like the tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus.

Webster's Bible Translation
Thy neck is as a tower of ivory; thy eyes like the fish-pools in Heshbon, by the gate of Bath-rabbim: thy nose is as the tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus.

Song of Solomon 7:4 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

11 To the nut garden I went down

     To look at the shrubs of the valley,

     To see whether the vine sprouted,

     The pomegranates budded.

12 I knew it not that my soul lifted me up

     To the royal chariots of my people, a noble (one).

In her loneliness she is happy; she finds her delight in quietly moving about in the vegetable world; the vine and the pomegranate, brought from her home, are her favourites. Her soul - viz. love for Solomon, which fills her soul - raised her to the royal chariots of her people, the royal chariots of a noble (one), where she sits besides the king, who drives the chariot; she knew this, but she also knew it not for what she had become without any cause of her own, that she is without self-elation and without disavowal of her origin. These are Shulamith's thoughts and feelings, which we think we derive from these two verses without reading between the lines and without refining. It went down, she says, viz., from the royal palace, cf. Sol 6:2. Then, further, she speaks of a valley; and the whole sounds rural, so that we are led to think of Etam as the scene. This Etam, romantically (vid., Judges 15:8 f.) situated, was, as Josephus (Antt. viii. 7. 3) credibly informs us, Solomon's Belvedere. "In the royal stables," he says, "so great was the regard for beauty and swiftness, that nowhere else could horses of greater beauty or greater fleetness be found. All had to acknowledge that the appearance of the king's horses was wonderfully pleasing, and that their swiftness was incomparable. Their riders also served as an ornament to them. They were young men in the flower of their age, and were distinguished by their lofty stature and their flowing hair, and by their clothing, which was of Tyrian purple. They every day sprinkled their hair with dust of gold, so that their whole head sparkled when the sun shone upon it. In such array, armed and bearing bows, they formed a body-guard around the king, who was wont, clothed in a white garment, to go out of the city in the morning, and even to drive his chariot. These morning excursions were usually to a certain place which was about sixty stadia from Jerusalem, and which was called Etam; gardens and brooks made it as pleasant as it was fruitful." This Etam, from whence (the עין עיטם)

(Note: According to Sebachim 54b, one of the highest points of the Holy Land.))

a watercourse, the ruins of which are still visible, supplied the temple with water, has been identified by Robinson with a village called Artas (by Lumley called Urtas), about a mile and a half to the south of Bethlehem. At the upper end of the winding valley, at a considerable height above the bottom, are three old Solomonic pools, - large, oblong basins of considerable compass placed one behind the other in terraces. Almost at an equal height with the highest pool, at a distance of several hundred steps there is a strong fountain, which is carefully built over, and to which there is a descent by means of stairs inside the building. By it principally were the pools, which are just large reservoirs, fed, and the water was conducted by a subterranean conduit into the upper pool. Riding along the way close to the aqueduct, which still exists, one sees even at the present day the valley below clothed in rich vegetation; and it is easy to understand that here there may have been rich gardens and pleasure-grounds (Moritz Lttke's Mittheilung). A more suitable place for this first scene of the fifth Act cannot be thought of; and what Josephus relates serves remarkably to illustrate not only the description of Sol 6:11, but also that of Sol 6:12.

אגוז is the walnut, i.e., the Italian nut tree (Juglans regia L.), originally brought from Persia; the Persian name is jeuz, Aethiop. gûz, Arab. Syr. gauz (gôz), in Heb. with א prosth., like the Armen. engus. גּנּת אגוז is a garden, the peculiar ornament of which is the fragrant and shady walnut tree; גנת אגוזים would not be a nut garden, but a garden of nuts, for the plur. signifies, Mishn. nuces (viz., juglandes equals Jovis glandes, Pliny, xvii. 136, ed. Jan.), as תּאנים, figs, in contradistinction to תּאנה, a fig tree, only the Midrash uses אגוזה here, elsewhere not occurring, of a tree. The object of her going down was one, viz., to observe the state of the vegetation; but it was manifold, as expressed in the manifold statements which follow ירדתּי. The first object was the nut garden. Then her intention was to observe the young shoots in the valley, which one has to think of as traversed by a river or brook; for נחל, like Wady, signifies both a valley and a valley-brook. The nut garden might lie in the valley, for the walnut tree is fond of a moderately cool, damp soil (Joseph. Bell. iii. 10. 8). But the אבּי are the young shoots with which the banks of a brook and the damp valley are usually adorned in the spring-time. אב, shoot, in the Heb. of budding and growth, in Aram. of the fruit-formation, comes from R. אב, the weaker power of נב, which signifies to expand and spread from within outward, and particularly to sprout up and to well forth. ב ראה signifies here, as at Genesis 34:1, attentively to observe something, looking to be fixed upon it, to sink down into it. A further object was to observe whether the vine had broken out, or had budded (this is the meaning of פּרח, breaking out, to send forth, R. פר, to break),

(Note: Vid., Friedh. Delitzsch, Indo-Germ. Sem. Studien, p. 72.)

- whether the pomegranate trees had gained flowers or flower-buds הנצוּ, not as Gesen. in his Thes. and Heb. Lex. states, the Hiph. of נוּץ, which would be הניצוּ, but from נצץ instead of הנצוּ, with the same omission of Dagesh, after the forms הפרוּ, הרעוּ, cf. Proverbs 7:13, R. נץ נס, to glance, bloom (whence Nisan as the name of the flower-month, as Ab the name of the fruit-month).

(Note: Cf. my Jesurun, p. 149.)

Why the pomegranate tree (Punica granatum L.), which derives this its Latin name from its fruit being full of grains, bears the Semitic name of רמּון, (Arab.) rummân, is yet unexplained; the Arabians are so little acquainted with it, that they are uncertain whether ramm or raman (which, however, is not proved to exist) is to be regarded as the root-word. The question goes along with that regarding the origin and signification of Rimmon, the name of the Syrian god, which appears to denote

continued...

Song of Solomon 7:4 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

neck

Songs 1:10 Your cheeks are comely with rows of jewels, your neck with chains of gold.

Songs 4:4 Your neck is like the tower of David built for an armory, where on there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men.

ivory

Songs 5:14 His hands are as gold rings set with the beryl: his belly is as bright ivory overlaid with sapphires.

1 Kings 10:18,22 Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, and overlaid it with the best gold...

1 Kings 22:39 Now the rest of the acts of Ahab, and all that he did, and the ivory house which he made, and all the cities that he built...

Psalm 45:8 All your garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made you glad.

Psalm 144:12 That our sons may be as plants grown up in their youth; that our daughters may be as corner stones...

thine eyes

Songs 4:1,9 Behold, you are fair, my love; behold, you are fair; you have doves' eyes within your locks: your hair is as a flock of goats...

Songs 6:5 Turn away your eyes from me, for they have overcome me: your hair is as a flock of goats that appear from Gilead.

Ephesians 1:17,18 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory...

Ephesians 3:18,19 May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height...

heshbon

Numbers 21:25 And Israel took all these cities: and Israel dwelled in all the cities of the Amorites, in Heshbon, and in all the villages thereof.

Isaiah 54:4 Fear not; for you shall not be ashamed: neither be you confounded; for you shall not be put to shame...

thy nose

Philippians 1:9,10 And this I pray, that your love may abound yet more and more in knowledge and in all judgment...

Hebrews 5:14 But strong meat belongs to them that are of full age...

the tower

Songs 4:8 Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon...

Songs 5:15 His legs are as pillars of marble, set on sockets of fine gold: his countenance is as Lebanon, excellent as the cedars.

1 Kings 7:2 He built also the house of the forest of Lebanon; the length thereof was an hundred cubits, and the breadth thereof fifty cubits...

1 Kings 9:19 And all the cities of store that Solomon had, and cities for his chariots, and cities for his horsemen...

2 Chronicles 8:6 And Baalath, and all the store cities that Solomon had, and all the chariot cities, and the cities of the horsemen...

Damascus

Genesis 15:2 And Abram said, LORD God, what will you give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus?

2 Samuel 8:6 Then David put garrisons in Syria of Damascus: and the Syrians became servants to David, and brought gifts...

Cross References
Numbers 21:26
For Heshbon was the city of Sihon the king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab and taken all his land out of his hand, as far as the Arnon.

Psalm 144:12
May our sons in their youth be like plants full grown, our daughters like corner pillars cut for the structure of a palace;

Song of Solomon 4:4
Your neck is like the tower of David, built in rows of stone; on it hang a thousand shields, all of them shields of warriors.

Song of Solomon 5:15
His legs are alabaster columns, set on bases of gold. His appearance is like Lebanon, choice as the cedars.

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