Luke 3:2
Parallel Verses
New International Version
during the high-priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John son of Zechariah in the wilderness.

King James Bible
Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.

Darby Bible Translation
in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, [the] word of God came upon John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness.

World English Bible
in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness.

Young's Literal Translation
Annas and Caiaphas being chief priests -- there came a word of God unto John the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness,

Luke 3:2 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests - Caiaphas was the son-in-law of Annas or Ananias, and it is supposed that they exercised the high priest's office by turns. It is likely that Annas only was considered as high priest; and that Caiaphas was what the Hebrews termed כהן משנה cohen mishneh, or סגן כהנים sagan cohanim, the high priest's deputy, or ruler of the temple. See the note on Matthew 2:4, and on John 18:13.

The facts which St. Luke mentions here tend much to confirm the truth of the evangelical history. Christianity differs widely from philosophic system; it is founded in the goodness and authority of God; and attested by historic facts. It differs also from popular tradition, which either has had no pure origin, or which is lost in unknown or fabulous antiquity. It differs also from pagan and Mohammedan revelations, which were fabricated in a corner, and had no witnesses. In the above verses we find the persons, the places, and the times marked with the utmost exactness. It was under the first Caesars that the preaching of the Gospel took place; and in their time, the facts on which the whole of Christianity is founded made their appearance: an age the most enlightened, and best known from the multitude of its historic records. It was in Judea, where every thing that professed to come from God was scrutinized with the most exact and unmerciful criticism. In writing the history of Christianity, the evangelists appeal to certain facts which were publicly transacted in such places, under the government and inspection of such and such persons, and in such particular times. A thousand persons could have confronted the falsehood, had it been one! These appeals are made - a challenge is offered to the Roman government, and to the Jewish rulers and people - a new religion has been introduced in such a place, at such a time - this has been accompanied with such and such facts and miracles! Who can disprove this? All are silent. None appears to offer even an objection. The cause of infidelity and irreligion is at stake! If these facts cannot be disproved, the religion of Christ must triumph. None appears because none could appear. Now let it be observed, that the persons of that time, only, could confute these things had they been false; they never attempted it; therefore these facts are absolute and incontrovertible truths: this conclusion is necessary. Shall a man then give up his faith in such attested facts as these, because, more than a thousand years after, an infidel creeps out, and ventures publicly to sneer at what his iniquitous soul hopes is not true!

The word of God came unto John - That is, the Holy Spirit that revealed to him this doctrine of salvation. This came upon him in the desert, where he was living in such a state of austerity as gave him full right to preach all the rigours of penitence to others. Thus we find that the first preachers, historians, and followers of the doctrines of the Gospel were men eminent for the austerity of their lives, the simplicity of their manners, and the sanctity of their conduct; they were authorized by God, and filled with the most precious gifts of his Spirit. And what are the apostles which the new philosophy sends us? Philosophers full of themselves, not guided by the love of truth or wisdom, but ever seeking their own glory; in constant hostility among themselves, because of their separate pretensions to particular discoveries, of the honor of which they would almost as soon lose life as be deprived. Who are they? Men of a mortified life and unblamable conversation? No, they are poets and poetasters; composers of romances, novels, intrigues, farces, comedies, etc., full of extravagance and impurity. They are pretended moralists that preach up pleasure and sensual gratification, and dissolve, as far as they can, the sacred and civil ties that unite and support society. They are men whose guilt is heightened by their assuming the sacred name of philosophers, and dignifying their impure system with a name at which Philosophy herself blushes and bleeds.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Annas.

John 11:49-51 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said to them, You know nothing at all...

John 18:13,14,24 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year...

Acts 4:6 And Annas the high priest, and Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, and as many as were of the kindred of the high priest...

the word.

Luke 1:59-63 And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias...

Jeremiah 1:2 To whom the word of the LORD came in the days of Josiah the son of Amon king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign.

Jeremiah 2:1 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

Ezekiel 1:3 The word of the LORD came expressly to Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar...

Hosea 1:1,2 The word of the LORD that came to Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah...

Jonah 1:1 Now the word of the LORD came to Jonah the son of Amittai, saying,

Micah 1:1 The word of the LORD that came to Micah the Morasthite in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah...

Zephaniah 1:1 The word of the LORD which came to Zephaniah the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hizkiah...

in.

Luke 1:80 And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his showing to Israel.

Isaiah 40:3 The voice of him that cries in the wilderness, Prepare you the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

Matthew 3:1 In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judaea,

Matthew 11:7 And as they departed, Jesus began to say to the multitudes concerning John, What went you out into the wilderness to see?...

Mark 1:3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare you the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.

John 1:23 He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.

Library
St John the Baptist
Chester Cathedral. 1872. St Luke iii. 2, 3, 7, 9-14. "The Word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins. . . . Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance. . . . And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the
Charles Kingsley—All Saints' Day and Other Sermons

John's Rebuke of Herod.
Preached May 15, 1853. JOHN'S REBUKE OF HEROD. "But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done, added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison,"--Luke iii. 19, 20. The life of John the Baptist divides itself into three distinct periods. Of the first we are told almost nothing, but we may conjecture much. We are told that he was in the deserts till his showing unto Israel. It was a period probably, in which,
Frederick W. Robertson—Sermons Preached at Brighton

A New Age and New Standards
As the Kingdom Comes Ethical Standards Must Advance Every approximation to the Reign of God in humanity demands an advance in the social relations of men, that is, an advance in ethics. Every really epochal advance must have it or slip back. There must be, first, better obedience to the moral principles already recognized and accepted by society; second, an expansion of the sway of ethical duty to new fields and wider groups of humanity; and third, a recognition of new duties and the assimilation
Walter Rauschenbusch—The Social Principles of Jesus

Luke.
Lucas, Evangelii el medicinae munera pandens; Artibus hinc, illinc religione, valet: Utilis ille labor, per quem vixere tot aegri; Utilior, per quem tot didicere mori!" Critical and Biographical Schleiermacher: Ueber die Schriften des Lukas. Berlin, 1817. Reprinted in the second vol. of his Sämmtliche Werke, Berlin, 1836 (pp. 1-220). Translated by Bishop Thirlwall, London, 1825. James Smith (of Jordanhill, d. 1867): Dissertation on the Life and Writings of St. Luke, prefixed to his Voyage and
Philip Schaff—History of the Christian Church, Volume I

Cross References
Matthew 3:1
In those days John the Baptist came, preaching in the wilderness of Judea

Matthew 26:3
Then the chief priests and the elders of the people assembled in the palace of the high priest, whose name was Caiaphas,

Mark 1:2
as it is written in Isaiah the prophet: "I will send my messenger ahead of you, who will prepare your way" --

Mark 1:3
"a voice of one calling in the wilderness, 'Prepare the way for the Lord, make straight paths for him.'"

John 18:13
and brought him first to Annas, who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas, the high priest that year.

John 18:24
Then Annas sent him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Acts 4:6
Annas the high priest was there, and so were Caiaphas, John, Alexander and others of the high priest's family.

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Abilene Annas Caesar Caiaphas Ca'iaphas Desert Fifteenth Galilee Governor Herod High High-Priesthood Ituraea John Judaea Lysanias Philip Pilate Pontius Priesthood Priests Reign Tetrarch Tiberius Trachonitis Wilderness Word Zacharias Zechariah Zechari'ah
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Abilene Annas Caesar Caiaphas Ca'iaphas Desert Fifteenth Galilee Governor Herod High High-Priesthood Ituraea John Judaea Lysanias Philip Pilate Pontius Priesthood Priests Reign Tetrarch Tiberius Trachonitis Wilderness Word Zacharias Zechariah Zechari'ah
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