And the leaders of Israel, the heads of their families, presented an offering. These men were the tribal leaders who had supervised the registration.
I. THEIR SPONTANEITY.
1. The princes had already given offerings towards the erection of the tabernacle (Exodus 35:27, 28), and now they bring further offerings for its conveyance (verse 3) and for its complete furnishing (verses 10-17). The power and will to give are a "grace" bestowed (2 Corinthians 8:7), and the more we give the more of the grace of giving we may enjoy (Matthew 13:12).
2. If regarded simply as a duty, it was right that the princes should take the lead, as now it is a duty for men in authority and men of wealth, pastors and officers in Christ's Church, to be "zealous for good works."
3. But the chief excellence of these and similar gifts was the "willing mind" (2 Corinthians 8:12). Under the law of Moses much was left to spontaneity (cf. Exodus 35:5; Leviticus 1:3, etc.), how much more under the law of Christ (Matthew 10:8; 2 Corinthians 9:7). The absence of willinghood may change the fine gold into base metal in the sight of God.
1. The uniformity of the gifts might possibly have been the result of fashion; Nahshon, of the tribe of Judah, setting the fashion, and the other princes following it. The "fashion" of generous giving may well be set and followed, that the illiberal may be shamed out of their mean devices. But,
2. The uniformity here was probably the result of previous arrangement, and the sign of an honourable emulation. This God approves (Hebrews 10:24), and St. Paul seeks to employ (2 Corinthians 8:1-7: 9:1-5). With this object public benefactions (subscription-lists, etc.)are acceptable to God if the spirit of the precept (Matthew 6:3, 4) is not violated. The details here published for posterity remind us that every particular of our gifts and services is recorded before God. E.g., a coin and its value, absolute and relative (Mark 12:41-44). A jewel, a family heirloom, and how much it cost to give it up (2 Samuel 24:15).
3. The uniformity was a sign that each tribe had an equal share in the altar and its blessings; even as different families, races, and individuals, have in the world-wide redemption of Christ (Romans 10:11-13). - P.
I. THE PRINCES AND GREAT MEN WERE FIRST AND FOREMOST IN THE SERVICE OF GOD. Those who are entitled to precedence should go before in good works.
I. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE OFFERINGS FOR THE DEDICATION OF THE ALTAR.
The princes offered for dedicating of the altar.
1. The doctrine from hence is that they which have most outward blessings and greatest ability must be most forward in God's worship and service. In Ezra it appeareth, they "all gave according to their ability" (Numbers 2:69). The chief of the fathers, when they came to the house of the Lord, offered freely for the house of God to set it up in his place. So in Nehemiah it appeareth how bountiful he and the princes and the people were. "They gave much silver and gold to finish the work of the Lord." The examples of David and Solomon in this kind are very evident and apparent, for the which one of them prepared to the work, and the other employed and bestowed upon the work is exceeding great, as appeareth in the holy history (1 Chronicles 18:11, &c.). And so much the rather we should employ our blessings and gifts to the service of God, and so give them after a sort to Him that gave them first unto us, because it is a sign that our affection is set upon the worship of God, and an assurance to our own hearts that we love Him and His house (1 Chronicles 29:3, 4).
2. Every one is bound to glorify God with his riches, knowing that they are but stewards and dispensers of them, of which they must give an account unto God (Luke 16:2). To this end hath God bestowed them, and to this end we have received them, and therefore to this end they should be employed.
3. This is a certain rule that "To whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required" (Luke 12:48). He that hath little committed unto him hath the less account and shorter reckoning to make, but to whom men have committed much, of him they will require more; so is it with God, if He have left us five talents He will ask five of us again. First, this serveth to reprove the forgetfulness and thankfulness of such as never consider the end wherefore God hath blessed them, giving .themselves wholly to carnal liberty and security, and so are more backward in good things than if they had never received so many and so great blessings from God. Secondly, it reproveth all idle and negligent teachers who have received many good gifts and graces profitable for the Church of God, and yet never use them, like the covetous person who hoardeth up great treasures, but suffereth no man to be the better for them: like the sluggish servant in the parable, or like unto those that cover the candle under a bushel that it can give no light unto them that are in the house. Wherefore hath God given greater gifts but that such should take greater pains? How many are there that desire great livings, but they do not desire to bestow great labour among them? Our reward shall not be according to our gifts, but according to our labours. Lastly, seeing such as have received outward blessings ought to be most forward to do good with them, we must know that thus also it ought to be in spiritual blessings.
1. Their offerings express the sense of equality of obligation. Every tribe, by its prince, presents the same kind of offering, and in the same quantity as an expression of their equal indebtedness to God. There are certain mercies which all men have in common; certain Divine gifts bestowed upon all men; Christ "died for all" men; and there are certain obligations to God in which all men share.
2. Their offerings express symbolically the Divine calling of the nation to be holy unto the Lord. All the vessels presented were for sacrificial uses, all the animals were ceremonially clean and such as were proper for sacrifices; all the other gifts were of the best quality and were to be used in the worship of God. By these things it was indicated that the people were to be a separate people, entirely dedicated to God, and that God was to dwell in their midst. The lesson for us is that God is to be worshipped with our highest and best.
3. Their offerings express symbolically the great truths taught by the different sacrifices.
II. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RECORD OF THE OFFERINGS FOR THE DEDICATION OF THE ALTAR.
1. The pleasure of God in the gifts of His people. "That everything is so particularly noted," says Babington, "and the weight so precisely mentioned, may teach us to our comfort, what an observation there is in God of the gifts we bestow on Him in promoting His glory, advancing His service, maintaining His ministers in a liberal manner, relieving the poor and doing such good things as with God and man are praiseworthy. Surely the number, the measure, with all circumstances, are observed; and the Lord is a plenteous Rewarder of all love to Him."
2. The permanence of good works. The grateful heart will for ever cherish the memory of the kind service or generous gift. "The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance." The noble deed shall live and bring forth fruit. And the doer himself by his deed has gained somewhat of nobility and strength.Conclusion: Our subject is most fruitful of encouragement to —
1. Liberality of giving to promote worthy objects.
2. Diligence in working to promote worthy objects.
II. THE OFFERINGS THEY BROUGHT WERE VERY RICH AND VALUABLE. In works of piety and charity we ought to be generous according to our ability. He that is the best should be served with the best we have.
III. They brought their offerings EACH ON A SEVERAL DAY, in the order that they had lately been put into, so that the solemnity lasted twelve days. God appointed that it should thus he done on several days.
1. That the solemnity might be prolonged, and so might be universally taken notice of by all Israel, and the remembrance of it more effectually preserved.
2. That an equal honour might thereby be put upon each several tribe. In Aaron's breastplate each had his precious stone, so in this offering each had his day.
3. Thus it would be done more decently and in order. God's work should not be done confusedly and in a hurry. Take time and we shall have done the sooner, or at least we shall have done the better.
4. God hereby signified how well pleased He is, and how well pleased we should be, with the exercises of piety and devotion. The repetition of them should be a continued pleasure to us, and we must not be weary of well-doing. If extraordinary services come to be done for twelve days together, we must not snuff at it, nor call it a task and a burden.
5. The priest and Levites having this occasion to offer the same sacrifices, and those some of every sort every day for so many days together, would have their hands well set in, and would be well versed in the laws concerning them.
6. The peace-offerings were all to be eaten the same day they were offered; and two oxen, five rams, five he-goats, and five lambs were enough for one day's festival. Had there been more, especially if all had been brought of a day, there might have been danger of excess. The virtue of temperance must not be left under the pretence of the religion of feasting.
IV. All their offerings were exactly the same, WITHOUT ANY VARIATION, though it is probable the princes were not all alike rich, nor the tribes neither; but thus it was intimated that all the tribes of Israel had an equal share in the altar, and an equal interest in the sacrifices that were offered upon it.
V. NASHON THE PRINCE OF THE TRIBE OF JUDAH OFFERED FIRST BECAUSE GOD HAD GIVEN THAT TRIBE THE FIRST POST OF HONOUR in the camp, and the rest of the tribes acquiesced, and offered in the same order that God had appointed them to encamp. Judah, of which tribe Christ came, first; and then the rest. Thus, in the dedication of souls to God every man is presented in his own order, "Christ the first-fruits" (1 Corinthians 15:23).
VI. Though the offerings were all the same, YET THE ACCOUNT OF THEM IS REPEATED AT LARGE FOR EACH TRIBE IN THE SAME WORDS. We are sure there are no vain repetitions in Scripture, what then shall we make of these repetitions? Might it not have served to say of this noble jury, That the same offering which their foreman brought, each on his day brought likewise? No; God would have it specified for each tribe. And why so?
1. It was for the encouragement of all acts of piety and charity, by letting us know that what is so given is lent to the Lord, and He carefully books it with every one's name prefixed to his gift because what is so given He will pay it again, and even a cup of cold water shall have its reward. He is not unrighteous to forget either the cost or labour of love (Hebrews 6:10). We find Christ taking particular notice what was cast into the treasury (Mark 12:41). Though what is offered be but little, while it is according to our ability, though it be a contribution to the charity of others, yet it shall be recorded that it may be recompensed in the resurrection of the just.
VII. THE SUM TOTAL IS ADDED AT THE FOOT OF THE ACCOUNT (vers. 84, 88) to show how well pleased God was with the mention of His free-will offerings, and what a great deal it amounted to in the whole, when every prince brought in his quota. How greatly would the sanctuary of God be enriched and beautified if all would in their places do their part towards it by exemplary purity and devotion, extensive charity, and universal usefulness?
( Matthew Henry, D. D..)
I. SUGGESTS TO US SOME OF THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE WEALTHY. Wealth is a talent. He holds the wealthy responsible —
1. To give of their wealth to carry on His work. God claims a share of all we get; how much that shall be He leaves to our conscience. He looks not so much at the amount as at the motive.
2. To take the lead in doing good — to be examples in giving. The wealthy are looked up to; if they fail to do their duty, not only do they fail to do good, but they also check others from doing so.
II. IS A STRIKING ILLUSTRATION OF THE VOLUNTARY PRINCIPLE.
1. God has left His work to be carried on by His people.
2. The voluntary principle is the most effective for doing this.(1) Because conscience is brought into action by it: giving becomes an act of worship.(2) Because man is then on his honour.(3) As a matter of fact it has never failed.
3. God is greatly pleased with it. Read ver. 89 with the text. He approves —(1) Because voluntary giving evinces real interest in His work-shows that it is done from love. The free-will offering is a good gauge of the people's hearts and interest.(2) He will accept nothing that is done from constraint.(3) He testifies to His pleasure, in His Word and by blessing those who so help His work.
He heard the voice of One speaking unto him.I. THE GREAT CONDESCENSION OF GOD.
1. The sacred place in which He speaks. It was in the Holy of holies in "the tabernacle of meeting." It was in this place that He had promised to meet with His servant. He specially manifests Himself to man in His house.
2. The grand medium through which He speaks. The mercy-seat: an illustration, perhaps a type, of the Lord Jesus Christ. He is the true Mercy-seat (Romans 3:25). By the shedding of His blood the great atonement for the sins of the world was made. In Him God draws near to man and communes with him. He is the true Divine Oracle; through Him the most precious revelations of God have been made; in Him we hear the voice of God most clearly and graciously (Hebrews 1:1-3).
3. The gracious purpose for which He speaks. In this instance, the voice from between the cherubim doubtless announced to Moses the gracious acceptance by Jehovah of the cheerful offerings of the princes of the tribes; and intimated that He had taken up His abode in their midst. All the utterances of God are for the benefit of man.
II. THE GREAT PRIVILEGES OF MAN.
1. We may speak unto God. In time of grief or gladness, of perplexity or penitence, of doubt or dread, of triumph or tribulation, we may speak unto God in praise or prayer, or in the silent language of the heart, which He perfectly comprehends, assured that He will hear us graciously, and bless us generously.
2. We may receive communications from God. We receive messages from Him through the sacred Scriptures, through the operations of His providence, and through the mysterious and gracious ministry of His Spirit. And how precious and helpful are His communications! Pardon to the guilty, peace to the penitent, joy to the sorrowful, direction to the perplexed, hope to the despondent, &c.
III. THE CONSEQUENT DUTY OF MAN.
1. To wait upon God in His house.
2. To address God in His house.
3. To listen for the voice of God in His house.
( Matthew Henry, D. D..)
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