2 Kings 8:20
In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves.
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(20) In his days Edom revolted.—The connection of ideas is this: Although Jehovah was not willing to extirpate Judah, yet He suffered it to be seriously weakened by the defections recorded in 2Kings 8:20-22.

Made a king over themselves.—Josephus says they slew the vassal king appointed over them by Jehoshaphat (1Kings 22:48). Edom appears to have been subject to the hegemony of Judah from the time of the disruption under Rehoboam.

2 Kings 8:20. In his days Edom revolted — After they had been subject to Judah one hundred and fifty years, ever since the time of David, who subdued that country. This was a great dishonour to him. Hereby, however, the prophecy of Isaac (Genesis 27:40) was fulfilled.

8:16-24 A general idea is given of Jehoram's badness. His father, no doubt, had him taught the true knowledge of the Lord, but did ill to marry him to the daughter of Ahab; no good could come of union with an idolatrous family.Edom, which had been reduced by David 2 Samuel 8:14; 1 Kings 11:15-16, but had apparently revolted from Solomon 1 Kings 11:14, was again subjected to Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat 2 Kings 3:8-26. The Edomites had, however, retained their native kings, and with them the spirit of independence. They now rose in revolt, and fulfilled the prophecy Genesis 27:40, remaining from henceforth a separate and independent people (Jeremiah 25:21; Jeremiah 27:3; Amos 1:11, etc.). Kings of Edom, who seem to be independent monarchs, are often mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions. 18. daughter of Ahab—Athaliah, through whose influence Jehoram introduced the worship of Baal and many other evils into the kingdom of Judah (see 2Ch 21:2-20). This apostasy would have led to the total extinction of the royal family in that kingdom, had it not been for the divine promise to David (2Sa 7:16). A national chastisement, however, was inflicted on Judah by the revolt of Edom, which, being hitherto governed by a tributary ruler (2Ki 3:9; 1Ki 22:47), erected the standard of independence (2Ch 21:9). From under the hand of Judah; under which they had been from David’s time, 2 Samuel 8:14. Compare 1 Kings 22:47.

In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah,.... Who had been tributary to Judah ever since the times of David, for the space of one hundred and fifty years:

and made a king over themselves; for though they are said to have kings, those were only deputy kings, as in 1 Kings 22:47 and now the prediction of Isaac began to be accomplished, Genesis 27:40.

In his days Edom {m} revolted from under the hand of Judah, and made a king over themselves.

(m) Which had been subject from David's time until this time of Jehoram.

20. Edom revolted] In Solomon’s time, Hadad (1 Kings 11:14) recovered the kingdom of Edom, which had been overthrown by David (2 Samuel 8:14). But by the time of Jehoshaphat the Edomites were again subject to Judah (1 Kings 22:47) and appear to have continued so until the time of the revolution here mentioned.

made a king over themselves] i.e. They deposed the deputy of Judah, and made one of their own royal family king, or chose a king of their own.

Verse 20. - In his days Edom revolted from under the hand of Judah. Edom had been conquered by Joab in the time of David, and had been treated with great severity, all the males, or at any rate all those of full age, having been put to death (1 Kings 11:15, 16). On the death of David, Edom seems to have revolted under a prince named Hadad, and to have re-established its independence. It had been again sub-jeered by the time of Jehoshaphat, who appointed a governor over it (1 Kings 22:47), and treated it as a portion of his own territories (2 Kings 3:8). Now the yoke was finally thrown off, as had been prophesied (Genesis 27:40). Edom became once more a separate kingdom, and was especially hostile to Judah. In the reign of Ahaz the Edomites "smote Judah" and carried away many captives (2 Chronicles 28:17). When the Chaldaeans attacked and besieged Jerusalem, they cried, "Down with it, down with it, even to the ground!" (Psalm 137:7). They looked on with joy at the capture of the holy city (Obadiah 1:12), and "stood in the crossway, to cut off such as escaped" (Obadiah 1:14). After the return from the Captivity, they were still Judah's enemies, and am especially denounced as such by the Prophet Malachi (Malachi 1:3-5). In the Maccabee wars, we find them always on the Syrian side (1 Mac. 4:29, 61 1 Mac. 5:3 1 Mac. 6:31; 2 Macc. 10:15, etc.), doing their best to rivet the hateful yoke of the heathen on their suffering brethren. As Idumaeans, the Herodian family must have been specially hateful to the Jews. And made a king over themselves. The king mentioned in 2 Kings 3:9, 26 was probably a mere vassal king under Jehoshaphat. 2 Kings 8:20Nevertheless the divine chastisement was not omitted. The ungodliness of Joram was punished partly by the revolt of the Edomites and of the city of Libnah from his rule, and partly by a horrible sickness of which he died (2 Chronicles 21:12-15). Edom, which had hitherto had only a vicegerent with the title of king (see 2 Kings 3:9 and 1 Kings 22:48), threw off the authority of Judah, and appointed its own king, under whom it acquired independence, as the attempt of Joram to bring it back again under his control completely failed. The account of this attempt in 2 Kings 8:21 and 2 Chronicles 21:9 is very obscure. "Joram went over to Zair, and all his chariots of war with him; and it came to pass that he rose up by night and smote the Edomites round about, and indeed the captains of the war-chariots, and the people fled (i.e., the Judaean men of war, not the Edomites) to their tents." It is evident from this, that Joram had advanced to Zair in Idumaea; but there he appears to have been surrounded and shut in, so that in the night he fought his way through, and had reason to be glad that he had escaped utter destruction, since his army fled to their homes. צעירה is an unknown place in Idumaea, which Movers, Hitzig, and Ewald take to be Zoar, but without considering that Zoar was in the land of Moab, not in Edom. The Chronicles have instead שׂריו עם, "with his captains," from a mere conjecture; whilst Thenius regards צעירה as altered by mistake from שׂעירה ("to Seir"), which is very improbable in the case of so well-known a name as שׂעיר. הסּביב is a later mode of writing for הסּובב, probably occasioned by the frequently occurring word סביב. "To this day," i.e., to the time when the original sources of our books were composed. For the Edomites were subjugated again by Amaziah and Uzziah (2 Kings 14:7 and 2 Kings 14:22), though under Ahaz they made incursions into Judah again (2 Chronicles 28:17). - At that time Libnah also revolted. This was a royal city of the early Canaanites, and at a later period it was still a considerable fortress (2 Kings 19:8). It is probably to be sought for in the ruins of Arak el Menshiyeh, two hours to the west of Beit-Jibrin (see the Comm. on Joshua 10:29). This city probably revolted from Judah on the occurrence of an invasion of the land by the Philistines, when the sons of Joram were carried off, with the exception of the youngest, Jehoahaz (Ahaziah: 2 Chronicles 21:16-17).
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