Luke 11:37
And as he spoke, a certain Pharisee sought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat.
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(37) A certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him.—On the act, and the feeling which it implied, see Note on Luke 7:36. The word translated “dine” implies a morning or noon-tide meal, as distinct from the supper of the evening.

Luke 11:37. And as he spake, a Pharisee besought him to dine with him — Our Lord having proved the truth of his mission, against the malicious cavils of his enemies, in the manner above stated, when he had made an end of speaking, one of the Pharisees present invited him to dine with him. It is not said whether he gave him the invitation as a mark of respect for him, or with an insidious design. The severity with which Jesus reproved the superstition of the Pharisees, while he sat at meat with them, and the malice which they discovered, in urging him to say things offensive to the magistrate or to the people, make it probable that the latter rather was the case. Nevertheless, he accepted the invitation, and went along with the Pharisee, and sat down at table without washing, as, it seems, all the other guests had done. And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled, &c. — Expressed great surprise at our Lord’s showing such an open contempt of their traditions. And the Lord said, Now ye Pharisees — Probably many of them were present at the Pharisee’s house; make clean the outside of the cup, &c. — Ye are at great pains to keep every thing clean that touches your food, lest your bodies should be defiled in eating; but ye are at no pains to keep your minds clean from pollutions that are incomparably worse, — the pollutions of rapine, covetousness, and wickedness. Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without, &c. — Did not he, who made the body, make the soul also? Wherefore ye are grossly stupid and foolish, not to see, that, if God requires purity of body, because it is his own workmanship, he will much more insist on purity of mind, which is the nobler part of human nature. And therefore, instead of that scrupulousness with respect to meats and washings, which engrosses so much of your attention, you ought to apply yourselves to the duties of justice, mercy, and charity, as an evidence that your hearts are right with God, that you love him better than the world, and prefer the pleasing of him to amassing wealth, or attaining any temporal good. It is justly observed here, by Dr. Macknight, that “we are not to imagine alms-giving was particularly mentioned by Christ, in his exhortation to the Pharisees, because it is of greater value and necessity than the other virtues. He recommended it to that sect, because they were generally remarkable for their covetousness and extortion, vices which must be repented of, by making restitution to those who have been injured by them. And when these cannot be known or found, the compensation must be made to the poor, as having the next right; because what is given to them is lent to God; but the Pharisees were of an incorrigibly stubborn disposition, which no instruction, however mild or persuasive, could influence; wherefore our Lord, on this occasion, wisely treated them with a kind and wholesome severity, denouncing most dreadful woes against them for being so zealous in the ceremonial institutions of religion, while they utterly neglected the precepts of morality.” Wo unto you — That is, miserable are you. In the same manner is the phrase to be understood throughout the chapter; for ye tithe, &c. — Ye pay tithes of these things, and pass over judgment and the love of God — Ye show such care and exactness in performing ceremonial precepts, that ye do not neglect even the least of them; but the great duties of godliness and righteousness, of the love of God and all mankind, and the duties of truth, justice, mercy, and charity, flowing therefrom, ye utterly neglect, as things of no importance in comparison. Nevertheless, these ought ye to have done — The duties of piety and morality ought to have been the principal objects of your care, while, at the same time, the other should not have been left undone. See on Matthew 23:23-26.11:37-54 We should all look to our hearts, that they may be cleansed and new-created; and while we attend to the great things of the law and of the gospel, we must not neglect the smallest matter God has appointed. When any wait to catch something out of our mouths, that they may insnare us, O Lord, give us thy prudence and thy patience, and disappoint their evil purposes. Furnish us with such meekness and patience that we may glory in reproaches, for Christ's sake, and that thy Holy Spirit may rest upon us.And as he spake - While he was addressing the people, and particularly while he was reproving that generation and declaring its crimes.

A certain Pharisee - The Pharisees had been particularly referred to in the discourse of the Saviour recorded in the previous verses. This one, perhaps, having felt particularly the force of the remarks of Jesus, and being desirous of being alone with him, invited him to go home with him. There is little doubt that this was for the purpose of drawing him away from the people; that he did it with a malignant intention, perhaps with a design to confute Jesus in private, or to reprove him for thus condemning the whole nation as he did. He might have seen that those who attacked Jesus "publicly" were commonly unsuccessful, and he desired. probably, to encounter him more privately.

Besought him - Asked him.

To dine with him - The Jews, as well as the Greeks and Romans, had but two principal meals. The first was a slight repast, and was taken about ten or eleven o'clock of our time, and consisted chiefly of fruit, milk, cheese, etc. The second meal was partaken of about three o'clock P. M., and was their principal meal. The "first" is the one here intended.

He went in - Though he knew the evil design of the Pharisee, yet he did not decline the invitation. He knew that it might afford him an opportunity to do good. These two things are to be observed in regard to our Saviour's conduct in such matters:

1. That he did not decline an invitation to dine with a man simply because he was a Pharisee, or because he was a wicked man. Hence, he was charged with being gluttonous, and a friend of publicans and sinners, Matthew 11:19.

2. He seized upon all occasions to do good. He never shrank from declaring the truth, and making such occasions the means of spreading the gospel. If Christians and Christian ministers would follow the example of the Saviour always, they would avoid all scandal, and might do even in such places a vast amount of good.

Sat down - Reclined at the table. See the notes at Matthew 23:6.

Lu 11:37-54. Denunciation of the Pharisees. This is the second time we meet with our Saviour at a Pharisee’s house. He saith of himself, that he came eating and drinking, that is, allowing himself a free, though innocent, converse with all sorts of people, that he might gain some. The Pharisees were, as to the generality of them, the most bitter, stubborn, and implacable enemies Christ had, yet he refused not to go and sit at meat with a Pharisee. And as he spake,.... Either the above words, or others at another time:

a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: as one of the same sect had before, in Luke 7:36 and who either was better affected to Christ than the generality of them were; or had a design upon him to get him into company with others, in private, and ensnare him if they could, and overcome him, who was an overmatch for them before the people; among whom they feared, should they go on thus publicly to attack him, their credit and reputation would sink, and be lost.

And he went in and sat down to meat: whatever were the intentions of the Pharisee, Christ, who was always affable and free with all sorts of men, readily accepted of the invitation, and at once went along with him to his house; and dinner being ready, and on the table, he immediately sat down without any ceremony.

{10} And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in, and sat down to meat.

(10) The service of God consists not in outward cleanliness and planned rites or ceremonies, but in the spiritual righteousness of the heart and charity.

Luke 11:37. Ἐν δὲ τῷ λαλῆσαι] that is to say, what had preceded at Luke 11:29 ff.

ἀριστήσῃ] refers no more than ἄριστον at Matthew 22:4 to the principal meal, but to the breakfast (in opposition to Kuinoel, de Wette, and others). See Luke 14:12.

Ἤιδει μὲν τὴν τῶν Φαρισαίων σκαιότητα ὁ κύριος, ἀλλʼ ὅμως συνεστιᾶται αὐτοῖς διʼ αὐτὸ τοῦτο, ὅτι πονηροὶ ἦσαν καὶ διορθώσεως ἔχρηζον, Theophylact.

In the following discourse itself, Luke, under the guidance of the source he is using, gives a much more limited selection from the Logia, abbreviating and generalizing much of the contents.

Luke 11:37-54. See on Matthew 23:1.Luke 11:37-54. In the house of a Pharisee; criticism of the religion of Pharisees and scribes (Matthew 23). This section contains a selection of the hard sayings of Jesus on the “righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees,” given with much greater fulness in Mt.’s great antipharisaic discourse, the severity of the attack being further mitigated by the words being thrown into the form of table talk. This is the second time Jesus appears as a guest in a Pharisee’s house in this gospel, speaking His mind with all due freedom but without breach of the courtesies of life. The effect and probable aim of these representations is to show that if it ultimately came to an open rupture between Jesus and the Pharisees it was their fault, not His.37-54. The Invitation of the Pharisee and the open Rupture.

37. besought] Rather, asked.

to dine with him] The meal was not dinner (deipnon), but an earlier, lighter, and more informal meal (ariston).

he went in, and sat down to meat] The words imply that immediately He entered He sat down to table. The meal was merely some slight refreshment in the middle of the day, and probably our Lord was both suffering from hunger after His long hours of teaching, and was also anxious to save time.Luke 11:37. Εἰσελθὼν δὲ ἀνέπεσεν, having entered in, He lay [sat] down to meat) forthwith, without having washed (Luke 11:38) before sitting down to table. Perhaps He was wearied [with the crowds, Luke 11:29].Verses 37-54. - In the Pharisee's house. The Lord's stern denunciation of the Pharisee teaching and life. The day was not far advanced, and the Master was probably weary and faint after the long and exciting discussion just related; taking advantage, probably, of this evident weariness, some of the Pharisee emissaries from the capital, to whose presence we have before alluded, suggested to one of their friends, who had a residence in the town where the events just related had taken place, that he should invite the Master to come in and rest awhile and partake of a repast. They wished, no doubt, to get him away from the fast increasing crowd, and, when alone with him, they hoped to entangle him in a fresh discussion, and entrap him into some statement which they would be enabled subsequently to make use of, when they formally accused him of heretical, blasphemous teaching. There is no doubt that at this period of his ministry a deep-laid plot had been formed to compass in some way or other the death of this Teacher, whose words and acts were beginning so deeply to compromise their position and influence in the nation. Besought (ἐρωτᾷ)

Too strong. Better, as Rev., asketh. The present tense.

Dine (ἀριστήσῃ)

See on dinner, Matthew 22:4. The morning meal, immediately after the return from morning prayers in the synagogue.

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