Psalm 24:2
For he has founded it on the seas, and established it on the floods.
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(2) Upon the seas.—For the idea of the earth resting on water, comp. Psalm 136:6; Proverbs 8:25-29. In Genesis the dry land emerges from the water, but is not said to be founded on it. In Job 26:7 the earth is said to be hung upon nothing. The idea of a water foundation for the earth naturally grew out of the phenomenon of springs, before it was scientifically explained.

Psalm 24:2. For he hath founded it — Justly have I said, that the earth is the Lord’s, for he made it, and laid the foundation of it, and that in a wonderful manner; upon the seas — By the seas and floods he means the whole collection of waters, as well the sea and rivers running into it as that great abyss of waters which is contained in the bowels of the earth. This is here mentioned as an evidence of God’s wise and gracious providence, that he hath erected so vast a building upon so weak a foundation as the waters are: for “the waters which, at the creation, and again at the deluge, overspread all things, being, by the power of God, driven down into the great deep, and there confined, the earth was, in a wonderful manner, constructed and established as a kind of circular arch upon, or over them.” — Horne.24:1-6 We ourselves are not our own; our bodies, our souls, are not. Even those of the children of men are God's, who know him not, nor own their relation to him. A soul that knows and considers its own nature, and that it must live for ever, when it has viewed the earth and the fulness thereof, will sit down unsatisfied. It will think of ascending toward God, and will ask, What shall I do, that I may abide in that happy, holy place, where he makes his people holy and happy? We make nothing of religion, if we do not make heart-work of it. We can only be cleansed from our sins, and renewed unto holiness, by the blood of Christ and the washing of the Holy Ghost. Thus we become his people; thus we receive blessing from the Lord, and righteousness from the God of our salvation. God's peculiar people shall be made truly and for ever happy. Where God gives righteousness, he designs salvation. Those that are made meet for heaven, shall be brought safe to heaven, and will find what they have been seeking.For he hath founded it upon the seas - That is, the earth, or the habitable world. The ground of the claim to the earth and all that it contains, which is here asserted, is the fact that God had created it, or "founded" it. The language used here - "he hath founded it," that is, he has laid the foundation of it, "upon the seas" and "the floods" - is in accordance with the usual mode of speaking of the earth in the Scriptures as laid upon a foundation - as a house is raised on a firm foundation. See the notes at Job 38:6. As the earth appeared to be surrounded by water, it was natural to speak of it as "founded" also upon the waters. There is probably an allusion here to the statement in Genesis 1:9-10, where the waters are said to have been so gathered together that the dry land appeared. Above all the waters the earth was established, so as to become the abode of plants, animals, and man.

And established it upon the floods - The streams; the torrents. The earth has been elevated above them, so as to be a residence for animals and for men. The essential thought is, that this earth has become what it is by the fact that God has founded it; and, therefore, what it produces belongs of right to Him.

2. Poetically represents the facts of Ge 1:9. Justly have I said that the earth is the Lord’s, for he made it, and laid the foundation of it, and that in a wonderful manner. By the

seas and floods he means the whole collection of waters, as well the sea and rivers running into it, as that great abyss of waters which is contained in the bowels of the earth, of which see Genesis 7:11 49:25 2 Peter 3:5. This is here mentioned as an evidence of God’s wise, and powerful, and gracious providence, that he hath built so vast a building upon so weak a foundation as the waters are, Micah 6:2; and that although the waters are lighter than the earth, and therefore are naturally inclined to be above it, as they were at first; yet God hath so far overruled the inclinations of nature, that the waters shall as it were deny themselves, and run down into channels and caverns of the earth, that so the earth may be a convenient habitation for men and beasts. See Genesis 1:9 Exodus 20:4 Psalm 104:6. For he hath founded it upon the seas,.... Or "with" them, as some interpret (e) the particle he hath founded the earth and seas together, and both upon nothing; and yet are stable and firm; or "by the seas" (f), near unto them, at the side of them; which, though higher than the earth, are wonderfully bounded by the power of God, so as not to return and cover the earth; see Job 38:8; so the particle is used in Psalm 1:3. Some have thought that the first earth, which Peter says was standing in the water, and out of the water, 2 Peter 3:5, was made in the form of an egg, and that the waters were under the earth, and the earth was as a crust or shell over them, until the deluge came; and this crust then broke in, and formed the sea; and so it was literally true, that the earth was founded upon, or over the waters;

and established it upon the floods; the floods of the seas, or rivers of water running to and fro in it: this shows the ground and foundation of Christ's right and claim to the earth, and all that is in it; which is not by reason of his father's gift to him as Mediator, but by virtue of his concern in creation, the world, and all things in it, being made and established by him; in him do all things consist, Colossians 1:16.

(e) R. Moses in Aben Ezra in loc. (f) "juxta maria", Vatablus, Gejerus, Amama; so Kimchi & Ben Melech.

For he hath founded it upon the {a} seas, and established it upon the floods.

(a) He notes two things: the one, that the earth to man's judgment seems above the waters: and next, that God miraculously preserves the earth, that it is not drowned with the waters, which naturally are above it.

2. For he &c.] HE is emphatic. It is HE and no other who laid the foundation of the world (Psalm 104:5; Job 38:4). The land rising out of the water is supposed to rest upon it. Cp. Psalm 136:6; and the idea of the subterranean abyss of waters in Genesis 7:11; and “the water under the earth” in Exodus 20:4. It is a popular or poetic conception derived from phenomena; yet possibly the idea that the earth was firmly fixed upon such a foundation suggested the Creator’s power much in the same way as the suspension and motion of the earth in space may do to us.Verse 2. - For he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods (comp. Genesis 1:9). God has established the earth above the seas and floods, causing it to "appear," and thus making it a fitting habitation for man. Hence his right of property in the earth and in all the dwellers on it. They exist through his providential care (comp. Psalm 104:6-9). The poet calls Jahve רעי, as He who uniformly and graciously provides for and guides him and all who are His. Later prophecy announces the visible appearing of this Shepherd, Isaiah 40:11, Ezekiel 34:23, and other passages. If this has taken place, the רעי ה from the mouth of man finds its cordial response in the words ἐγὼ εἰμὶ ὁ ποιμὴν ὁ καλός. He who has Jahve, the possessor of all things, himself has all things, he lacks nothing; viz., כּ־טוב, whatever is good in itself and would be good for him, Psalm 34:11; Psalm 84:12. נאות דּשׁא are the pastures of fresh and tender grass, where one lies at ease, and rest and enjoyment are combined. נאה (נוה), according to its primary meaning, is a resting-or dwelling-place, specifically an oasis, i.e., a verdant spot in the desert. מי מנוּחת are waters, where the weary finds a most pleasant resting-place (according to Hitzig, it is a plural brought in by the plural of the governing word, but it is at any rate a superlative plural), and can at the same time refresh himself. נהל is suited to this as being a pastoral word used of gentle leading, and more especially of guiding the herds to the watering-places, just as הרבּיץ is used of making them to rest, especially at noon-tide, Sol 1:7; cf. ὁδηγεῖν, Revelation 7:17. שׁובב נפשׁ (elsewhere השׁיב) signifies to bring back the soul that is as it were flown away, so that it comes to itself again, therefore to impart new life, recreare. This He does to the soul, by causing it amidst the dryness and heat of temptation and trouble, to taste the very essence of life which refreshes and strengthens it. The Hiph. הנחה (Arabic: to put on one side, as perhaps in Job 12:23) is, as in Psalm 143:10 the intensive of נחה (Psalm 77:21). The poet glories that Jahve leads him carefully and without risk or wandering in מעגּלי־צדק, straight paths and leading to the right goal, and this למען שׁמו (for His Name's sake). He has revealed Himself as the gracious One, and as such He will prove and glorify Himself even in the need of him who submits to His guidance.
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