Psalm 83:2
For, see, your enemies make a tumult: and they that hate you have lifted up the head.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) Make a tumult.—Literally, roar like the sea. So (correctly) LXX. and Vulg. (See Psalm 46:3.)

83:1-8 Sometimes God seems not to be concerned at the unjust treatment of his people. But then we may call upon him, as the psalmist here. All wicked people are God's enemies, especially wicked persecutors. The Lord's people are his hidden one; the world knows them not. He takes them under his special protection. Do the enemies of the church act with one consent to destroy it, and shall not the friends of the church be united? Wicked men wish that there might be no religion among mankind. They would gladly see all its restraints shaken off, and all that preach, profess, or practise it, cut off. This they would bring to pass if it were in their power. The enemies of God's church have always been many: this magnifies the power of the Lord in preserving to himself a church in the world.For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult - Are excited; are aroused; are moving in a wild, furious, tumultuous manner, rushing on to the accomplishment of their designs. They come like rolling waves of the sea. See the word used here explained in the notes at Psalm 2:1, where it is rendered, in the text, "rage;" in the margin, "tumultuously assemble."

And they that hate thee - Thine enemies; the enemies of thy cause, and of thy people. Who they were is specified in Psalm 83:6-8.

Have lifted up the head - Have become proud; bold; confident of success, all of which is indicated by the phrase "lifted up the head." The head is bowed down in penitence and trouble; pride lifts it up; boldness, confidence, and wickedness, are indicated by its being thus lifted up.

2. thine enemies—as well as ours (Ps 74:23; Isa 37:23). Thine enemies; they are not only enemies to us thy people, but also to thy will, and name, and glory.

Make a tumult; or, make a tumultuous noise, both with their tongues reproaching thee and threatening us, and with their arms.

Have lift up the head; are grown potent, and insolent, and scornful. For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult,.... Or "a noise" (d): wicked men are commonly noisy, roaring out their blasphemies against God, belching out oaths and curses, and breathing threatenings and slaughter against the saints; especially a numerous army of them, consisting of many people and nations, as this did; who are called the Lord's "enemies", being the enemies of his people, and their cause and his are one and the same; and besides, all wicked men are enemies to God, and all that is good, in their minds, and which appears by their actions; yea, they are enmity itself unto him:

and they that hate thee have lift up the head; are haughty, proud, and arrogant; speak loftily, and with a stiff neck; set their mouth against heaven, and God in it; and their tongue walks through the earth, and spares none; they exult and rejoice, as sure of victory, before the battle is fought; such then were, and such there are, who are haters of God, hate his being, perfections, purposes, and providences; hate his Son without a cause, and even do despite unto the Spirit of grace; hate the law and its precepts, the Gospel and its doctrines and ordinances, and the ways, worship, and people of God, as appears by what follows.

(d) "sonuerunt", V. L. "perstrepunt", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator, Cocceius; "strepunt", Gejerus.

For, lo, thine {b} enemies make a tumult: and they that hate thee have lifted up the head.

(b) He calls them God's enemies, who are enemies of his Church.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
2. make a tumult] A word denoting the uproar and tumult of a throng of people: the substantive for multitude, frequently used of a great army, is derived from it: cp. Psalm 46:3; Psalm 46:6; Isaiah 17:12; Isaiah 29:5; Isaiah 29:7-8; 2 Chronicles 20:2; 2 Chronicles 20:12; 2 Chronicles 20:15; 2 Chronicles 20:24.

thine enemies … they that hate thee] For Israel’s enemies are Jehovah’s enemies: their plot to destroy His people is a plot to frustrate the purposes and put an end to the worship of Jehovah. Cp. against thee, Psalm 83:5; and Jdg 5:31.Verse 2. - For, lo, thine enemies; i.e. Israel's enemies, who are also "thine enemies" (see the comment on Psalm 81:15). make a tumult; literally, make a roaring, like the roaring of the sea (comp. Psalm 46:3; Isaiah 17:12). And they that hate thee (compare "the haters of the Lord," in Psalm 81:15). Have lifted up the head; i.e. raised themselves up against thee - taken a menacing attitude (comp. Judges 8:28). God comes forward and makes Himself heard first of all as censuring and admonishing. The "congregation of God" is, as in Numbers 27:17; Numbers 31:16; Joshua 22:16., "the congregation of (the sons of) Israel," which God has purchased from among the nations (Psalm 74:2), and upon which as its Lawgiver He has set His divine impress. The psalmist and seer sees Elohim standing in this congregation of God. The part. Niph. (as in Isaiah 3:13) denotes not so much the suddenness and unpreparedness, as, rather, the statue-like immobility and terrifying designfulness of His appearance. Within the range of the congregation of God this holds good of the elohim. The right over life and death, with which the administration of justice cannot dispense, is a prerogative of God. From the time of Genesis 9:6, however, He has transferred the execution of this prerogative to mankind, and instituted in mankind an office wielding the sword of justice, which also exists in His theocratic congregation, but here has His positive law as the basis of its continuance and as the rule of its action. Everywhere among men, but here pre-eminently, those in authority are God's delegates and the bearers of His image, and therefore as His representatives are also themselves called elohim, "gods" (which the lxx in Exodus 21:6 renders τὸ κριτήριον τοῦ Θεοῦ, and the Targums here, as in Exodus 22:7-8, Exodus 22:27 uniformly, דּיּניּא). The God who has conferred this exercise of power upon these subordinate elohim, without their resigning it of themselves, now sits in judgment in their midst. ישׁפּט of that which takes place before the mind's eye of the psalmist. How long, He asks, will ye judge unjustly? שׁפט עול is equivalent to עשׂה עול בּמּשׁפּט, Leviticus 19:15, Leviticus 19:35 (the opposite is שׁפט מישׁרים, Psalm 58:2). How long will ye accept the countenance of the wicked, i.e., incline to accept, regard, favour the person of the wicked? The music, which here becomes forte, gives intensity to the terrible sternness (das Niederdonnernde) of the divine question, which seeks to bring the "gods" of the earth to their right mind. Then follow admonitions to do that which they have hitherto left undone. They are to cause the benefit of the administration of justice to tend to the advantage of the defenceless, of the destitute, and of the helpless, upon whom God the Lawgiver especially keeps His eye. The word רשׁ (ראשׁ), of which there is no evidence until within the time of David and Solomon, is synonymous with אביון. דל with ויתום is pointed דל, and with ואביון, on account of the closer notional union, דל (as in Psalm 72:13). They are words which are frequently repeated in the prophets, foremost in Isaiah (Isaiah 1:17), with which is enjoined upon those invested with the dignity of the law, and with jurisdiction, justice towards those who cannot and will not themselves obtain their rights by violence.
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