Scofield Reference Notes
Now there was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite:
SCOFIELD REFERENCE NOTES (Old Scofield 1917 Edition)
The First Book of Samuel
This book represents the personal history of Samuel, last of the Judges. It records the moral failure of the priesthood under Eli, and of the Judges in Samuel's attempt to make the office hereditary (1Sam 8.1). In his prophetic office Samuel was faithful, and in him begins the line of writing prophets. Henceforth the prophet, not the priest, is conspicuous in Israel. In this book the theocracy, as exercised through judges, ends (1Sam 8.7), and the line of kings begins with Saul.
The book is in four parts:
I. The story of Samuel to the death of Eli, 1.1-4.22.
II. From the taking of the ark to the demand for a king, 5.1-8.22.
III. The reign of Saul to the call of David, 9.1-15.35.
IV. From the call of David to the death of Saul, 16.1-31.13.
The events recorded in First Samuel cover a period of 115 years (Ussher).
And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.
And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there.
 Lord of hosts
Jehovah (Lord) of Hosts, Heb. Jehovah Sabaoth. For the distinctive meanings of Jehovah, See Scofield Note: "Gen 2:4". Sabaoth means simply host or hosts, but with especial reference to warfare or service. In use the two ideas are united; Jehovah is LORD of (warrior) hosts. It is the name, therefore, of Jehovah in manifestation of power. "The Lord of Hosts, He is the King of glory" Ps 24:10 and accordingly in the Old Testament Scripture this name is revealed in the time of Israel's need. It is never found in the Pentateuch, nor directly in Joshua or Judges, and occurs but rarely in the Psalms; but Jeremiah, the prophet of approaching national judgment, uses the name about eighty times. Haggai in two chapters uses the name fourteen times, Zechariah in fourteen chapters calls upon the Lord of hosts about fifty times. In Malachi the name occurs about twenty five times. In the utmost extremity, the Psalmist twice comforts his heart with the assurance "the Lord of hosts is with us." Ps 46:7,11.
The meanings and uses of this name may thus be summarized:
(1) The "hosts" are heavenly. Primarily the angels are meant, but the name gathers into itself the idea of all divine or heavenly power as available for the need of God's people Gen 32:1,2 Isa 6:1-5 1Ki 22:19 Lk 2:13-15.
(2) In use this is the distinctive name of Deity for Israel's help and comfort in the time of her division and failure 1Ki 18:15 19:14 Isa 1:9 8:11-14 9:13-19 10:24-27 31:4,5 Hag 2:4 Mal 3:16,17 Jas 5:4.
See other names of Deity,
See Scofield Note: "Gen 1:1"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 2:4"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 2:7"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 14:18"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 15:2"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 17:1"
See Scofield Note: "Gen 21:33"
And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions:
But unto Hannah he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb.
And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb.
And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat.
Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? am not I better to thee than ten sons?
So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD.
And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore.
And she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no rasor come upon his head.
And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli marked her mouth.
Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken.
And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee.
And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD.
Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.
Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him.
And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad.
And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her.
Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD.
And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer unto the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow.
But Hannah went not up; for she said unto her husband, I will not go up until the child be weaned, and then I will bring him, that he may appear before the LORD, and there abide for ever.
And Elkanah her husband said unto her, Do what seemeth thee good; tarry until thou have weaned him; only the LORD establish his word. So the woman abode, and gave her son suck until she weaned him.
And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bullocks, and one ephah of flour, and a bottle of wine, and brought him unto the house of the LORD in Shiloh: and the child was young.
And they slew a bullock, and brought the child to Eli.
And she said, Oh my lord, as thy soul liveth, my lord, I am the woman that stood by thee here, praying unto the LORD.
For this child I prayed; and the LORD hath given me my petition which I asked of him:
Therefore also I have lent him to the LORD; as long as he liveth he shall be lent to the LORD. And he worshipped the LORD there.