Jeremiah 23:10
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
For the land is full of adulterers; because of the curse the land mourns, and the pastures of the wilderness are dried up. Their course is evil, and their might is not right.

King James Bible
For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force is not right.

American Standard Version
For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pastures of the wilderness are dried up. And their course is evil, and their might is not right;

Douay-Rheims Bible
Because the land is full of adulterers, because the land hath mourned by reason of cursing, the fields of the desert are dried up: and their course is become evil, and their strength unlike.

English Revised Version
For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pastures of the wilderness are dried up; and their course is evil, and their force is not right.

Webster's Bible Translation
For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force is not right.

Jeremiah 23:10 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

When the Lord shall gather His people out of the dispersion, then will He raise up shepherds over them who will so feed them that they shall no longer need to fear or to be dismayed before enemies who might be strong enough to subjugate, slay, and carry them captive. The figurative expressions are founded on the idea that the sheep, when they are neglected by the shepherds, are torn and devoured by wild beasts; cf. Ezekiel 34:8. They shall not be lacking; cf. for נפקד with this force, 1 Samuel 25:7; in substance equals not be lost. לא יפּקדוּ is chosen with a view to לא פקדתּם אתם (Jeremiah 23:2): because the shepherds did not take charge of the sheep, therefore the sheep are scattered and lost. Hereafter this shall happen no more. The question as to how this promise is to be accomplished is answered by Jeremiah 23:5 and Jeremiah 23:6. The substance of these verses is indeed introduced by the phrase: behold, days come, as something new and important, but not as something not to happen till after the things foretold in Jeremiah 23:4. According to Jeremiah's usage throughout, that phrase does not indicate any progress in time as compared with what precedes, but draws attention to the weightiness of what is to be announced. There is also a suggestion of "the contrast between the hope and the existing condition of affairs, which does not itself justify that hope. However gloomy the present is, yet there is a time coming" (Hgstb.). The promise: I make to arise (raise up) to David a righteous branch, rests upon the promise, 2 Samuel 7:12; 1 Chronicles 17:12 : I raise up thy seed after thee, which shall be of thy sons-which the Lord will hereafter fulfil to David. Graf tries to show by many, but not tenable arguments, that צמח has here a collective force. That he is wrong, we may see from the passages Zechariah 3:8 and Zechariah 6:12, where the same "branch" foretold by Jeremiah is called the man whose name is צמח; and even without this we may discover the same from the context of the present passage, both from "He shall reign as king," and still more from: they shall call his name Jahveh Tsidkenu. Neither of these sayings can be spoken of a series of kings. Besides, we have the passages Jeremiah 30:9 and Ezekiel 34:23., Ezekiel 37:24, where the servant to be raised up to David by Jahveh is called "my servant David." Although then צמח has a collective force when it means a plant of the field, it by no means follows that "it has always a collective force" in its transferred spiritual signification. And the passage, Jeremiah 33:17, where the promise is explained by: David shall never want a man to sit upon the throne of Israel (cf. Jeremiah 33:21), does not prove that the branch of David is a collective grouping together of all David's future posterity, but only that this one branch of David shall possess the throne for ever, and not, like mortal men, for a series of years only; 2 Samuel 7:16. צמח denotes the Messiah, and this title is formed from צמח, Isaiah 4:2 (see Del. on this passage). Nor does the mention of shepherds in the plural, Jeremiah 23:4, at all oppose this. An untenable rendering of the sense is: first I will raise up unto you shepherds, then the Messiah; or: better shepherds, inprimis unum, Messiam (Chr. B. Mich.). The two promises are not so to be joined. First we have the raising up of good shepherds, in contrast to the evil shepherds that have destroyed the people; then the promise is further explained to the effect that these good shepherds shall be raised up to David in the "righteous branch," i.e., in the promised "seed" of his sons. The good shepherds are contrasted with the evil shepherds, but are then summed up in the person of the Messiah, as being comprised therein. The relation of the good shepherds to the righteous branch is not so, that the latter is the most pre-eminent of the former, but that in that one branch of David the people should have given to them all the good shepherds needed for their deliverance. The Messiah does not correspond to the series of David's earthly posterity that sit upon his throne, in that He too, as second David, will also have a long series of descendants upon His throne; but in that His kingdom, His dominion, lasts for ever. In the parallel passage, Jeremiah 33:15, where the contrast to the evil shepherds is omitted, we therefore hear only of the one branch of David; so in Ezekiel 34, where only the one good shepherd, the servant of the Lord, David, stands in contrast to the evil shepherds (Jeremiah 23:23). Hence neither must we seek the fulfilment of our prophecy in the elevation of the Maccabees, who were not even of the race of David, nor understand, as Grot., Zerubbabel to be the righteous branch, but the Messiah, as was rightly understood by the Chald. He is צדּיק in contrast to the then reigning members of the house of David, and as He who will do right and justice in His realm; cf. Jeremiah 22:15, where the same is said of Josiah as contrasted with his ungodly son Jehoiakim. מלך is subjoined to מלך to bespeak His rule as kingship in the fullest sense of the word. Regnabit rex, i.e., magnifice regnabit, ut non tantum appareant aliquae reliquiae pristinae dignitatis, sed ut rex floreat et vigeat et obtineat perfectionem, qualis fuit sub Davide et Salomone ac multo praestantior (Calv.). השׂכּיל, deal prudently, rule wisely, as in Jeremiah 3:15, not: be fortunate, prosperous. Here the context demands the former rendering, the only one justified by usage, since the doing of right and justice is mentioned as the fruit and result of the השׂכיל. These words, too, point back to David, of whom it is in 2 Samuel 8:15 said, that he as king did right and justice to all his people.

Jeremiah 23:10 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

full.

Jeremiah 5:7,8 How shall I pardon you for this? your children have forsaken me, and sworn by them that are no gods: when I had fed them to the full...

Jeremiah 7:9 Will you steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn incense to Baal, and walk after other gods whom you know not;

Jeremiah 9:2 Oh that I had in the wilderness a lodging place of wayfaring men; that I might leave my people...

Ezekiel 22:9-11 In you are men that carry tales to shed blood: and in you they eat on the mountains: in the middle of you they commit lewdness...

Hosea 4:2,3 By swearing, and lying, and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break out, and blood touches blood...

Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers...

1 Corinthians 6:9,10 Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters...

Galatians 5:19-21 Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these; Adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviousness...

Hebrews 13:4 Marriage is honorable in all, and the bed undefiled: but fornicators and adulterers God will judge.

James 4:4 You adulterers and adulteresses, know you not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God?...

because.

Zechariah 5:3,4 Then said he to me, This is the curse that goes forth over the face of the whole earth...

1 Timothy 1:10 For fornicators, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for enslavers, for liars, for perjured persons...

swearing. Heb. cursing. the land.

Jeremiah 12:3,4 But you, O LORD, know me: you have seen me, and tried my heart toward you: pull them out like sheep for the slaughter...

Jeremiah 14:2 Judah mourns, and the gates thereof languish; they are black to the ground; and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up.

Lamentations 1:2-4 She weeps sore in the night, and her tears are on her cheeks: among all her lovers she has none to comfort her...

Joel 1:10 The field is wasted, the land mourns; for the corn is wasted: the new wine is dried up, the oil languishes.

the pleasant.

Jeremiah 9:10 For the mountains will I take up a weeping and wailing, and for the habitations of the wilderness a lamentation...

Psalm 107:34 A fruitful land into barrenness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein.

Isaiah 24:6 Therefore has the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned...

course. or, violence.

Cross References
Leviticus 5:1
"If anyone sins in that he hears a public adjuration to testify, and though he is a witness, whether he has seen or come to know the matter, yet does not speak, he shall bear his iniquity;

Psalm 107:34
a fruitful land into a salty waste, because of the evil of its inhabitants.

Isaiah 5:18
Woe to those who draw iniquity with cords of falsehood, who draw sin as with cart ropes,

Jeremiah 9:2
Oh that I had in the desert a travelers' lodging place, that I might leave my people and go away from them! For they are all adulterers, a company of treacherous men.

Jeremiah 9:10
"I will take up weeping and wailing for the mountains, and a lamentation for the pastures of the wilderness, because they are laid waste so that no one passes through, and the lowing of cattle is not heard; both the birds of the air and the beasts have fled and are gone.

Jeremiah 9:12
Who is the man so wise that he can understand this? To whom has the mouth of the LORD spoken, that he may declare it? Why is the land ruined and laid waste like a wilderness, so that no one passes through?

Jeremiah 12:4
How long will the land mourn and the grass of every field wither? For the evil of those who dwell in it the beasts and the birds are swept away, because they said, "He will not see our latter end."

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