Job 31:21
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
if I have raised my hand against the fatherless, because I saw my help in the gate,

King James Bible
If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate:

American Standard Version
If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, Because I saw my help in the gate:

Douay-Rheims Bible
If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, even when I saw myself superior in the gate:

English Revised Version
If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, because I saw my help in the gate:

Webster's Bible Translation
If I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate:

Job 31:21 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The same manner of birth, by the same divine creative power and the same human agency, makes both master and servant substantially brethren with equal claims: Has not He who brought me forth in my mother's womb (also) brought forth him (this my servant or my maid), and has not One fashioned us in our mother's belly? אחד, unus, viz., God, is the subj., as Malachi 2:10, אחד (אב) אל (for the thought comp. Ephesians 6:9), as it is also translated by the Targ., Jer., Saad., and Gecat.; whereas the lxx (ἐν τῇ αὐτῇ κοιλίᾳ), Syr., Symm. (as it appears from his translation ἐν ὁμοίῳ τρόπῳ), construe אחד as the adj. to בּרחם, which is also the idea of the accentuation (Rebia mugrasch, Mercha, Silluk). On the other hand, it has been observed (also Norzi) that it ought to be האסחד according to this meaning; but it was not absolutely necessary, vid., Ges. 111, 2, b. אחד also would not be unsuitable in this combination; it would, as e.g., in אחד חלום, not affirm identity of number, but of character. But אחד is far more significant, and as the final word of the strophe more expressive, when referred to God. The form ויכוּננּוּ is to be judged of just like ותּמוּגנוּ, Isaiah 54:6; either they are forms of an exceptionally transitive (as שׁוּב, Psalm 85:5, and in שׁוב שׁבות) use of the Kal of these verbs (vid., e.g., Parchon and Kimchi), or they are syncopated forms of the Pilel for ויכנננּוּ, ותּמגגנוּ, syncopated on account of the same letters coming together, especially in ויכנננו (Ew. 81, a, and most others); but this coincidence is sought elsewhere (e.g., Psalm 50:23; Proverbs 1:28), and not avoided in this manner (e.g., Psalm 119:73). Beside this syncope ויכוּננּוּ might also be expected, while according to express testimony the first Nun is raphatum: we therefore prefer to derive these forms from Kal, without regarding them, with Olsh., as errors in writing. The suff. is rightly taken by lxx, Targ., Abulwalid, and almost all expositors,

(Note: Also in the Jerusalem Talmud, where R. Johanan, eating nothing which he did not also share with his slave, refers to these words of Job. Comp. also the story from the Midrash in Guiseppe Levi's Parabeln Legenden und Ged. aus Thalmud und Midrasch, S. 141 (Germ. transl. 1863): The wife of R. Jose began a dispute with her maid. Her husband came up and asked the cause, and when he saw that his wife was in the wrong, told her so in the presence of the maid. The wife said in a rage: Thou sayest I am wrong in the presence of my maid? The Rabbi answered: I do as Job did.)

not as singular (ennu equals êhu), but as plural (ennu equals ênu); The Babylonian school pointed ויכוּננוּ, like ממנו where it signifies a nobis, ממּנוּ (Psalter ii. 459, and further information in Pinsker's works, Zur Geschichte des Karaismus, and Ueber das sogen. assyrische Punktationssystem). Therefore: One, i.e., one and the same God, has fashioned us in the womb without our co-operation, in an equally animal way, which smites down all pride, in like absolute conditionedness.

Job 31:21 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

lifted

Job 6:27 Yes, you overwhelm the fatherless, and you dig a pit for your friend.

Job 22:9 You have sent widows away empty, and the arms of the fatherless have been broken.

Job 24:9 They pluck the fatherless from the breast, and take a pledge of the poor.

Job 29:12 Because I delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him.

Proverbs 23:10,11 Remove not the old landmark; and enter not into the fields of the fatherless...

Jeremiah 5:28 They are waxen fat, they shine: yes, they overpass the deeds of the wicked: they judge not the cause, the cause of the fatherless...

Ezekiel 22:7 In you have they set light by father and mother: in the middle of you have they dealt by oppression with the stranger...

when

Micah 2:1,2 Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil on their beds! when the morning is light, they practice it...

Micah 7:3 That they may do evil with both hands earnestly, the prince asks, and the judge asks for a reward; and the great man...

Cross References
Job 29:7
When I went out to the gate of the city, when I prepared my seat in the square,

Job 29:12
because I delivered the poor who cried for help, and the fatherless who had none to help him.

Job 31:17
or have eaten my morsel alone, and the fatherless has not eaten of it

Job 31:20
if his body has not blessed me, and if he was not warmed with the fleece of my sheep,

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