Job 31:30
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
(I have not let my mouth sin by asking for his life with a curse),

King James Bible
Neither have I suffered my mouth to sin by wishing a curse to his soul.

American Standard Version
(Yea, I have not suffered by mouth to sin By asking his life with a curse);

Douay-Rheims Bible
For I have not given my mouth to sin, by wishing a curse to his soul.

English Revised Version
(Yea, I suffered not my mouth to sin by asking his life with a curse;)

Webster's Bible Translation
Neither have I suffered my mouth to sin by wishing a curse to his soul.

Job 31:30 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

24 If I made gold my confidence,

And said to the fine gold: O my trust;

25 If I rejoiced that my wealth was great,

And that my hand had gained much; -

26 If I saw the sunlight when it shone,

And the moon walking in splendour,

27 And my heart was secretly enticed,

And I threw them a kiss by my hand:

28 This also would be a punishable crime,

For I should have played the hypocrite to God above.

Not only from covetous extortion of another's goods was he conscious of being clear, but also from an excessive delight in earthly possessions. He has not made gold his כּסל, confidence (vid., on כּסלתך, Job 4:6); he has not said to כּתם, fine gold (pure, Job 28:19, of Ophir, Job 28:16), מבטחי (with Dag. forte implicitum as Job 8:14; Job 18:14): object (ground) of my trust! He has not rejoiced that his wealth is great (רב, adj.), and that his hand has attained כּבּיר, something great (neutral masc. Ew. 172, b). His joy was the fear of God, which ennobles man, not earthly things, which are not worthy to be accounted as man's highest good. He indeed avoided πλεονεξία as εἰλωλολατρεία (Colossians 3:5), how much more the heathenish deification of the stars! אור is here, as Job 37:21 and φάος in Homer, the sun as the great light of the earth. ירח is the moon as a wanderer (from רח equals ארח), i.e., night-wanderer (noctivaga), as the Arab. târik in a like sense is the name of the morning-star. The two words יקר הלד describe with exceeding beauty the solemn majestic wandering of the moon; יקר is acc. of closer definition, like תמים, Psalm 15:2, and this "brilliantly rolling on" is the acc. of the predicate to אראה, corresponding to the כּי יחל, "that (or how) it shoots forth rays" (Hiph. of הלל, distinct from יחל Isaiah 13:20), or even: that it shot forth rays (fut. in signif. of an imperf. as Genesis 48:17).

Job 31:27 proceeds with futt. consec. in order to express the effect which this imposing spectacle of the luminaries of the day and of the night might have produced on him, but has not. The Kal ויּפתּ is to be understood as in Deuteronomy 11:16 (comp. ib. iv. 19, נדּח): it was enticed, gave way to the seducing influence. Kissing is called נשׁק as being a joining of lip to lip. Accordingly the kiss by hand can be described by נשׁקה יד לפה; the kiss which the mouth gives the hand is to a certain extent also a kiss which the hand gives the mouth, since the hand joins itself to the mouth. Thus to kiss the hand in the direction of the object of veneration, or also to turn to it the kissed hand and at the same time the kiss which fastens on it (as compensation for the direct kiss, 1 Kings 19:18; Hosea 13:2), is the proper gesture of the προσκύνησις and adoratio mentioned; comp. Pliny, h. n. xxviii. 2, 5; Inter adorandum dexteram ad osculum referimus et totum corpus circumagimus. Tacitus, Hist. iii. 24, says that in Syria they value the rising sun; and that this was done by kissing the hand (τῆν χεῖρα κύσαντες) in Western Asia as in Greece, is to be inferred from Lucians Περὶ ὀρχήσεως, c. xvii.

(Note: Vid., Freund's Lat. Wrterbuch s. v. adorare, and K. Fr. Hermann's Gottesdienstliche Alterth. der Griechen, c. xxi. 16, but especially Excursus 123 in Dougtaeus' Analecta.)

In the passage before us Ew. finds an indication of the spread of the Zoroaster doctrine in the beginning of the seventh century b.c., at which period he is of opinion the book of Job was composed, but without any ground. The ancient Persian worship has no knowledge of the act of adoration by throwing a kiss; and the Avesta recognises in the sun and moon exalted genii, but created by Ahuramazda, and consequently not such as are to be worshipped as gods. On the other hand, star-worship is everywhere the oldest and also comparatively the purest form of heathenism. That the ancient Arabs, especially the Himjarites, adored the sun, שׁמשׁ, and the moon, שׂין (סין, whence סיני, the mountain dedicated to the moon), as divine, we know from the ancient testimonies,

continued...

Job 31:30 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

have

Exodus 23:4,5 If you meet your enemy's ox or his donkey going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him again...

Matthew 5:43,44 You have heard that it has been said, You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy...

Romans 12:14 Bless them which persecute you: bless, and curse not.

1 Peter 2:22,23 Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth...

1 Peter 3:9 Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that you are thereunto called...

mouth. Heb. palate

Ecclesiastes 5:2,6 Be not rash with your mouth, and let not your heart be hasty to utter any thing before God: for God is in heaven, and you on earth...

Matthew 5:22 But I say to you, That whoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment...

Matthew 12:36 But I say to you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.

James 3:6,9,10 And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defiles the whole body...

Cross References
Job 5:3
I have seen the fool taking root, but suddenly I cursed his dwelling.

Psalm 7:4
if I have repaid my friend with evil or plundered my enemy without cause,

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