Job 31:31
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
if the men of my tent have not said, ‘Who is there that has not been filled with his meat?’

King James Bible
If the men of my tabernacle said not, Oh that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied.

American Standard Version
If the men of my tent have not said, Who can find one that hath not been filled with his meat?

Douay-Rheims Bible
If the men of my tabernacle have not said: Who will give us of his flesh that we may be filled?

English Revised Version
If the men of my tent said not, Who can find one that hath not been satisfied with his flesh?

Webster's Bible Translation
If the men of my tabernacle have not said, Oh that we had of his flesh! we cannot be satisfied.

Job 31:31 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

24 If I made gold my confidence,

And said to the fine gold: O my trust;

25 If I rejoiced that my wealth was great,

And that my hand had gained much; -

26 If I saw the sunlight when it shone,

And the moon walking in splendour,

27 And my heart was secretly enticed,

And I threw them a kiss by my hand:

28 This also would be a punishable crime,

For I should have played the hypocrite to God above.

Not only from covetous extortion of another's goods was he conscious of being clear, but also from an excessive delight in earthly possessions. He has not made gold his כּסל, confidence (vid., on כּסלתך, Job 4:6); he has not said to כּתם, fine gold (pure, Job 28:19, of Ophir, Job 28:16), מבטחי (with Dag. forte implicitum as Job 8:14; Job 18:14): object (ground) of my trust! He has not rejoiced that his wealth is great (רב, adj.), and that his hand has attained כּבּיר, something great (neutral masc. Ew. 172, b). His joy was the fear of God, which ennobles man, not earthly things, which are not worthy to be accounted as man's highest good. He indeed avoided πλεονεξία as εἰλωλολατρεία (Colossians 3:5), how much more the heathenish deification of the stars! אור is here, as Job 37:21 and φάος in Homer, the sun as the great light of the earth. ירח is the moon as a wanderer (from רח equals ארח), i.e., night-wanderer (noctivaga), as the Arab. târik in a like sense is the name of the morning-star. The two words יקר הלד describe with exceeding beauty the solemn majestic wandering of the moon; יקר is acc. of closer definition, like תמים, Psalm 15:2, and this "brilliantly rolling on" is the acc. of the predicate to אראה, corresponding to the כּי יחל, "that (or how) it shoots forth rays" (Hiph. of הלל, distinct from יחל Isaiah 13:20), or even: that it shot forth rays (fut. in signif. of an imperf. as Genesis 48:17).

Job 31:27 proceeds with futt. consec. in order to express the effect which this imposing spectacle of the luminaries of the day and of the night might have produced on him, but has not. The Kal ויּפתּ is to be understood as in Deuteronomy 11:16 (comp. ib. iv. 19, נדּח): it was enticed, gave way to the seducing influence. Kissing is called נשׁק as being a joining of lip to lip. Accordingly the kiss by hand can be described by נשׁקה יד לפה; the kiss which the mouth gives the hand is to a certain extent also a kiss which the hand gives the mouth, since the hand joins itself to the mouth. Thus to kiss the hand in the direction of the object of veneration, or also to turn to it the kissed hand and at the same time the kiss which fastens on it (as compensation for the direct kiss, 1 Kings 19:18; Hosea 13:2), is the proper gesture of the προσκύνησις and adoratio mentioned; comp. Pliny, h. n. xxviii. 2, 5; Inter adorandum dexteram ad osculum referimus et totum corpus circumagimus. Tacitus, Hist. iii. 24, says that in Syria they value the rising sun; and that this was done by kissing the hand (τῆν χεῖρα κύσαντες) in Western Asia as in Greece, is to be inferred from Lucians Περὶ ὀρχήσεως, c. xvii.

(Note: Vid., Freund's Lat. Wrterbuch s. v. adorare, and K. Fr. Hermann's Gottesdienstliche Alterth. der Griechen, c. xxi. 16, but especially Excursus 123 in Dougtaeus' Analecta.)

In the passage before us Ew. finds an indication of the spread of the Zoroaster doctrine in the beginning of the seventh century b.c., at which period he is of opinion the book of Job was composed, but without any ground. The ancient Persian worship has no knowledge of the act of adoration by throwing a kiss; and the Avesta recognises in the sun and moon exalted genii, but created by Ahuramazda, and consequently not such as are to be worshipped as gods. On the other hand, star-worship is everywhere the oldest and also comparatively the purest form of heathenism. That the ancient Arabs, especially the Himjarites, adored the sun, שׁמשׁ, and the moon, שׂין (סין, whence סיני, the mountain dedicated to the moon), as divine, we know from the ancient testimonies,

continued...

Job 31:31 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the men

1 Samuel 24:4,10 And the men of David said to him, Behold the day of which the LORD said to you, Behold, I will deliver your enemy into your hand...

1 Samuel 26:8 Then said Abishai to David, God has delivered your enemy into your hand this day: now therefore let me smite him, I pray you...

2 Samuel 16:9,10 Then said Abishai the son of Zeruiah to the king, Why should this dead dog curse my lord the king? let me go over, I pray you...

2 Samuel 19:21,22 But Abishai the son of Zeruiah answered and said, Shall not Shimei be put to death for this, because he cursed the LORD's anointed...

Jeremiah 40:15,16 Then Johanan the son of Kareah spoke to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly saying, Let me go, I pray you...

Luke 9:54,55 And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, will you that we command fire to come down from heaven...

Luke 22:50,51 And one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear...

Oh

Job 19:22 Why do you persecute me as God, and are not satisfied with my flesh?

Psalm 27:2 When the wicked, even my enemies and my foes, came on me to eat up my flesh, they stumbled and fell.

Psalm 35:25 Let them not say in their hearts, Ah, so would we have it: let them not say, We have swallowed him up.

Proverbs 1:11,12,18 If they say, Come with us, let us lay wait for blood, let us lurk privately for the innocent without cause...

Micah 3:2,3 Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones...

Cross References
Job 22:7
You have given no water to the weary to drink, and you have withheld bread from the hungry.

Job 31:32
(the sojourner has not lodged in the street; I have opened my doors to the traveler),

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