Job 39:16
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
She deals cruelly with her young, as if they were not hers; though her labor be in vain, yet she has no fear,

King James Bible
She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers: her labour is in vain without fear;

American Standard Version
She dealeth hardly with her young ones, as if they were not hers: Though her labor be in vain,'she is without fear;

Douay-Rheims Bible
She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers, she hath laboured in vain, no fear constraining her.

English Revised Version
She is hardened against her young ones, as if they were not hers: though her labour be in vain, she is without fear;

Webster's Bible Translation
She is hardened against her young ones, as though they were not hers: her labor is in vain without fear;

Job 39:16 Parallel
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

9 Will the oryx be willing to serve thee,

Or will he lodge in thy crib?

10 Canst thou bind the oryx in the furrow with a leading rein,

Or will he harrow the valleys, following thee?

11 Wilt thou trust him because his strength is great,

And leave thy labour to him?

12 Wilt thou confide in him to bring in thy sowing,

And to garner thy threshing-floor?

In correct texts רים has a Dagesh in the Resh, and היאבה the accent on the penult., as Proverbs 11:21 ינּקה רע, and Jeremiah 39:12 רּע מאוּמה. The tone retreats according to the rule, Ges. 29, 3, b; and the Dagesh is, as also when the second word begins with an aspirate,

(Note: The National Grammarians call this exception to the rule, that the muta is aspirated when the preceding word ends with a vowel, אתי מרחיק (veniens e longinquo), i.e., the case, where the word ending with a vowel is Milel, whether from the very first, or, when the second word is a monosyllable or has the tone on the penult., on account of the accent that has retreated (in order to avoid two syllables with the chief tone coming together); in this case the aspirate, and in general the initial letter (if capable of being doubled) of the second monosyllabic or penultima-accented word, takes a Dagesh; but this is not without exceptions that are quite as regular. Regularly, the second word is not dageshed if it begins with ו, כ, ל, ב, or if the first word is only a bare verb, e.g., עשׂה לו, or one that has only ו before it, e.g., ועשׂה פסח; the tone of the first word in both these examples retreats, but without the initial of the second being doubled. This is supplementary, and as far as necessary a correction, to what is said in Psalter, i 392, Anm.)

Dag. forte conj., which the Resh also takes, Proverbs 15:1 מענה־רּך, exceptionally, according to the rule, Ges. 20, 2, a. In all, it occurs thirteen times with Dagesh in the Old Testament - a relic of a mode of pointing which treated the ר (as in Arabic) as a letter capable of being doubled (Ges. 22, 5), that has been supplanted in the system of pointing that gained the ascendency. רים (Psalm 22:22, רם) is contracted from ראם (Psalm 92:11, plene, ראים), which ( equals ראם) is of like form with Arab. ri'm (Olsh. 154, a).

(Note: Since ra'ima, inf. ri'mân, has the signification assuescere, ראם, רים, רימנא (Targ.) might describe the oryx as a gregarious animal, although all ruminants have this characteristic in common. On ראם, Arab. r'm, vid., Seetzen's Reise, iii. S. 393, Z 9ff., and also iv. 496.)

Such, in the present day in Syria, is the name of the gazelle that is for the most part white with a yellow back and yellow stripes in the face (Antilope leucoryx, in distinction from Arab. ‛ifrı̂, the earth-coloured, dirty-yellow Antilope oryx, and Arab. ḥmrı̂, himrı̂, the deer-coloured Antilope dorcas); the Talmud also (b. Zebachim, 113b; Bathra, 74b) combines ראימא and אורזילא or ארזילא, a gazelle (Arab. gazâl), and therefore reckons the reêm to the antelope genus, of which the gazelle is a species; and the question, Job 39:10, shows that an animal whose home is on the mountains is intended, viz., as Bochart, and recently Schlottm. (making use of an academic treatise of Lichtenstein on the antelopes, 1824), has proved, the oryx, which the lxx also probably understands when it translates μονοκέρως; for the Talmud. קרש, mutilated from it, is, according to Chullin, 59b, a one-horned animal, and is more closely defined as טביא דבי עילאי, "gazelle (antelope) of Be (Beth)-Illi" (comp. Lewysohn, Zoologie des Talmuds, 1858, 146).

The oryx also appears on Egyptian monuments sometimes with two horns, but mostly with one variously curled; and both Aristotle


Job 39:16 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Lamentations 4:3 Even the sea monsters draw out the breast, they give suck to their young ones: the daughter of my people is become cruel...


Deuteronomy 28:56,57 The tender and delicate woman among you...

1 Kings 3:26,27 Then spoke the woman whose the living child was to the king, for her bowels yearned on her son, and she said, O my lord...

2 Kings 6:28,29 And the king said to her, What ails you? And she answered, This woman said to me, Give your son, that we may eat him to day...

Lamentations 2:20 Behold, O LORD, and consider to whom you have done this. Shall the women eat their fruit, and children of a span long?...

Romans 1:31 Without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:

her labour

Ecclesiastes 10:15 The labor of the foolish wearies every one of them, because he knows not how to go to the city.

Habakkuk 2:13 Behold, is it not of the LORD of hosts that the people shall labor in the very fire...

Cross References
Job 39:15
forgetting that a foot may crush them and that the wild beast may trample them.

Job 39:17
because God has made her forget wisdom and given her no share in understanding.

Lamentations 4:3
Even jackals offer the breast; they nurse their young; but the daughter of my people has become cruel, like the ostriches in the wilderness.

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