Romans 9:12
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”

King James Bible
It was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

American Standard Version
it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Not of works, but of him that calleth, it was said to her: The elder shall serve the younger.

English Revised Version
it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Webster's Bible Translation
It was said to her, The elder shall serve the younger.

Weymouth New Testament
"The elder of them will be bondservant to the younger."

Romans 9:12 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Elder - younger (μείζων - ἐλάσσονι)

Lit., greater - smaller. Compare Genesis 27:1, here the Hebrew is: "Esau his great son;" Sept., πρεσβύτερον elder. Genesis 29:16, Sept., "The name of the greater was Leah, and the name of the younger (τῇ νεωτέρᾳ) Rachel." See a similar use in Aeschylus, "Agamemnon," 349, "Neither old (μέγαν) nor young (νεαρῶν) could escape the great net of slavery." While in these cases "greater" and "smaller" are evidently used as older and younger, yet the radical meaning is greater and less, and the reference is not to age, but to their relative position in the theocratic plan. Μείζων greater, occurs in forty-four passages in the New Testament, and in no case with the meaning elder. Compare Genesis 25:23 be stronger; Sept., ὑπέρεξει; shall surpass. The reference, if to the persons of Jacob and Esau, is to them as representatives of the two nations. See Genesis 25:23.

Historically the Edomites, represented by Esau, were for a time the greater, and surpassed the Israelites in national and military development. Moses sent envoys to the king of Edom from Kadesh, asking permission to pass through his country, which was refused, and the Edomite army came out against Israel (Numbers 20:14-21). Later they were "vexed" by Saul (1 Samuel 14:47), and were conquered and made tributary by David (2 Samuel 8:14). Their strength was shown in their subsequent attempts to recover independence (2 Kings 8:20, 2 Kings 8:21; 2 Kings 14:7; 2 Chronicles 28:17). Their final subjugation was effected by John Hyrcanus, who incorporated them into the Jewish nation and compelled them to be circumcised.

Romans 9:12 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

The elder. or, The greater.

Genesis 25:22,23 And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD...

2 Samuel 8:14 And he put garrisons in Edom; throughout all Edom put he garrisons, and all they of Edom became David's servants...

1 Kings 22:47 There was then no king in Edom: a deputy was king.

younger. or, lesser.

Cross References
Genesis 25:23
And the LORD said to her, "Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples from within you shall be divided; the one shall be stronger than the other, the older shall serve the younger."

Matthew 6:24
"No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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