Romans 9:18
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
So then he has mercy on whomever he wills, and he hardens whomever he wills.

King James Bible
Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

American Standard Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will be hardeneth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will; and whom he will, he hardeneth.

English Revised Version
So then he hath mercy on whom he will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Webster's Bible Translation
Therefore he hath mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Weymouth New Testament
This is a proof that wherever He chooses He shows mercy, and wherever he chooses He hardens the heart.

Romans 9:18 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

He will (θέλει)

In a decretory sense. See on Matthew 1:19.

Hardeneth (σκληρύνει)

Only here by Paul. See on hard, Matthew 25:24; see on Jde 1:14; see on James 3:4. Three words are used in the Hebrew to describe the hardening of Pharaoh's heart. The one which occurs most frequently, properly means to be strong, and therefore represents the hardness as foolhardiness, infatuated insensibility to danger. See Exodus 14. The word is used in its positive sense, hardens, not merely permits to become hard. In Exodus the hardening is represented as self-produced (Exodus 8:15, Exodus 8:32; Exodus 9:34), and as produced by God (Exodus 4:21; Exodus 7:3; Exodus 9:12; Exodus 10:20, Exodus 10:27; Exodus 11:10). Paul here chooses the latter representation.

Romans 9:18 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

hath.

Romans 9:15,16 For he said to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion...

Romans 5:20,21 Moreover the law entered, that the offense might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound...

Ephesians 1:6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he has made us accepted in the beloved.

will he.

Romans 1:24-28 Why God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves...

Romans 11:7,8 What then? Israel has not obtained that which he seeks for; but the election has obtained it, and the rest were blinded...

See on

Exodus 4:21 And the LORD said to Moses, When you go to return into Egypt, see that you do all those wonders before Pharaoh...

Exodus 7:13 And he hardened Pharaoh's heart, that he listened not to them; as the LORD had said.

Deuteronomy 2:30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD your God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate...

Joshua 11:20 For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, that they should come against Israel in battle, that he might destroy them utterly...

Isaiah 63:17 O LORD, why have you made us to err from your ways, and hardened our heart from your fear? Return for your servants' sake...

Matthew 13:14,15 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which said, By hearing you shall hear, and shall not understand...

Acts 28:26-28 Saying, Go to this people, and say, Hearing you shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing you shall see, and not perceive...

2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 And with all delusion of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth...

Cross References
Exodus 4:21
And the LORD said to Moses, "When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the miracles that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, so that he will not let the people go.

Exodus 7:3
But I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and though I multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

Exodus 9:12
But the LORD hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not listen to them, as the LORD had spoken to Moses.

Exodus 10:1
Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go in to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the heart of his servants, that I may show these signs of mine among them,

Exodus 10:20
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go.

Exodus 10:27
But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go.

Exodus 11:10
Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh, and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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