Galatians 4:23
New International Version
His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but his son by the free woman was born as the result of a divine promise.

New Living Translation
The son of the slave wife was born in a human attempt to bring about the fulfillment of God’s promise. But the son of the freeborn wife was born as God’s own fulfillment of his promise.

English Standard Version
But the son of the slave was born according to the flesh, while the son of the free woman was born through promise.

Berean Study Bible
His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but his son by the free woman was born through the promise.

Berean Literal Bible
But indeed, the one of the slave woman has been born according to flesh, but the one of the free, through the promise,

King James Bible
But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise.

New King James Version
But he who was of the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and he of the freewoman through promise,

New American Standard Bible
But the son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise.

NASB 1995
But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise.

NASB 1977
But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise.

Amplified Bible
But the child of the slave woman was born according to the flesh and had an ordinary birth, while the son of the free woman was born in fulfillment of the promise.

Christian Standard Bible
But the one by the slave was born as a result of the flesh, while the one by the free woman was born through promise.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
But the one by the slave was born according to the impulse of the flesh, while the one by the free woman was born as the result of a promise.

American Standard Version
Howbeit the'son by the handmaid is born after the flesh; but the'son by the freewoman is born through promise.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
But he who was from the Maidservant was born of the flesh, but he who was from the Freewoman was by The Promise.

Contemporary English Version
The son of the slave woman was born in the usual way. But the son of the free woman was born because of God's promise.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But he who was of the bondwoman, was born according to the flesh: but he of the free woman, was by promise.

English Revised Version
Howbeit the son by the handmaid is born after the flesh; but the son by the freewoman is born through promise.

Good News Translation
His son by the slave woman was born in the usual way, but his son by the free woman was born as a result of God's promise.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Now, the son of the slave woman was conceived in a natural way, but the son of the free woman was conceived through a promise [made to Abraham].

International Standard Version
Now the slave woman's son was conceived through human means, while the free woman's son was conceived through divine promise.

Literal Standard Version
but he who [is] of the maidservant has been according to flesh, but he who [is] of the free [woman], through the promise,

NET Bible
But one, the son by the slave woman, was born by natural descent, while the other, the son by the free woman, was born through the promise.

New Heart English Bible
However, the son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise.

Weymouth New Testament
But we see that the child of the slave-girl was born in the common course of nature; but the child of the free woman in fulfilment of the promise.

World English Bible
However, the son by the handmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free woman was born through promise.

Young's Literal Translation
but he who is of the maid-servant, according to flesh hath been, and he who is of the free-woman, through the promise;

Additional Translations ...
Context
Hagar and Sarah
22For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman and the other by the free woman. 23 His son by the slave woman was born according to the flesh, but his son by the free woman was born through the promise. 24These things serve as illustrations, for the women represent two covenants. One covenant is from Mount Sinai and bears children into slavery: This is Hagar.…

Cross References
Genesis 17:16
And I will bless her and will surely give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she will be the mother of nations; kings of peoples will descend from her."

Genesis 18:10
Then the LORD said, "I will surely return to you at this time next year, and your wife Sarah will have a son!" Now Sarah was behind him, listening at the entrance to the tent.

Genesis 21:1
Now the LORD attended to Sarah as He had said, and the LORD did for Sarah what He had promised.

Romans 9:7
Nor because they are Abraham's descendants are they all his children. On the contrary, "Through Isaac your offspring will be reckoned."

Galatians 4:22
For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the slave woman and the other by the free woman.

Galatians 4:28
Now you, brothers, like Isaac, are children of promise.

Galatians 4:29
At that time, however, the son born by the flesh persecuted the son born by the Spirit. It is the same now.


Treasury of Scripture

But he who was of the female slave was born after the flesh; but he of the free woman was by promise.

born.

Romans 9:7,8
Neither, because they are the seed of Abraham, are they all children: but, In Isaac shall thy seed be called…

but.

Genesis 17:15-19
And God said unto Abraham, As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be

Genesis 18:10-14
And he said, I will certainly return unto thee according to the time of life; and, lo, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard it in the tent door, which was behind him…

Genesis 21:1,2
And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken…









(23) But.--Both were alike in being children of Abraham; they were unlike in that one was born naturally, the other by divine instrumentality.

Was born.--Strictly, is born--i.e., is stated to have been born, was born as we still read.

After the flesh--i.e., in the regular course of nature.

By promise.--The birth of Isaac is regarded as due to the direct agency of the promise, The promise itself is conceived of as possessing a creative power. The birth of Isaac was the result of a miraculous intervention. (See Genesis 18:10.)

Verse 23. - But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh (ἀλλ ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται); howbeit the son by the handmaid is shown as born (or, begotten) after the flesh. The ἀλλὰ is strongly adversative; both, indeed, were sons of Abraham, but there was a marked distinction in the way in which they severally came into being. The apostle has evidently in his eye the analogy presented by the natural birth of the Jewish descendants from Abraham, as contrasted with the birth of Abraham's spiritual seed through faith in the promises of the gospel. This point, however, he is content with merely, in vers. 28, 29, glancing at. His main point is the condition of both mother and child in each case, as being either both free or both in bondage. It is not clear whether the apostle by γεγέννηται meant "born" or "begotten," the verb being used in both senses: but neither is it material. The perfect tense of the verb either supposes us to be as it were present at the time of Ishmael's expulsion, in which case it would mean, "hath been born," or is used with reference to the record in the history, meaning in this case "appears in the story as having been born." So the perfect tense is used also in Hebrews 7:6, δεδεκάτωκε, εὐλόγηκε, and Hebrews 10:18, ἐγκεκαίνισται. "According to the flesh" does not precisely mean "in the common course of torture;" the word "flesh" rather contrasts the present visible sphere of human life with the invisible spiritual world, in much the same way as "flesh" is so often contrasted with "spirit." Ishmael was born "after the flesh," because he was born in the common course of nature; Isaac was born (ver. 28) "after the Spirit," because his birth was connected with the invisible spiritual world "through the promise," which on the one A hand was given by God the great Sovereign of the spiritual world, and on the other was laid hold of and made effectual in that same world of spiritual action by Abraham's and Sarah's faith. But he of the freewoman was by promise (ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας δὶ [Receptus, διὰ τῆς] ἐπαγγελίας); but the son by the freewoman through a promise (or, through the promise). If the article before ἐπαγγελίας be retained, it is to be taken as pointing to the well-known promise made by the Lord to Abraham, both in the night in which God made a covenant with him (Genesis 15.). and afresh, in a more definite form, on the eve of the destruction of Sodom (Genesis 18.). This promise was the means of Isaac's being born, calling forth as it did an acting of faith in God, both in Abraham (Romans 4:17-21), and likewise in Sarah (Hebrews 11:11), in consideration of which the Almighty beyond the course of nature gave them this child.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Greek
His [son]
(ho)
Article - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

by
ἐκ (ek)
Preposition
Strong's 1537: From out, out from among, from, suggesting from the interior outwards. A primary preposition denoting origin, from, out.

the
τῆς (tēs)
Article - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

slave woman
παιδίσκης (paidiskēs)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 3814: A female slave, maidservant, maid, young girl. Feminine diminutive of pais; a girl, i.e., a female slave or servant.

was born
γεγέννηται (gegennētai)
Verb - Perfect Indicative Middle or Passive - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's 1080: From a variation of genos; to procreate; figuratively, to regenerate.

according to
κατὰ (kata)
Preposition
Strong's 2596: A primary particle; down, in varied relations (genitive, dative or accusative) with which it is joined).

[the] flesh,
σάρκα (sarka)
Noun - Accusative Feminine Singular
Strong's 4561: Flesh, body, human nature, materiality; kindred.

[but]
δὲ (de)
Conjunction
Strong's 1161: A primary particle; but, and, etc.

[his son]
(ho)
Article - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

by
ἐκ (ek)
Preposition
Strong's 1537: From out, out from among, from, suggesting from the interior outwards. A primary preposition denoting origin, from, out.

the
τῆς (tēs)
Article - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

free [woman]
ἐλευθέρας (eleutheras)
Adjective - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 1658: Free, delivered from obligation. Probably from the alternate of erchomai; unrestrained, i.e. not a slave, or exempt.

[was born] because of
δι’ (di’)
Preposition
Strong's 1223: A primary preposition denoting the channel of an act; through.

the
τῆς (tēs)
Article - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

promise.
ἐπαγγελίας (epangelias)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's 1860: A promise. From epaggello; an announcement.


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NT Letters: Galatians 4:23 However the son by the handmaid was (Gal. Ga)
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