John 18:28
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Then the Jewish leaders took Jesus from Caiaphas to the palace of the Roman governor. By now it was early morning, and to avoid ceremonial uncleanness they did not enter the palace, because they wanted to be able to eat the Passover.

King James Bible
Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

Darby Bible Translation
They lead therefore Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium; and it was early morn. And *they* entered not into the praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but eat the passover.

World English Bible
They led Jesus therefore from Caiaphas into the Praetorium. It was early, and they themselves didn't enter into the Praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.

Young's Literal Translation
They led, therefore, Jesus from Caiaphas to the praetorium, and it was early, and they themselves did not enter into the praetorium, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the passover;

John 18:28 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

The hall of judgment - Εις το πραιτωριον, To the praetorium. This was the house where Pilate lodged; hence called in our margin, Pilate's house. The praetorium is so called from being the dwelling-place of the praetor, or chief of the province. It was also the place where he held his court, and tried causes.

St. John has omitted all that passed in the house of Caiaphas - the accusations brought against Christ - the false witnesses - the insults which he received in the house of the high priest - and the assembling of the grand council, or Sanhedrin. These he found amply detailed by the other three evangelists; and for this reason it appears that he omitted them. John's is properly a supplementary Gospel.

Lest they should be defiled - The Jews considered even the touch of a Gentile as a legal defilement; and therefore would not venture into the praetorium, for fear of contracting some impurity, which would have obliged them to separate themselves from all religious ordinances till the evening, Leviticus 15:10, Leviticus 15:11, Leviticus 15:19, Leviticus 15:20.

That they might eat the passover - Some maintain that το πασχα here does not mean the paschal lamb, but the other sacrifices which were offered during the paschal solemnity - for this had been eaten the evening before; and that our Lord was crucified the day after the passover. Others have maintained that the paschal lamb is here meant; that this was the proper day for sacrificing it; that it was on the very hour in which it was offered that Christ expired on the cross; and that therefore our Lord did not eat the Paschal lamb this year, or that he ate it some hours before the common time. Bishop Pearce supposes that it was lawful for the Jews to eat the paschal lamb any time between the evening of Thursday and that of Friday. He conjectures too that this permission was necessary on account of the immense number of lambs which were to be killed for that purpose. When Cestius desired to know the number of the Jews, he asked the priests how he might accomplish his wish? They informed him that this might be known by the number of the lambs slain at the passover, as never less than ten partook of one lamb, though twenty might feast on it. On this mode of computation he found the lambs to be 256,500; εικοσι πεντε μυριαδας ηριθμησαν, προς δε ἑξακισχιλια και πεντακοσια. See Josephus, War, b. vi. c. 9. s. 3.

That Jesus ate a passover this last year of his life is sufficiently evident from Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-18; Luke 22:8-15; and that he ate this passover some hours before the ordinary time, and was himself slain at that hour in which the paschal lamb was ordered by the law to be sacrificed, is highly probable, if not absolutely certain. See the note on Matthew 26:20, and at the conclusion of the chapter, where the subject, and the different opinions on it, are largely considered.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge


Matthew 27:1,2 When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death...


Mark 15:1 And straightway in the morning the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council, and bound Jesus...


Luke 23:1 And the whole multitude of them arose, and led him to Pilate.


Acts 3:13 The God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob, the God of our fathers, has glorified his Son Jesus; whom you delivered up...


John 18:33 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said to him, Are you the King of the Jews?

John 19:9 And went again into the judgment hall, and said to Jesus, From where are you? But Jesus gave him no answer.

Matthew 27:27 Then the soldiers of the governor took Jesus into the common hall, and gathered to him the whole band of soldiers.

Mark 15:16 And the soldiers led him away into the hall, called Praetorium; and they call together the whole band.


hall of judgment. or, Pilate's house. early.

Proverbs 1:16 For their feet run to evil, and make haste to shed blood.

Proverbs 4:16 For they sleep not, except they have done mischief; and their sleep is taken away, unless they cause some to fall.

Micah 2:1 Woe to them that devise iniquity, and work evil on their beds! when the morning is light, they practice it...

Luke 22:66 And as soon as it was day, the elders of the people and the chief priests and the scribes came together, and led him into their council...

and they.

Psalm 35:16 With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed on me with their teeth.

Isaiah 1:10-15 Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; give ear to the law of our God, you people of Gomorrah...

Jeremiah 7:8-11 Behold, you trust in lying words, that cannot profit...

Amos 5:21-23 I hate, I despise your feast days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies...

Micah 3:10-12 They build up Zion with blood, and Jerusalem with iniquity...

Matthew 23:23-28 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin...

Matthew 27:6 And the chief priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for to put them into the treasury...

Acts 10:28 And he said to them, You know how that it is an unlawful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep company...

Acts 11:3 Saying, You went in to men uncircumcised, and did eat with them.


John 18:39 But you have a custom, that I should release to you one at the passover: will you therefore that I release to you the King of the Jews?

John 19:14 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he said to the Jews, Behold your King!

Deuteronomy 16:2 You shall therefore sacrifice the passover to the LORD your God, of the flock and the herd...

2 Chronicles 30:21-24 And the children of Israel that were present at Jerusalem kept the feast of unleavened bread seven days with great gladness...

2 Chronicles 35:8-14,17,18 And his princes gave willingly to the people, to the priests, and to the Levites: Hilkiah and Zechariah and Jehiel...

Ezekiel 45:21 In the first month, in the fourteenth day of the month, you shall have the passover, a feast of seven days...

March 24 Evening
God hath called you unto his kingdom and glory.--I THES. 2:12. My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, . . . but now is my kingdom not from hence.--Expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. The kingdoms of this world are become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever.--Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the earth.--I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and
Anonymous—Daily Light on the Daily Path

Art Thou a King?
'Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover. Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this Man? They answered and said unto him, If He were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered Him up unto thee. Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye Him, and judge Him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him,
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture: St. John Chaps. XV to XXI

The Arrest.
"When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Kidron, where was a garden, into the which He entered, Himself and His disciples. Now Judas also, which betrayed Him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with His disciples. Judas then, having received the band of soldiers, and officers from the chief priests and the Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. Jesus therefore, knowing all the things that were coming upon Him, went
Marcus Dods—The Expositor's Bible: The Gospel of St John, Vol. II

Peter's Denial and Repentance.
"So the band and the chief captain, and the officers of the Jews, seized Jesus and bound Him, and led Him to Annas first; for he was father-in-law to Caiaphas, which was high priest that year. Now Caiaphas was he which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people. And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple. Now that disciple was known unto the high priest, and entered in with Jesus into the court of the high priest; but Peter was standing
Marcus Dods—The Expositor's Bible: The Gospel of St John, Vol. II

Cross References
Matthew 27:1
Early in the morning, all the chief priests and the elders of the people made their plans how to have Jesus executed.

Matthew 27:2
So they bound him, led him away and handed him over to Pilate the governor.

Matthew 27:27
Then the governor's soldiers took Jesus into the Praetorium and gathered the whole company of soldiers around him.

Mark 15:1
Very early in the morning, the chief priests, with the elders, the teachers of the law and the whole Sanhedrin, made their plans. So they bound Jesus, led him away and handed him over to Pilate.

Luke 22:66
At daybreak the council of the elders of the people, both the chief priests and the teachers of the law, met together, and Jesus was led before them.

Luke 23:1
Then the whole assembly rose and led him off to Pilate.

John 11:55
When it was almost time for the Jewish Passover, many went up from the country to Jerusalem for their ceremonial cleansing before the Passover.

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