And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered offered an offering of gold to the LORD.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Both men and women . . . brought bracelets . . . —It is not quite certain what the personal ornaments here mentioned are. The LXX. render σφραγῖδας καὶ ἐνώτια καὶ δακτυλίους καὶ ἐμπλόκια καὶ περιδέξια, “signets, and earrings, and rings, and chains, and armlets,” substituting five terms for four. Rosenmüller thinks the khâkh was a “nose ring;” others make it a “brooch” or “buckle.” The last word of the four, kumâz, cannot possibly mean “tablets.” It comes from a root signifying “rounded,” and designates probably a bead necklace, such as was often worn by the Egyptians. On the use of personal ornaments by the Hebrew men, as well as women, see Note on Exodus 32:2.
Jewels of gold.—Literally, articles of gold.
And every man that offered, offered an offering of gold.—By repeating the word “offered,” our translators have spoiled the sense. Moses is enumerating those who came. There came those who offered bracelets, earrings, rings, &c.; there came also those who offered any (other) offering of gold to the Lord.
Earrings - The Hebrew word signifies a ring, either for the nose (see Genesis 24:22) or for the ear Exodus 32:2; Genesis 35:4. That ear-rings, not nose-rings, are here meant is confirmed by what we know of early Hebrew and Egyptian customs.
Rings - Signet rings.
Tablets - More probably, armlets. It is most likely that all the articles mentioned in this verse were of gold. The indulgence of private luxury was thus given up for the honor of the Lord. Compare Exodus 30:18 note.
brought bracelets, &c.—There was in that early age no money in the form of coins or bullion. What money passed current with the merchant consisted of rings which were weighed, and principally of ornaments for personal decoration. Astonishment at the abundance of their ornaments is at an end when we learn that costly and elegant ornaments abounded in proportion as clothing was simple and scarce among the Egyptians, and some, entirely divested of clothing, yet wore rich necklaces [Hengstenberg]. Among people with Oriental sentiments and tastes, scarcely any stronger proof could have been given of the power of religion than their willingness not only to lay aside, but to devote those much-valued trinkets to the house of God; and thus all, like the Eastern sages, laid the best they had at the service of God.Earrings.
Object. Aaron had got these from them for the making of the calf, Exo 32.
Answ. Though the generality of the people did then part with their earrings, yet there was a considerable number who did not, as being unsatisfied with that idolatrous design; and it may seem that the women would not part with theirs, being more fond of their ornaments than of their idols. See Poole "Exodus 32:3".
and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets; the first of these, according to our version, seem to be ornaments, not about the neck, but the hands and arms, or wrists, see Genesis 24:22 though the word seems to have the signification of an hook, and may mean buckles or clasps, with which some part of their garments were coupled and fastened; so Kimchi says (b), that in his opinion it was an ornament somewhat like a needle, with which they pierced and joined the two parts of the collar of a shirt under the throat: the next are such ornaments as were worn in the ears, and though many had been given for the making of the golden calf, yet not all; there were many that did not give their earrings for this service, especially the women, perhaps only the men, see Exodus 32:2 the "rings" were such as were worn on the finger, as all seem to agree; but what the "tablets" were is hard to say, the word being only used in this place and Numbers 31:50, some take them for ornaments worn on the right arm; others for the covering of another part, not to be named; others for girdles or aprons; Aben Ezra gives a different account of most of them; he says the first design ornaments in the ear, or earrings; the second such as were worn in the nose, or nose jewels; and the third indeed such as were put on the finger; and the fourth, that were upon the arm: however, they were all
jewels of gold; or were all such ornaments as were made of gold; and these are first mentioned, as being probably first brought, and were what were asked for in the first place, gold being wanted for several things:
and every man that offered offered an offering of gold unto the Lord; that is, everyone of the first company that came, their offering was of gold, or something made of gold.And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold: and every man that offered, offered an offering of gold unto the LORD.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)22. The offering of men and women alike; viz. gold (v. 6; Exodus 25:3), in various forms.
brooches] Heb. ḥâḥ,—elsewhere a ‘hook’ for the jaw (Ezekiel 29:4), or nose (2 Kings 19:28).
earrings] or nose-rings. See on Exodus 32:2.
armlets] marg., necklaces: the precise meaning is uncertain. Heb. kûmâz, only besides Numbers 31:50.
all jewels of gold] more clearly, ‘(even) every jewel of gold.’
and every man that waved a wave-offering of gold unto Jehovah (brought it)] cf. vv. 23 end, 24 end. The rend, ‘even’ is impossible, besides yielding a wrong sense: the reference in this clause is not to those who brought brooches, and earrings, &c., but to such as brought gold in any form,—probably, in particular, ingots. ‘Wave’ and ‘wave-offering’ are used here, not in their proper sense (see on Exodus 29:24) of a ceremony implying that the object ‘waved’ is given ultimately to the priests, but in a weakened and later sense of present, presentation: so Exodus 38:24; Exodus 38:29, Numbers 18:11.Verse 22. - They came, both men and women. That among the Hebrews gold ornaments were worn by men, as well as by women, is indicated by Exodus 3:22, and Exodus 32:2. The Egyptian men at the time of the Exodus wore armlets, bracelets, and sometimes anklets, but not often earrings Earrings, however, had been worn by the household of Jacob (Genesis 35:2). Bracelets. Rather, "buckles" or "brooches." Kalisch says, "nose-rings," and so Gesenins and Rosenmuller. Tablets. Rather, "armlets" (Furst, Cook), or perhaps "necklaces "(Gesenius Kalisch, Knobel). Every man that offered, offered an offering of gold. It is not meant that every man who offered anything gave with it an offering of gold, but simply that, besides those who brought the articles named there were others who brought gold offerings of some different kind. Exodus 35:1-29. After the restoration of the covenant, Moses announced to the people the divine commands with reference to the holy place of the tabernacle which was to be built. He repeated first of all (Exodus 35:1-3) the law of the Sabbath according to Exodus 31:13-17, and strengthened it by the announcement, that on the Sabbath no fire was to be kindled in their dwelling, because this rule was to be observed even in connection with the work to be done for the tabernacle. (For a fuller comment, see at Exodus 20:9.). Then, in accordance with the command of Jehovah, he first of all summoned the whole nation to present freewill-offerings for the holy things to be prepared (Exodus 35:4, Exodus 35:5), mentioning one by one all the materials that would be required (Exodus 35:5-9, as in Exodus 25:3-7); and after that he called upon those who were endowed with understanding to prepare the different articles, as prescribed in ch. 25-30, mentioning these also one by one (Exodus 35:11-19), even down to the pegs of the dwelling and court (Exodus 27:19), and "their cords," i.e., the cords required to fasten the tent and the hangings round the court to the pegs that were driven into the ground, which had not been mentioned before, being altogether subordinate things. (On the "cloths of service," Exodus 35:19, see at Exodus 31:10.) In Exodus 35:20-29 we have an account of the fulfilment of this command. The people went from Moses, i.e., from the place where they were assembled round Moses, away to their tents, and willingly offered the things required as a heave-offering for Jehovah; every one "whom his heart lifted up," i.e., who felt himself inclined and stirred up in his heart to do this. The men along with (על as in Genesis 32:12; see Ewald, 217) the women brought with a willing heart all kinds of golden rings and jewellery: chak, lit., hook, here a clasp or ring; nezem, an ear or nose-ring (Genesis 35:4; Genesis 24:47); tabbaath, a finger-ring; cumaz, globulus aureus, probably little golden balls strung together like beads, which were worn by the Israelites and Midianites (Numbers 31:50) as an ornament round the wrist and neck, as Diod. Sic. relates that they were by the Arabians (3, 44). "All kinds of golden jewellery, and every one who had waved (dedicated) a wave (offering) of gold to Jehovah," sc., offered it for the work of the tabernacle. The meaning is, that in addition to the many varieties of golden ornaments, which were willingly offered for the work to be performed, every one brought whatever gold he had set apart as a wave-offering (a sacrificial gift) for Jehovah. הניף to wave, lit., to swing or move to and fro, is used in connection with the sacrificial ritual to denote a peculiar ceremony, through which certain portions of a sacrifice, which were not intended for burning upon the altar, but for the maintenance of the priests (Numbers 18:11), were consecrated to the Lord, or given up to Him in a symbolical manner (see at Leviticus 7:30). Tenuphah, the wave-offering, accordingly denoted primarily those portions of the sacrificial animal which were allotted to the priests as their share of the sacrifices; and then, in a more general sense, every gift or offering that was consecrated to the Lord for the establishment and maintenance of the sanctuary and its worship. In this wider sense the term tenuphah (wave-offering) is applied both here and in Exodus 38:24, Exodus 38:29 to the gold and copper presented by the congregation for the building of the tabernacle. So that it does not really differ from terumah, a lift of heave-offering, as every gift intended for the erection and maintenance of the sanctuary was called, inasmuch as the offerer lifted it off from his own property, to dedicate it to the Lord for the purposes of His worship. Accordingly, in Exodus 35:24 the freewill-offerings of the people in silver and gold for the erection of the tabernacle are called terumah; and in Exodus 36:6, all the gifts of metal, wood, leather, and woven materials, presented by the people for the erection of the tabernacle, are called קדשׁ תּרוּמת. (On heaving and the heave-offering, see at Exodus 25:2 and Leviticus 2:9.)
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