People's New Testament
Moreover, brethren, I declare unto you the gospel which I preached unto you, which also ye have received, and wherein ye stand;
15:1 The Resurrection from the Dead
SUMMARY OF I CORINTHIANS 15:
The Essential Facts of the Gospel. The Resurrection of Christ a Central Fact. The Witnesses of the Resurrection. Those at Corinth Who Denied the Resurrection. The Apostles Then False Witnesses. Our Faith Vain. Death in Adam, but Life in Christ. The Resurrection Body. The Victory Over Death.
Moreover. This chapter is devoted to the resurrection from the dead. Among the various false doctrines which had crept into the church at Corinth, composed of those who had so recently been heathen, and who had so much to unlearn, was one that the resurrection of the soul from sin to a new life; that this resurrection was already past in the case of those converted (2Ti 2:18), and that a resurrection after death was impossible. The doctrine of the resurrection was absurd, according to the Grecian ideas (Ac 17:32), and some were infusing this kind of skepticism into the church at Corinth. It is likely that the letter of the church (1Co 7:1) asked some questions which called out this remarkable chapter. The epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, written about the beginning of the second century, refers to these freethinkers.
I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you. He states the fundamentals of that gospel as the basis of the argument he is about to make. That gospel was common ground, for they received it and still professed it.
By which also ye are saved, if ye keep in memory what I preached unto you, unless ye have believed in vain.
15:2 By which also ye are saved. Are in a saved state unless you have forgotten the gospel preached and departed from it; that is,
unless ye have believed in vain, which he shows would be the case if there was no resurrection. Observe the tact with which he first presents facts conceded by all the disciples, and upon these builds an impregnable argument. He next states those facts.
For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures;
15:3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received. See Ac 18:8. Note the three facts which Paul declares to be the gospel, or the facts on which it rests; viz.: the death, the burial, and the resurrection. The facts Paul received by revelation as well as from men (Ga 1:12).
How that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures. Isa 53:1-12 is especially exact in the outlines of our Lord's suffering. He quotes it in Lu 22:37.
And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:
15:4 According to the scriptures. Paul himself quotes Ps 16:10 as predicting the resurrection. See Ac 13:35.
And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve:
15:5 That he was seen by Cephas. He now gives the proof of these facts. The women saw Christ before Peter (Cephas), but Paul names the witnesses who would carry most weight to the Corinthians. For the appearance to Peter, see Lu 24:34.
Then by the twelve. See Mt 28:17 Joh 20:19,25.
After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.
15:6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once. No other account of this appearance is recorded. It is probable that it took place in Galilee where Christ repeatedly directed the disciples to gather. It is possible that Mt 28:16 refers to it. Paul had no doubt seen some of the five hundred brethren, the greater part of whom were still alive when he wrote.
After that, he was seen of James; then of all the apostles.
15:7 After that, he was seen of James. James, the Lord's brother, not James the apostle. This James was prominent, when Paul wrote, as the chief bishop at Jerusalem (Ac 15:13 21:18) and the author of the epistle of James. James, the apostle, had been killed by Herod (Ac 12:2).
Then by all the apostles. See Lu 24:50.
And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time.
15:8 Last of all he was seen by me. See Ac 9:4.
For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
15:9 For I am the least of the apostles. As far as human worth is concerned, not fit to be called an apostle.
Because I persecuted the church of God. He could never forget that he had been a persecutor. See Ac 9:1,2 22:04 26:11:00 Ga 1:13 Php 3:6 1Ti 1:13.
But by the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon me was not in vain; but I laboured more abundantly than they all: yet not I, but the grace of God which was with me.
15:10 But by the grace of God I am what I am. Not by his own merit, which he considered so small, but by God's grace he had been enabled to do a more abundant work than any other apostle.
Therefore whether it were I or they, so we preach, and so ye believed.
15:11 Whether it were I, or they, so we preach. I and all the apostles preach the same gospel of a risen Lord and this you accepted when you believed. Their faith was built on the resurrection.
Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead?
15:12 How say some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead? These seemed to admit that Christ was raised, but denied the resurrection of others. He now shows that if Christ be raised, the general resurrection must follow as a result.
But if there be no resurrection of the dead, then is Christ not risen:
15:13 If there is no resurrection, then is Christ not risen. If persons once dying cannot be raised, as these false teachers say, then Christ could not have risen.
And if Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain, and your faith is also vain.
15:14 If Christ be not risen, then is our preaching vain. For in that case we have preached what is false, and you have believed it, so that your faith is vain.
Yea, and we are found false witnesses of God; because we have testified of God that he raised up Christ: whom he raised not up, if so be that the dead rise not.
15:15 We are found false witnesses of God. In that case we have declared that God did what he never did do.
For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised:
And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.
15:17 If Christ be not raised, your faith is vain. In that case he is not the Savior. He is a dead man, who could not even save himself. Such a one has no power to pardon sins, and ye are yet in your sins.
Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished.
15:18 Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished. All the Christians who had died had fallen into eternal sleep. There is hope, in that case, only in this life; no hope of immortality.
If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable.
15:19 If in this life only we have hope in Christ. If there is no life beyond, no hope of it, then Christians who deny themselves in this life and endure persecutions and sufferings for the sake of eternal life,
are of all men most miserable. They lose life and gain no eternal life. Such are the consequences of this false belief.
But now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the firstfruits of them that slept.
15:20 But now is Christ risen from the dead. This is certain. Paul had seen the risen Lord. So had many other credible witnesses. But since he is risen, the resurrection of his disciples must follow.
Become the first fruits of them that slept. Of those who have slept in death. On the morrow after the first Sabbaths of the passover a sheaf of the first fruits of the barley harvest was waved before the Lord (Le 23:10-16) as a pledge of the harvest to come So on the morning after the first Sabbath of the passover, Christ, the first fruits arose and appeared living, the first fruits of the great harvest of souls gathered into eternal life.
For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.
15:21 Since by man came death. Man, the first man, sinned, and death came upon his race, because in him the race had sinned.
By man came also the resurrection of the dead. By Christ, the Son of Man.
For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.
15:22 For as in Adam all die. All the race in Adam became subject to death.
Even so in Christ shall all be made alive. So in Christ all the race shall be raised from the dead to appear at the bar of eternal judgment. The passage does not affirm the final salvation of all, but the final resurrection of all. There is a resurrection of the just and of the unjust (Ac 24:15).
But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.
15:23 But every man in his own order. In his own rank or division.
Christ the first fruits. The first order or division of Christ.
Afterward. The second division is they that are Christ's, who will be raised at his coming. The time of the third division, the wicked, is not named but hinted at in the beginning of 1Co 15:24. See also Joh 5:28,29 This is what Paul teaches here.
Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.
15:24 The cometh the end. The end follows soon after the resurrection of the saints.
When he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God. See 1Co 15:28. When Christ's work is accomplished he places all in the Father's hands.
For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.
15:25 For he must reign. He is reigning now, and will continue to reign until he has conquered all his enemies. He is not waging a contest for a kingdom, as some contend, but will give up the kingdom when the contest is over and the final victory won.
All enemies. All the wicked opposers, human and supernatural; also sin and death. All must be overthrown.
The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
15:26 The last enemy... is death. See Re 20:12-14. The order there of closing events is the resurrection, the judgment, and the casting of Death and Hades (hades--the grave) into the lake of fire.
For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith, all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him.
15:27 For he put all things under his feet. Quoted from Ps 8:6, a statement that Christ is Lord of all and that God has subjected all to him.
He is excepted, which put all things under him. God gave Christ the power, and hence he is excepted. The Father is not subject to the Son.
And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all.
15:28 When all things shall be subdued unto him. When the world is subdued to Christ.
Then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him. Then, as his work is done, he will give up the kingdom to the Father (1Co 15:24). Then Christ will give up the seals of office.
Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?
15:29 Else what shall they do who are baptized for the dead? Paul again returns to the argument for the resurrection. This passage is difficult, and has received almost as many interpretations as there have been commentators. Some have held that there was a custom of baptizing living persons for the benefit of persons who had died without baptism. Had that custom existed, Paul would have rebuked it. It did arise afterwards, as an abuse from the misinterpretation of this passage, among the followers of Cerinthis, and, in our times, of Joseph Smith. I will try to make clear its meaning: (1) All the Corinthians were baptized (Ac 18:8). (2) Their baptism was a planting in the likeness of the burial of Christ, and in the likeness of his resurrection (Ro 6:4,5). They were in, and raised from, a watery tomb. (3) Their baptism in the likeness of the death and resurrection of Christ was in hope of their own resurrection from the dead through Christ's resurrection. ( Huper Nekroon, for, or on account of the dead, with the exception of resurrection from the dead.) But if Christ has not risen, and the dead rise not, this memorial and emblematic burial has no meaning. Why, then, are they baptized for the dead ? that is, for the sake of their own resurrection from the dead. This interpretation harmonizes better with Paul's argument than any I have seen.
And why stand we in jeopardy every hour?
15:30 Why stand we in jeopardy every hour? What motive, if there is no hope beyond, can we apostles have for placing ourselves in constant peril by preaching the resurrection?
I protest by your rejoicing which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily.
15:31 I protest... I die daily. I am in daily peril of death.
If after the manner of men I have fought with beasts at Ephesus, what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not? let us eat and drink; for to morrow we die.
15:32 If after the manner of men. Speaking humanly.
I have fought with beasts at Ephesus. Encountered furious opposition, like the rush of wild beasts. The allusion is hardly to be taken literally. If he had been thrown to wild beasts at Ephesus, some record would have been made of it in the record in Acts of his sojourn at Ephesus. Besides, a Roman citizen was preserved from that manner of death.
What advantageth it me if the dead rise not? All his sufferings are to no purpose if the dead rise not.
Let us eat and drink, etc. All Epicurean maxim, a proverbial saying.
Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.
Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame.
15:34 Awake to righteousness, and sin not. Such an error leads to Epicurean sensuality. Shake it off, that you sin not.
Some have not the knowledge of God. Some have no knowledge of God (Revised Version). Such errors can only spring from ignorance of God and his power to raise men.
But some man will say, How are the dead raised up? and with what body do they come?
15:35 But some man will say. But two difficulties are raised: How are the dead raised up? What kind of a body do they have?
Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die:
15:36 Thou fool. The idea is, slow of understanding. Why cannot you learn the lesson nature teaches?
That which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die. The grain that thou sowest has to die and be dissolved before it comes forth in a new life. So the body must die and be dissolved.
And that which thou sowest, thou sowest not that body that shall be, but bare grain, it may chance of wheat, or of some other grain:
15:37 And that which thou sowest... bare grain. We sow, not the plant that comes forth, but only a bare seed.
But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased him, and to every seed his own body.
15:38 But God giveth... to every seed his own body. To the seed planted God gives a new body, the stalk of wheat or corn, or whatever it may be. This new body bears no outward resemblance to the seed planted.
All flesh is not the same flesh: but there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds.
15:39 All flesh is not the same flesh. All the different animals have bodies unlike, and suited to their conditions.
There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another.
15:40 There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial. These, too, have forms and glories, unlike, and suited to their condition.
There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.
15:41 There is one glory of the sun, etc. The sun has its own peculiar form and glory. So of the moon, and the stars. The thought is that to every condition is given a form suited to that condition.
So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption:
15:42 It is sown in corruption. Planted in burial in corruption. It goes to decay.
It is raised in incorruption. With a new body suited to the new condition of existence, which is incorruptible; cannot decay.
It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power:
15:43 Sown in dishonour. The dead body is repulsive, becomes offensive, and we bury it out of sight.
Raised in glory. Has a glorious beauty.
Sown in weakness. All its powers exhausted.
Raised in power. Endowed with heavenly energy.
It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. There is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.
15:44 Sown a natural body. A fleshly body with animal life.
Raised a spiritual body. A body whose life principle is the spirit. Not a fleshly body, but a spiritual existence. We cannot comprehend the nature of this existence, but we can know that it is not a body of flesh, bones, and blood; perhaps not more material than the forms of the angels. See 1Co 15:50.
And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.
15:45 The first man Adam was made a living soul. See Ge 2:7. From him came our natural life.
The last Adam, Christ, of whom Adam was a type.
A living spirit. By giving life to the dead, and imparting spiritual existence.
Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural; and afterward that which is spiritual.
15:46 Howbeit that was not first which is spiritual. The first Adam came before the second Adam.
But that which is natural. The natural body which proceeds from the first Adam is our tabernacle first.
Afterward that which is spiritual. After this life comes the spiritual body, which the second Adam gives.
The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man is the Lord from heaven.
15:47 The first man is from the earth. Was fashioned out of the earth (Ge 2:7).
As is the earthy, such are they also that are earthy: and as is the heavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.
15:48 As is the earthy. All have earthly bodies like that of Adam.
As is the heavenly. When we are raised to heaven we shall have spiritual bodies like Christ's, not like the body he received from Mary, but the glorious body in which he appears to saints and angels on high. Do we ask what body we shall have? It shall be like Christ's glorious body. See Php 3:21.
And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.
Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither doth corruption inherit incorruption.
15:50 Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God. If of flesh and blood, our bodies would be corruptible, and would not be suited to the eternal kingdom.
Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
15:51 Behold, I shew you a mystery. I disclose to you a secret of which you have had, hitherto, no knowledge.
We shall not all sleep. There will be some on the death who shall be alive when Christ comes.
But we shall all be changed. The living who meet Christ, as well as the dead who are raised up. All shall be made immortal and incorruptible.
In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
15:52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye. The change will be instantaneous.
At the last trump. See 1Th 4:16.
The trumpet shall sound. This signal for the close of all earthly things. See Mt 24:31.
For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
15:53 For this incorruptible must put on incorruption. For this corruptible body must give place to the incorruptible body; the mortal frame to an immortal one. One must be put off, the other put on. See 2Co 5:2.
So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.
15:54 The saying. See Isa 25:8.
Death is swallowed up in victory. This is the final victory, the victory over death.
O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?
15:55 O death, where is thy sting? This is quoted from Ho 13:14. It is here the triumphant shout of the apostle as he sees by faith the final victory over death.
The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law.
15:56 The sting of death is sin. It is sin that gives death his power to sting and destroy. See Ro 6:23.
The power of sin is the law. The law, broken, is sin, and when this law is consciously broken the conscience is wounded. When a moral law is broken, moral death follows. If there was no law of any kind, there would be no sin, no wounded consciences, no moral death. See Ro 7:7.
But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
15:57 Thanks be to God. For the victory over sin and death through Christ.
Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye stedfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord.
15:58 Therefore, brethren, be ye steadfast, unmoveable. Firm as a rock, devoted to Christian life, for their faith is not vain. Compare 1Co 15:14,17.
Ye know that your labour is not vain in the Lord. Jesus Christ is The Resurrection and the Life (Joh 11:25). The hope of immortality hath sure foundations.