Matthew Poole's Commentary
And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go hence: when he shall let you go, he shall surely thrust you out hence altogether.God commandeth the Israelites to borrow jewels of the Egyptians, Exodus 11:2. God giveth them favour among the Egyptians, Exodus 11:3. Moses denounceth the last plague, Exodus 11:4,5. A great cry, Exodus 11:6. The Israelites’ safety, Exodus 11:7. The Egyptians thrusting them out, Exodus 11:8. God foretells Pharaoh’s hardness, Exodus 11:9.
The Lord said unto Moses; either,
1. Whilst Moses was not yet gone out of Pharaoh’s presence; so God might suggest this to his mind, as he did other things to Micaiah, when he was before Ahab and Jehoshaphat, 1Ki 22. Or rather,
2. Before his last coming to Pharaoh; and the words may be rendered thus, Now the Lord had said unto Moses. And this is here added as the reason why Moses spake so boldly to Pharaoh, because God had assured him of a good issue.
He shall surely thrust you out hence altogether; men, and women, and children, and cattle, and all that they had, which he would never do before.
Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.The Israelites, who at first lived distinctly by when they themselves, were greatly multiplied, and Pharaoh began to cast a jealous eye upon them, and to take cruel counsels against them, were more mixed with the Egyptians, as appears from \Exodus 12:12,13, and many other places, either by their own choice, that they might receive protection and sustenance from them; or rather by Pharaoh’s design, who planted many of his own people among them to watch and chastise them, Exodus 1:11; and, it may be, removed some of them from Goshen to the parts adjoining to it, which were inhabited by his people. Jewels, or vessels, as the Hebrew word properly signifies; for they might more plausibly ask, and the Egyptians would with less suspicion lend them vessels, which might be proper and useful, both for their sacrifices and feasts, than jewels, for which they had no present need or use.
And the LORD gave the people favour in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the man Moses was very great in the land of Egypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and in the sight of the people.Therefore they complied with their request, not only out of love to the people, but out of fear to Moses, lest he should punish them severely in case of refusal.
And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, About midnight will I go out into the midst of Egypt:Moses said this to Pharaoh before his departure, as appears by comparing Exodus 11:8 with Exodus 10:29. And therefore the three first verses of this chapter come in by way of parenthesis; and now he returns to the story, and sets down the last words which Moses spake to Pharaoh for a final parting:
God is said to
go out, or go forth, or come down, &c., by way of condescension to the custom and capacity of men, when he doth any eminent act of power either in way of justice or mercy.
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.That sitteth upon his throne; either now actually ruling with his father, as Solomon did even whilst David lived, 1 Kings 1:34; or, more probably, he that is to sit, the present time for the future, he whose right this is by the custom of Egypt, and by the law of nations.
The first-born of the maid-servant; the poor captive slave that was in the prison, as it is Exodus 12:29, and there did grind at the mill. In those times and places they had divers mills, which were not turned about by wind or water, as ours are, but by the hands of their servants, who for that purpose stood behind the mill, and so with hard labour turned it about. See Judges 16:21 Isaiah 47:1,2 La 5:13.
And there shall be a great cry throughout all the land of Egypt, such as there was none like it, nor shall be like it any more.No text from Poole on this verse.
But against any of the children of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, against man or beast: that ye may know how that the LORD doth put a difference between the Egyptians and Israel.Instead of those loud cries of the Egyptian families, there shall be so great a tranquillity among the Israelites, that even the dogs, which are sensible of, and awaked, and provoked by, the least noise, shall not be stirred up by them.
And all these thy servants shall come down unto me, and bow down themselves unto me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee: and after that I will go out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a great anger.Thy courtiers and great officers, who now are so insolent and obstinate,
shall come down unto me, both by their own inclination and necessity, and in thy name, and by thy command.
That follow thee; that are under thy conduct and command; as this or the like expression is used Judges 4:10 1 Kings 20:10 2 Kings 3:9 Isaiah 41:2.
In a great anger; not so much for the affront offered to himself, as for his incurable rebellion against God. Compare Mark 3:5.
And the LORD said unto Moses, Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you; that my wonders may be multiplied in the land of Egypt.No text from Poole on this verse.
And Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh: and the LORD hardened Pharaoh's heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go out of his land.No text from Poole on this verse.