Exodus 11:5
New International Version
Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn son of the female slave, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well.

New Living Translation
All the firstborn sons will die in every family in Egypt, from the oldest son of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, to the oldest son of his lowliest servant girl who grinds the flour. Even the firstborn of all the livestock will die.

English Standard Version
and every firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

Berean Study Bible
and every firstborn son in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the servant girl behind the hand mill, as well as the firstborn of all the cattle.

New American Standard Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the firstborn of the cattle as well.

New King James Version
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the handmill, and all the firstborn of the animals.

King James Bible
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

Christian Standard Bible
and every firstborn male in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the servant girl who is at the grindstones, as well as every firstborn of the livestock.

Contemporary English Version
and wherever he goes, the first-born son in every family will die. Your own son will die, and so will the son of the lowest slave woman. Even the first-born males of your cattle will die.

Good News Translation
and every first-born son in Egypt will die, from the king's son, who is heir to the throne, to the son of the slave woman who grinds grain. The first-born of all the cattle will die also.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
and every firstborn male in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the servant girl who is behind the millstones, as well as every firstborn of the livestock.

International Standard Version
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne to the firstborn of the slave girl who operates the hand mill, along with the firstborn of the animals.

NET Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to the firstborn son of the slave girl who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

New Heart English Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of livestock.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Every firstborn son in Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who rules the land, to the firstborn children of female slaves who use their handmills, including every firstborn domestic animal.

JPS Tanakh 1917
and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of cattle.

New American Standard 1977
and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the first-born of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the first-born of the cattle as well.

Jubilee Bible 2000
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sits upon his throne even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill and all the firstborn of beasts.

King James 2000 Bible
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sits upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

American King James Version
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

American Standard Version
and all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of cattle.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And every first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharao that sits on the throne, even to the first-born of the woman-servant that is by the mill, and to the first-born of all cattle.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And every firstborn in the land of the Egyptians shall die, from the firstborn of Pharao who sitteth on his throne, even to the first born of the handmaid that is at the mill, and all the firstborn of beasts.

Darby Bible Translation
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sitteth on his throne, even unto the firstborn of the bondwoman that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of cattle.

English Revised Version
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of cattle.

Webster's Bible Translation
And all the first-born in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first-born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even to the first-born of the maid-servant that is behind the mill; and all the first-born of beasts.

World English Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of livestock.

Young's Literal Translation
and every first-born in the land of Egypt hath died, from the first-born of Pharaoh who is sitting on his throne, unto the first-born of the maid-servant who is behind the millstones, and all the first-born of beasts;
Study Bible
The Plague on the Firstborn Foretold
4So Moses declared, “This is what the LORD says: ‘About midnight I will go throughout Egypt, 5and every firstborn son in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the servant girl behind the hand mill, as well as the firstborn of all the cattle. 6Then a great cry will go out over all the land of Egypt, the likes of which have never been heard before and will never be heard again.…
Cross References
Matthew 24:41
Two women will be grinding at the mill: one will be taken and the other left.

Exodus 4:23
and I told you to let My son go so that he may worship Me. But you have refused to let him go, so I will kill your firstborn son!'"

Exodus 12:12
On that night I will pass through the land of Egypt and strike down every firstborn male, both man and beast, and I will execute judgment against all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD.

Exodus 12:29
Now at midnight the LORD struck down every firstborn male in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn of the prisoner in the dungeon, as well as all the firstborn among the livestock.

Psalm 78:51
He struck all the firstborn of Egypt, the virility in the tents of Ham.

Psalm 105:36
Then He struck all the firstborn in their land, the firstfruits of all their vigor.

Psalm 135:8
He struck down the firstborn of Egypt, of both man and beast.

Psalm 136:10
He struck down the firstborn of Egypt His loving devotion endures forever.

Isaiah 47:2
Take millstones and grind flour; remove your veil, strip off your skirt, bare your thigh, wade through the streams.

Treasury of Scripture

And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

the firstborn

Exodus 4:23
And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn.

Exodus 12:12,29
For I will pass through the land of Egypt this night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment: I am the LORD…

Exodus 13:15
And it came to pass, when Pharaoh would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast: therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all that openeth the matrix, being males; but all the firstborn of my children I redeem.

behind

Judges 16:21
But the Philistines took him, and put out his eyes, and brought him down to Gaza, and bound him with fetters of brass; and he did grind in the prison house.

Isaiah 47:2
Take the millstones, and grind meal: uncover thy locks, make bare the leg, uncover the thigh, pass over the rivers.

Lamentations 5:13
They took the young men to grind, and the children fell under the wood.







Lexicon
and every
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

firstborn son
בְּכוֹר֮ (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

in the land
בְּאֶ֣רֶץ (bə·’e·reṣ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 776: Earth, land

of Egypt
מִצְרַיִם֒ (miṣ·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4714: Egypt -- a son of Ham, also his descendants and their country in Northwest Africa

will die,
וּמֵ֣ת (ū·mêṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Conjunctive perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4191: To die, to kill

from the firstborn
מִבְּכ֤וֹר (mib·bə·ḵō·wr)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

of Pharaoh
פַּרְעֹה֙ (par·‘ōh)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6547: Pharaoh -- a title of Egypt kings

who sits
הַיֹּשֵׁ֣ב (hay·yō·šêḇ)
Article | Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3427: To sit down, to dwell, to remain, to settle, to marry

on
עַל־ (‘al-)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5921: Above, over, upon, against

his throne,
כִּסְא֔וֹ (kis·’ōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3678: Seat of honor, throne

to
עַ֚ד (‘aḏ)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

the firstborn
בְּכ֣וֹר (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

of the servant girl
הַשִּׁפְחָ֔ה (haš·šip̄·ḥāh)
Article | Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8198: Maid, maidservant

behind
אַחַ֣ר (’a·ḥar)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 310: The hind or following part

the hand mill,
הָרֵחָ֑יִם (hā·rê·ḥā·yim)
Article | Noun - md
Strong's Hebrew 7347: A mill-stone

as well as the firstborn
בְּכ֥וֹר (bə·ḵō·wr)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 1060: Firstborn, chief

of all
וְכֹ֖ל (wə·ḵōl)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the cattle.
בְּהֵמָֽה׃ (bə·hê·māh)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 929: A dumb beast, any large quadruped, animal
(5) All the firstborn . . . shall die.--The Heb. word translated firstborn is applied only to males; and thus the announcement was that in every family the eldest son should be cut off. In Egypt, as in most other countries, the law of primogeniture prevailed--the eldest son was the hope, stay, and support of the household, his father's companion, his mother's joy, the object of his brothers' and sisters' reverence. The firstborn of the Pharaoh bore the title of erpa suten sa, or "hereditary crown prince," and succeeded his father, unless he died or was formally set aside during his father's lifetime. Among the nobles, estates were inherited, and sometimes titles descended to the firstborn. No greater affliction can be conceived, short of the general destruction of the people, than the sudden death in every family of him round whom the highest interests and fondest hopes clustered.

The maidservant that is behind the mill marks the lowest grade in the social scale, as the king that sits upon his throne marks the highest. All alike were to suffer. In every family there was to be one dead (Exodus 12:30).

All the firstborn of beasts.--The aggravation of the calamity by its extension to beasts is very remarkable, and is probably to be connected with the Egyptian animal-worship. At all times there were in Egypt four animals regarded as actual incarnations of deity, and the objects of profound veneration. Three of these were bulls, while one was a white cow. It is not unlikely that all were required to be "firstborns;" in which case the whole of Egypt would have been plunged into a religious mourning on account of their deaths, in addition to the domestic mourning that must have prevailed in each house. The deaths of other sacred animals, and of many pet animals in houses, would have increased the general consternation.

Verse 5. - All the first-born. The law of primogeniture prevailed in Egypt, as among most of the nations of antiquity. The monarchy (under the New Empire, at any rate) was hereditary, and the eldest son was known as erpa suten sa, or "hereditary Crown Prince." Estates descended to the eldest son, and in many cases high dignities also. No severer blow could have been sent on the nation, if it were not to be annihilated, than the less in each house of the hope of the family - the parents' stay, the other children's guardian and protector. Who sitteth. "Sitteth" refers to "Pharaoh," not to "first-born." The meaning is, "from the first-born of the king who occupies the throne to the first-born of the humblest slave or servant. This last is represented by the handmaid who is behind the mill; since grinding at a mill was regarded as one of the severest and most irksome forms of labour. The work was commonly assigned to captives (Isaiah 47:1, 2; Judges 16:21). It was done by either one or two persons sitting, and consisted in rotating rapidly the upper millstone upon the lower by means of a handle. All the first-born of beasts. Not the first-born of cattle only, but of all beasts. The Egyptians had pet animals in most houses, dogs, apes, monkeys, perhaps cats and ichneumons. Most temples had sacred animals, and in most districts of Egypt, some beasts were regarded as sacred, and might not be killed, their death being viewed as a calamity. The loss of so many animals would consequently be felt by the Egyptians as a sensible aggravation of the infliction. It would wound them both in their domestic and in their religious sensibilities. 11:4-10 The death of all the first-born in Egypt at once: this plague had been the first threatened, but is last executed. See how slow God is to wrath. The plague is foretold, the time is fixed; all their first-born should sleep the sleep of death, not silently, but so as to rouse the families at midnight. The prince was not too high to be reached by it, nor the slaves at the mill too low to be noticed. While angels slew the Egyptians, not so much as a dog should bark at any of the children of Israel. It is an earnest of the difference there shall be in the great day, between God's people and his enemies. Did men know what a difference God puts, and will put to eternity, between those that serve him and those that serve him not, religion would not seem to them an indifferent thing; nor would they act in it with so much carelessness as they do. When Moses had thus delivered his message, he went out from Pharaoh in great anger at his obstinacy; though he was the meekest of the men of the earth. The Scripture has foretold the unbelief of many who hear the gospel, that it might not be a surprise or stumbling-block to us, Ro 10:16. Let us never think the worse of the gospel of Christ for the slights men put upon it. Pharaoh was hardened, yet he was compelled to abate his stern and haughty demands, till the Israelites got full freedom. In like manner the people of God will find that every struggle against their spiritual adversary, made in the might of Jesus Christ, every attempt to overcome him by the blood of the Lamb, and every desire to attain increasing likeness and love to that Lamb, will be rewarded by increasing freedom from the enemy of souls.
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Alphabetical: all and as at behind cattle die Egypt even Every firstborn from girl hand her his in is land mill millstones of on Pharaoh shall sits slave son the throne to well who will

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