1 Timothy 2
Pulpit Commentary
I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men;
Verse 1. - First of all, that for that, first of all, A.V.; thanksgivings for and giving of thanks. A.V. I exhort therefore. The insertion of the connecting particle "therefore" marks that this arrangement of Church prayers is a part - as the following words, first of all, mark that it is the first part - of that charge or administration which was now committed to Timothy. Supplications, prayers, intercessions, thanksgivings (see the Prayer for the Church Militant). The question naturally arises whether the first words here used - δεήσις προσευχάς, and ἐντεύξεις - have any distinctive meaning, or are merely accumulated, like synonyms m legal documents, or various phrases in rhetorical addresses, to ensure completeness and to add force. It is against the notion of any distinctive meaning attaching to them that no such distinction can be supported by actual use. In Philippians 4:6 two of the words (προσευχή and δέησις) are used in conjunction as here with εὐχαριστία, with no apparent difference, both being the way of making known their requests to God (so also Ephesians 6:18 and 1 Timothy 5:5). Again, in the ancient Liturgies, the words δεέσθαι and προσεύχεσθαι are constantly used of the same praying. It may, however, perhaps be said that every δέησις is a προσευχή, though every προσευχή is not a δέησις. The δέησις is a "petition" - a distinct asking something of God, which a προσευχή need not necessarily be. It may be merely an act of adoration, of confession, of recital of God's mercies, and so on. So as regards ἐντεύξεις, here rendered "intercessions." There is nothing in the etymology/ or in the use of this word, which only occurs elsewhere in the New Testament in 1 Timothy 4:5, to limit the meaning of it to "intercession." Nor has it this meaning in the passage where it occurs in the Liturgy of St. Clement, near the close, where God is addressed as Ὁ καὶ τῶν σιωπώντων ἐπιστάμενος τὰς ἐντεύξεις, "Who understandest the petitions even of those who are silent." In 2 Macc. 4:8 and Diod. Sic., 16:55 it seems to mean "a request preferred in a personal interview," which is an extension of its common meaning in classical Greek of "access," "an interview," "social intercourse," or the like. But when we turn to the use of the verb ἐντυγχάνω in the New Testament, we seem to get the idea of "intercession." Αντυγχάνειν is to go to someone to ask him to take action against or in favor of some third party (see Acts 25:24; Romans 11:2; Romans 8:27, 28, 34; Hebrews 7:25); and so Chrysostom (quoted in Steph., 'Thesaur.') explains ἐντυχία to be the action of one who applies to God to avenge him of those who have done him wrong. So that perhaps "intercessions" is, on the whole, the best rendering here, though an imperfect one; and would comprise the prayers for the emperor, for the Church, for the sick, travelers, slaves, captives, etc., for the bishops, clergy, and laity, etc., and such prayers as "Turn away from us every plot (ἐπιβουλήν) of wicked men" (Liturgy of St. Mark).
For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.
Verse 2. - And all for and for all, A.V.; high place for authority, A.V.; tranquil and quiet for quiet and peaceable, A.V.; gravity for honesty, A.V. For kings, etc. The early Liturgies closely followed these directions. "Every day, both in the evening and the morning, we offer prayers for the whole world, for kings, and for all in authority" (Chrysost., in lee.). So in the Liturgy of St. Mark: "Preserve our king in peace, in virtue, and righteousness.... Subdue his enemies under him... incline him to peace towards us and towards thy Holy Name, that in the serenity of his reign we too may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and honesty [or, 'gravity']." In the Liturgy of St. Clement: "Let us pray for kings and those in authority, that they may be peaceably inclined toward us, and that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all piety and honesty [or, 'gravity']." In the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom: "Let us pray for our most religious and God-protected emperors, and all their palace and court." "We offer this our reasonable service on behalf of our most faithful and Christian (φιλοχρίστων) emperors, and all their palace and court." And in the Liturgy of St. Basil: "Remember, Lord, our most religious and faithful kings... that in their serenity we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and gravity. Remember, O Lord, all rulers and all in authority, and all our brethren in the palace, and the whole court." In high place (ἐν ὑπεροχῇ); elsewhere only in 1 Corinthians 2:1, where it is rendered "excellency." But in Romans 13:1 we have ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις "the higher powers;" and in 1 Peter 2:13, τῷ βασιλεῖ ὡς ὑπερέχοντι, "the king as supreme." In 2 Macc. 3:11 the phrase, ἀνδρὸς ἐν ὑπεροχῇ κειμένου, occurs; and in Polybius, οἱ ἐν ὑπεροχῇ ὔντες It is often used in Polybius for "authority" or "power." That we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and gravity. The prayer for the rulers is recommended (as was explained in the above extracts from the Liturgies) in order to obtain for Christians a tranquil life, undisturbed by persecution and molestation, in spite of their peculiar way of life. Their wish was to be allowed to live in the faith and obedience of the gospel, "in godliness and gravity," without being interfered with by the heathen magistrates. The clause in the Prayer for the Church Militant which corresponds to this is "that under her we may be godly and quietly governed." Tranquil (ἤρεμος); found only here in the New Testament. The derivatives, ἠρέμιος ἠρεμέω, etc., are common in the LXX. They all apply to a still, undisturbed, life. Quiet (ἡσύχιος); found only here and l Peter 3:4 in the New Testament, and in the LXX. in Isaiah 66:2. But the noun ἡσυχία and the verb ἡσυχάζειν are common. Godliness (εὐσεβεία). One of the words almost peculiar to the pastoral Epistles (1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 8; 1 Timothy 6:3, 5, 6, 11; 2 Timothy 3:5; Titus 1:1); but elsewhere only in Acts 3:12; 2 Peter 1:3, 6, 7; 2 Peter 3:11. Cornelius was αυησεβής, and so was one of the soldiers who waited upon him (Acts 10:2, 7). Ananias was ἀνὴρ εὐσεβής (Acts 22:12, T.R.). The adverb εὐσεβῶς is also peculiar to the pastoral Epistles (2 Timothy fit. 12; Titus 2:12). Gravity (σεμνοτής): so rendered also in the A.V. of 1 Timothy 3:4 and Titus 2:7 - the only other places in the New Testament where it is found. So also the adjective σεμνός (1 Timothy 3:8, 11; Titus 2:2). Elsewhere in the New Testament only in Philippians 4:8, where it is rendered" honest" in the A.V., and "honorable" in the R.V. In classical Greek σεμνός is properly spoken of the gods, "august," "venerable," and, when applied to persons, indicates a similar quality. Here σεμνοτής is the respectable, venerable, and dignified sobriety of a truly godly man.
For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour;
Verse 3. - This for for this, A.V. and T.R. Acceptable (ἀπόδεκτον); only here and 1 Timothy 5:4 in the New Testament, and in one doubtful passage in Aquila's version of Song of Solomon 1:13. Found in Plutarch. The verb ἀποδέχομαι, to receive gladly, is frequently used by St. Luke (Luke 8:10; Acts 2:41, where see note; etc.). God our Savior (see 1 Timothy 1:1 and Luke 1:47; Titus 1:3; Titus 2:10, 13 (perhaps); 3:4; 2 Peter 1:1 (perhaps); Jude 1:25, by which it appears that the phrase is confined to the pastoral among St. Paul's Epistles). In the Old Testament the phrase occurs frequently (see 2 Samuel 22:3; Psalm 106:21; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:21, etc.).
Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.
Verse 4. - Willeth that all men should be saved for will have all men to be saved, A.V.; come to for to come unto, A.V. All men, etc.; to show that it is in accordance with God's will to pray for "all men" (ver. 1). (For the doctrinal statement, comp. ver. 6; Titus 2:11; 2 Peter 3:9, etc.)
For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;
Verse 5. - One... also for and one, A.V.; himself mar, for the man, A.V. For there is one God, etc. The connection of ideas indicated by γὰρ seems to be this: Pray to God for all men, Jews and Gentiles, barbarians, Scythians, bond and free. For this is good and acceptable in the sight of the one God, who is the God of all the nations of the earth. And God wills that all should come to the knowledge of the truth as it is in Jesus, because Jesus Christ is the One Mediator between God and all men, by whom alone men can come to the Father, and who gave himself a ransom for all. One Mediator. The term μεσίτης ισ only applied to our Savior in the New Testament here and in Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15: 12:24. In the only other passage where St. Paul uses it (Galatians 3:19, 20) it is applied to Moses the media-tar of the Old Testament. In the LXX. it only occurs in Job 9:33. Himself man. Surely an infelicitous and unnecessary change from the A.V. Even supposing that the exact construction of the sentence requires "Christ Jesus" to be taken as the subject and "man" as the predicate, the English way of expressing that sense is to say, "the man Christ Jesus." But it is very far from certain that ἄνθρωπος, standing as it does in opposition to Θεός, is not the subject, and must not therefore be rendered "the man." The man. The human nature of our Lord is here insisted upon, to show how fit he is to mediate for man, as his Godhead fits him to mediate with God.
Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.
Verse 6. - The testimony to be borne in its own times for to be testified in due time, A.V. Τὸ μαρτύριον καιροῖς ἰδιοις. This phrase is somewhat obscure, and is differently explained. But the most literal rendering and the best sense seems to be: " The testimony, at its proper time, to which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle," meaning that the mediation and redemption of Jesus Christ was the subject-matter of that testimony which he Paul was appointed to bear at the proper time. Τὸ μαρτύριον εἰς ο{ must be taken together, without any intervening stop. This accounts for the article τό. The exactly parallel place is Titus 1:1, 2, as a close comparison of the two passages will show. A further proof of the identity of thought in the two passage's is the recurrence in both of the phrase, ἐπιγνωσις ἀληθείας. A ransom (ἀντίλυτρον); here only in the New Testament, but it is used perhaps by Symmachus in Psalm 48:9 (Psalms 49:9, A.V.), where the LXX, have Γὴν τιμὴν τῆς λυτρώσεως τῆς ψυχῆς αὐτοῦ, following the reading יְקַר, instead of יֵקַר as in the Hebrew text. "What means a ransom? They were about to perish, but in their stead he gave his Son, and sent us as heralds to proclaim the cross" (Chrysostom). The equivalent word in the Gospels is ἀντάλλαγμα (Matthew 16:26; Mark 8:87). Ἀντίλυτρον does at seem to differ materially in me, ulna from λύτρον, the common classical word for "ransom" (i.e. redemption money), and used by our Lord of his own life given as a ransom for many (Matthew 20:28; Mark 10:45). It is the price given as an equivalent for setting free the prisoner, or sparing the forfeited life; λυτρόω (Luke 24:21, etc.), λύτρωσις (Luke 1:68, etc.), λυτρωτής (Acts 7:35), ἀπολύτρωσις (Luke 21:28; Romans 3:24, and passim), have all the sense of "redeem," "redemption," and the like. In its own times. The notion of a time specially appointed for Christ's coming into the world is frequently dwelt upon in Scripture; e.g., Galatians 4:4; Ephesians 1:10; Hebrews 1:2 (camp. Acts 17:30, 31; 2 Corinthians 6:2). (See the same phrase, 1 Timothy 6:15.)
Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.
Verse 7. - Was appointed for am ordained, A.V.; truth for truth in Christ, A.V. and T.R.; I lie for and lie, A.V.; truth for verity, A.V. I was appointed, etc. It is quite in St. Paul's manner thus to refer to his own apostolic mission (see Romans 1:5; Romans 11:13; Romans 15:16; 1 Corinthians 1:1, 17; 1 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Corinthians 5:18; Galatians 1:1, etc.; Ephesians 3:2, 8; and many other places). A preacher (κήρυξ; as in 2 Timothy 1:11). So Mark 16:15, "Preach the gospel" is Κηρύξατε τὸ εὐαγγέλιον; and in ver. 20, "They... preached everywhere" is 'Ακήρυξαν πανταχοῦ; and 2 Timothy 4:2, "Preach the word" is Κήρυξον τὸν λόγον; and generally it is the word rendered "preach." It combines the idea of authority in the preacher who is the authorized herald (Romans 10:15), and publicity for his message (Matthew 10:27; Luke 12:3). I speak the truth, etc. The reason for this strong asseveration of his office as the apostle of the Gentiles is not at first sight apparent. But it was probably made in view of the antagonism of the Judaizing teachers referred to in 1 Timothy 1:3, 19, 20 (comp. Romans 11:13; Romans 15:15, 16).
I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting.
Verse 8. - Desire for will, A.V.; the men for men, A.V.; in every place for everywhere, A.V.; disputing for doubting, A.V. I desire, etc. He takes up the subject again which he had opened in ver. 1, but had somewhat digressed from in vers. 4-7, and gives further directions as to the persons who are to make the prayers spoken of in ver. 1, viz. men (τοὺς ἄνδρας), not women, as it follows more at large in vers. 9-15. The stress is clearly upon "men" (or, "the men" - it makes no difference); and there is no force in Alford's remark that in that case it would have been τοὺς ἄνδρας προσεύχεσθαι. The prayers had been already ordered in ver. 1; the additional detail, that they were to be offered by men, is now added. In every place; not, as Chrysostom thinks, in contrast to the Jewish worship, which was confined to the temple at Jerusalem, but merely meaning wherever a Christian congregation is assembled. Lifting up holy hands. Alford quotes Clem. Ram. 'To the Corinthians,' Ep. 1. 1 Timothy 29: Προσέλθωμεν... ἐν ὁσιότητι ψυχῆς ἁγνὰς καὶ ἀμιάντους χεῖρας αἴρουντες πρὸς αὐτόν (camp. Psalm 26:6; Psalm 28:2; 43:20; 63:4; 2 Chronicles 6:12, 13). Without wrath. It appears from several passages in Chrysostom that the habit of praying angry prayers was not unknown in his day. "Do you pray against your brother? But your prayer is not against him, but against yourself. You provoke God by uttering those impious words, 'Show him the same;' 'So do to him;' 'Smite him;' 'Recompense him;' and much more to the same effect" ('Hom.' 6.). In 'Hom.' 8. his comment on this passage is: "Without bearing malice.... Let no one approach each God in enmity, or in an unsalable temper." And disputing (διαλογισμοῦ). The exact meaning of διαλογισμός is perhaps best seen in Luke 5:21, 22, where both the verb and the substantive are used. The διαλογισμοὶ are carillings, questionings proceeding from a captious, unbelieving spirit. They are διαλογισμοὶ πονηροὶ (Matthew 15:19). The word is always used in a bad sense in the New Testament. Forms of prayer were not yet established in the Church, but these cautious show the need of them.
In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;
Verse 9. - In like manner for in like manner also, A.V. and T.R.; braided for broided, A.V.; and gold for or gold, A.V.; raiment for array, A.V. The apostle here passes on to the duties of women as members of the congregation, and he places first modesty of demeanor and dress, the contrary to these being likely to prove a hurt and a hindrance to their fellow-worshippers. Adorn themselves in modest apparel. This is obviously the true construction, κοσμεῖν depending upon βούλομαι. There is a little doubt as to the exact meaning of καταστολή here, the only place where it occurs in the New Testament. Alford argues strongly in favor of the meaning "apparel." But it may also mean "steadiness" or "quietness" of demeanor; and then the phrase will be exactly parallel to 1 Peter 3:5, "The incorruptible apparel of a meek and quiet spirit." And the meaning will be, "Let Christian women adorn themselves with a decent and well-ordered quietness of demeanor, in strict accordance with [or, 'together with'] shame-fastness and sobriety [μετά, 'in strict accord with,' or 'together with'] not with braided hair," etc. A woman's true ornament is not the finery which sire gets from the milliner, but the chaste discretion which she has from the Spirit of God. Modest (κόσμιος); only found in the New Testament here and in 1 Timothy 3:2, where it is rendered" of good behavior" in the A.V., and "modest" in the margin, "orderly" in the R.V. It is common in classical Greek in the sense of "welt-ordered," "welt-behaved." Shamefastness (αἰδώς, bashfulness). So the edition of 1611; "shamefacedness" in the later editions is a corruption. Archbishop Trench compares "stead fast," "soothfast," "root fast," "master-fast," "footfast," "bedfast," with their substantives ('Synonyms of New Test.,' § 20.). Sobriety (σωφροσύνη, as in ver. 15, q.v.); soundness, health, purity, and integrity of mind. 'Απὸ τοῦ σώας τὰς φρένας ἔχειν (Chrysostom, 'Ap. Trench.'). Braided hair (πλέγμασιν); found only here in the New Testament, but used in Aquila and Theodotion, instead of the πλεκείς ορ πλακείς of the LXX., in Isaiah 28:5, for צְפִירָה, a "diadem," or "twined garland." In classical Greek πλέγματα are anything twined, tendrils of the vine, wickerwork, chaplets, etc. The corresponding word in 1 Peter 3:3 is ἐμπλοκὴ τριχῶν, "plaiting the hair." Costly raiment (ἱματισμῷ πολυτελεῖ). For ἱματισμὸς, comp. Luke 7:25; Luke 9:23; Acts 20:33; Psalm 45:10, LXX.; etc., which show tinct the word is used κατ ἐξοχήν of any splendid garment (Schleusuer). Πολυτελής, costly (see Mark 14:3; 1 Peter 3:4, and frequently in the LXX.). St. Peter manifestly had this passage before him from the marked verbal coincidences, as well as close similarity of thought (ἐμπλοκή χρύσιον κόσμος ἱμάτιον, πολυτελής ἀγαθοποιοῦσαι (compared with δι ἔργων ἀγαθῶν), ἡσυχία ὑποταγή, (compared with ὑποτασσόμεναι), ἁγαίαι γυναῖκες κ.τ.λ. (compared with ἐπαγγελλόμεναις θεοσέβειαν). (See reference to St. Paul's Epistles in 2 Peter 3:15.)
But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.
Verse 10. - Through for with, A.V. (The change from "with" to "through" is quite unnecessary, though more strictly accurate. "With" does equally well for ἐν and διά, the one applied to the ornaments and dress in or with which the woman adorns herself, the other to the good works by which she is adorned.) Professing godliness. In all ether passages in the New Testament where it occurs, ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι means "to promise," except in 1 Timothy 6:21, where, as here, it means "to profess," as it frequently does in classical Greek: Απαγγέλλεσθαι ἀρετήν σοφίαν, etc. Θεοσεβεία only occurs here in the New Testament; but it is used in the LXX. in Job 28:28; Genesis 20:11; also in Xenophon. In John 9:31 we have Θεοσεβής, "a worshipper of God." Through good works. Compare the description of Dorcas (Acts 9:36, 39). Ἔργα ἀγαθά mean especially acts of charity (comp. 1 Timothy 5:10; 2 Corinthians 9:8, 9; Colossians 1:11; elsewhere it is us, d more generally, like ἔργα καλά, though this phrase also sometimes points especially to acts of charity, as in 1 Timothy 5:10; 1 Timothy 6:18; Titus 3:14; Hebrews 10:24).
Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection.
Verse 11. - A for the, A.V.; quietness for silence, A.V. Quietness is not so good a rendering as "silence," because the quietness here meant is silence, as appears clearly by the parallel direction in 1 Corinthians 14:34. So Acts 22:2, παρέσχον ἡσουχίαν is properly rend red in the A.V., "They kept silence." And ἡσύχασαν (Luke 14:4 and Acts 11:18) is read, red, both in the A.V. and the R.V., "They held their peace." With all subjection (ἐν πάσῃ ὑποταγῇ); as 1 Timothy 3:4. The words occur also in 2 Corinthians 9:13; Galatians 2:5. But the verb ὑποτάσσομαι is very common in the sense of "being subject." It is used of the subjection of the wife to her husband (1 Corinthians 14:34; Ephesians 5:22; Colossians 3:18; Titus 2:5; 1 Peter 3:1).
But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.
Verse 12. - Permit for suffer, A.V.; have dominion for usurp authority, A.V.; a for the, A.V.; quietness for silence, A.V. Permit. Why "permit" is better than "suffer" it is difficult to see. Ἐπιτρέπειν is rendered "suffer" in the R.V. in Matthew 8:21; Matthew 19:8; Mark 10:4; Luke 9:59, etc. Quietness (see preceding note). The true type of the womanly attitude is that of Mary, who "sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his Word" (Luke 10:39).
For Adam was first formed, then Eve.
Verse 13. - Was formed (ἐπλάσθη). The word used in the LXX. in Genesis 2:7, Ἔπλασεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον κ.τ.λ., "The Lord God formed man out of the dust of the ground;" and in Genesis 2:19 of the beasts of the field; whence the word πρωτόπλαστος (Wisd. 7:1 Wisd. 10:1), "first made;" "first formed," A.V. So in Romans 9:20 man is called τὸ πλάσμα, "the thing made;" and God is Πλάσας, "he that made it." "Plaster," "plastic," "protoplasm," are, of course, from the same root. (For the argument, see the very similar one in 1 Corinthians 11:8, 9.)
And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression.
Verse 14. - Beguiled (twice) for deceived, A.V.; hath fallen into for was in the, A.V. Beguiled (ἠπατήθη). The same word as is used in Genesis 3:13, "The serpent beguiled me;" ἠπάτησέ με, LXX. (comp. 2 Corinthians 11:3, where the verb used is ἐξηπάτησεν). Hath fallen into transgression. Fell (not hath fallen) is the right tense to use here in English, though the Greek perfect, it is true, contains the further idea of continuance in the fall, as in 1 Corinthians 9:22; 1 Corinthians 13:11; 1 Thessalonians 2:1; 2 Peter 2:20. So also Matthew 1:22; Matthew 19:8; Matthew 21:4; Matthew 25:6; Mark 5:33; John 1:3; 2 Corinthians 1:19; and elsewhere, γέγονε is best rendered by the past (not the perfect) tense. It has frequently the notion of transition into a certain condition (see Romans 6:5; Romans 7:13; 1 Corinthians 9:22; 1 Corinthians 13:11; 2 Corinthians 5:17; 2 Corinthians 12:11; Galatians 4:16, etc.). Bishop Ellicott gives the passages in which γίγνομαι ισ followed, as here, by ἐν (Luke 22:44; Acts 22:17; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:5), "denoting entrance into, and continuance in, any given state." As regards the apostle's statement, Adam was not beguiled, we must understand it as based merely upon the text in Genesis to which he refers, in which Eve (not Adam) says, Ὁ ὄφις ἠπάτησε με, "The serpent beguiled me." Just as in Galatians 3:16 he reasons from σπέρματι being in the singular number, and as the writer to the Hebrews 7:3 reasons from the silence of Genesis 14. regarding the parentage of Melchizedek. Huther (in lee.) says that this mode of reasoning is peculiar to allegorical interpretation.
Notwithstanding she shall be saved in childbearing, if they continue in faith and charity and holiness with sobriety.
Verse 15. - But for notwithstanding, A.V.; through the child-bearing for in child-bearing, A.V.; love for charity, A.V.; sanctification for holiness, A.V. She shall be saved; i.e. the woman generically. The transition from the personal Eve to the generic woman is further marked by the transition from the singular to the plural, "if they continue," etc. The natural and simple explanation of the passage is that the special temporal punishment pronounced against the woman, immediately after her sin, "In sorrow shalt thou bring forth children" (Genesis 3:16) - (to which St. Paul here evidently alludes) - and endured by all women ever since, was a set-off, so to speak, to the special guilt of Eve in yielding to the guile of the serpent; so that now the woman might attain salvation as well as the man (although she was not suffered to teach)if she continued in faith and charity. The child-bearing (τῆς τεκνογονίας); here only; but the verb τεκνογονέω, which occurs in 1 Timothy 5:14, is found (though very rarely) in classical Greek. The equivalent, both in the LXX. and in classical Greek, is τεκνοποιέω. The reference to the birth of Christ - the Seed of the woman - which some commentators Hammond, Peile, Wordsworth, Ellicott, etc.; not Bengel, Alford. or the German school generally) see here, is rather strained, and anyhow cannot be proved without an inspired interpreter. The stress which is laid by some of the above on the use of the definite article here has no justification (see e.g., 2 Peter 1:5-7, where even the R.V. does not think of translating "the virtue," "the knowledge," "the temperance," etc.). Nor is the meaning of διά, which Alford and others press, "through," i.e. "in spite of," like διὰ πυρός in 1 Corinthians 3:15, at all probable from the context. Sanctification (ἀγιασμός; Romans 6:19; 1 Thessalonians 4:3, etc.). Sobriety (σωφροσύνη); as in ver. 9. It only occurs besides in Acts 26:25.

The Pulpit Commentary, Electronic Database. Copyright © 2001, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2010 by BibleSoft, inc., Used by permission

Bible Hub
1 Timothy 1
Top of Page
Top of Page