These are the sons of Israel; Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun,The sons of Israel - The order of the names here approximates to an order determined by legitimacy of birth. A single change - the removal of Dan to the place after Benjamin - would give the following result:
(1) The six sons of the first wife, Leah.
(2) the two sons of the second wife, Rachel.
(3) the two sons of the first concubine, Bilhah.
(4) the two sons of the second concubine, Zilpah.
Dan's undue prominency may, perhaps, be accounted for by his occupying the seventh place in the "blessing of Jacob" Genesis 49:16.
Dan, Joseph, and Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
The sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah: which three were born unto him of the daughter of Shua the Canaanitess. And Er, the firstborn of Judah, was evil in the sight of the LORD; and he slew him.
And Tamar his daughter in law bare him Pharez and Zerah. All the sons of Judah were five.
The sons of Pharez; Hezron, and Hamul.
And the sons of Zerah; Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara: five of them in all.The sons of Zerah - Here, for the first time, the writer of Chronicles draws from sources not otherwise known to us, recording facts not mentioned in the earlier Scriptures. Ethan, Heman, Calcol, and Dara, sons of Zerah, are only known to us from this passage, since there are no sufficient grounds for identifying them with the "sons of Mahol" (marginal reference).
And the sons of Carmi; Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed in the thing accursed."Achan" Joshua 7:1 seems to have become "Achar," in order to assimilate the word more closely to the Hebrew term for "troubler," which was from the time of Achan's sin regarded as the true meaning of his name Joshua 7:25-26.
And the sons of Ethan; Azariah.
The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him; Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai.
And Ram begat Amminadab; and Amminadab begat Nahshon, prince of the children of Judah;
And Nahshon begat Salma, and Salma begat Boaz,
And Boaz begat Obed, and Obed begat Jesse,
And Jesse begat his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimma the third,
Nethaneel the fourth, Raddai the fifth,
Ozem the sixth, David the seventh:David the seventh - Jesse had eight sons, of whom David was the youngest 1 Samuel 16:10-11; 1 Samuel 17:12. Probably one of the sons shown to Samuel at Bethlehem did not grow up.
Whose sisters were Zeruiah, and Abigail. And the sons of Zeruiah; Abishai, and Joab, and Asahel, three.Sisters - i. e. half-sisters. Abigail and Zeruiah were daughters not of Jesse, but of a certain Nahash, whose widow Jesse took to wife 2 Samuel 17:25.
From the present passage, and from the fact that Abishai joined David as a comrade in arms before Joab 1 Samuel 26:6, it would seem that, although Joab was pre-eminent among the three 2 Samuel 2:13, 2 Samuel 2:16, Abishai was the eldest.
And Abigail bare Amasa: and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmeelite.Jether the Ishmeelite - See the marginal note and reference.
And Caleb the son of Hezron begat children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth: her sons are these; Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon.In the remainder of this chapter the writer obtains scarcely any assistance from the earlier Scriptures, and must have drawn almost entirely from genealogical sources, accessible to him, which have since perished.
Azubah was Caleb's wife; Jerioth his concubine. He had children by both; but those of Azubah are alone recorded.
And when Azubah was dead, Caleb took unto him Ephrath, which bare him Hur.
And Hur begat Uri, and Uri begat Bezaleel.
And afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was threescore years old; and she bare him Segub.
And Segub begat Jair, who had three and twenty cities in the land of Gilead.Jair, who had three and twenty cities - The places called "Havoth-Jair" in the earlier Scriptures (see Numbers 32:41 note), which appear to have been a number of "small towns," or villages, in the Ledjah, the Classical "Trachonitis."
And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even threescore cities. All these belonged to the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.Rather, "And Geshur and Aram (i. e. the Geshurites Deuteronomy 3:14 and Syrians) took the villages of Jair from them:" recovered, that is, from the new settlers the places which Jair had conquered.
All these belonged to the sons of Machir - Rather, "All these were sons of Machir," i. e. Segub and Jair, with their descendants, were reckoned sons of Machir, rather than sons of Hezron, although only descended from Machir on the mother's side. The reason of this seems to have been that they cast in their lot with the Manassites, and remained in their portion of the trans-Jordanic region.
And after that Hezron was dead in Calebephratah, then Abiah Hezron's wife bare him Ashur the father of Tekoa.
And the sons of Jerahmeel the firstborn of Hezron were, Ram the firstborn, and Bunah, and Oren, and Ozem, and Ahijah.And Ahijah - There is no "and" in the original. Hence, some would read: "the sons" were born "of" or "from Ahijah," the first wife of Jerahmeel (see the next verse).
Jerahmeel had also another wife, whose name was Atarah; she was the mother of Onam.
And the sons of Ram the firstborn of Jerahmeel were, Maaz, and Jamin, and Eker.
And the sons of Onam were, Shammai, and Jada. And the sons of Shammai; Nadab, and Abishur.
And the name of the wife of Abishur was Abihail, and she bare him Ahban, and Molid.
And the sons of Nadab; Seled, and Appaim: but Seled died without children.
And the sons of Appaim; Ishi. And the sons of Ishi; Sheshan. And the children of Sheshan; Ahlai.
And the sons of Jada the brother of Shammai; Jether, and Jonathan: and Jether died without children.
And the sons of Jonathan; Peleth, and Zaza. These were the sons of Jerahmeel.
Now Sheshan had no sons, but daughters. And Sheshan had a servant, an Egyptian, whose name was Jarha.
And Sheshan gave his daughter to Jarha his servant to wife; and she bare him Attai.
And Attai begat Nathan, and Nathan begat Zabad,
And Zabad begat Ephlal, and Ephlal begat Obed,
And Obed begat Jehu, and Jehu begat Azariah,
And Azariah begat Helez, and Helez begat Eleasah,
And Eleasah begat Sisamai, and Sisamai begat Shallum,
And Shallum begat Jekamiah, and Jekamiah begat Elishama.
Now the sons of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were, Mesha his firstborn, which was the father of Ziph; and the sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron.A third line of descent from Caleb, the son of Hezron, the issue probably of a different mother, perhaps Jerioth 1 Chronicles 2:18. The supposed omissions in this verse have been supplied as follows:
(1) "Mesha, the father of Ziph; and the sons of Ziph, Mareshah, the father of Hebron;" or
(2) "Mareshah, the father of Ziph; and the sons of Mareshah, the father of Ziph, Hebron."
Ziph, like Jorkoam 1 Chronicles 2:44 and Beth-zur 1 Chronicles 2:45, is the name of a place where the respective chiefs ("fathers") settled. Similarly Madmannah, Machbenah, and Gibea 1 Chronicles 2:49, Kirjath-jearim (Joshua 9:17 note), Bethlehem and Beth-gader (Jedur, 1 Chronicles 2:51) are unmistakeable names of places in the list, names which it is not probable were ever borne by persons.
And the sons of Hebron; Korah, and Tappuah, and Rekem, and Shema.
And Shema begat Raham, the father of Jorkoam: and Rekem begat Shammai.
And the son of Shammai was Maon: and Maon was the father of Bethzur.
And Ephah, Caleb's concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez: and Haran begat Gazez.
And the sons of Jahdai; Regem, and Jotham, and Geshan, and Pelet, and Ephah, and Shaaph.
Maachah, Caleb's concubine, bare Sheber, and Tirhanah.
She bare also Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah, and the father of Gibea: and the daughter of Caleb was Achsah.
These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah; Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim,Caleb the son of Hur - Hur was the son, not the father, of Caleb 1 Chronicles 2:19. The text should perhaps be read: "These (the list in 1 Chronicles 2:42-49) were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the first-born of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc."
Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hareph the father of Bethgader.
And Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim had sons; Haroeh, and half of the Manahethites.
And the families of Kirjathjearim; the Ithrites, and the Puhites, and the Shumathites, and the Mishraites; of them came the Zareathites, and the Eshtaulites.
The sons of Salma; Bethlehem, and the Netophathites, Ataroth, the house of Joab, and half of the Manahethites, the Zorites.Ataroth, the house of Joab - Rather, "Ataroth-beth-Joab," probably so called, to distinguish it from Ataroth-Adar, a city of Benjamin Joshua 18:13. It is uncertain from what Joab it derived its distinctive appellation.
And the families of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and Suchathites. These are the Kenites that came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab.Kenites - It is remarkable that Kenites - people of a race quite distinct from the Israelites Genesis 15:19 - should be attached to, and, as it were, included in the descendants of Judah. It seems, however, that the friendly feeling between the two tribes - based on the conduct of the Kenites at the time of the Exodus Exo 18:10-19; Numbers 10:29-32; 1 Samuel 15:6 - led to their intermixture and almost amalgamation with the Israelites, Kenite families not only dwelling among them but being actually regarded as of one blood with them.