Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus,Matthew 14:1. Ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ, at that time) It was now about a year from the commencement of our Lord’s public ministry.—ἤκουσεν, heard) The ears and courts of kings resound with news; but spiritual matters, however widely published, scarcely ever arrive there.
 And if they do reach them at all, they appear in an imperfect form and blended with what is false; nor are they easily turned to good purpose. Nevertheless, at times, a joyful exception to this is to be met with.—V. g.
And said unto his servants, This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him.Matthew 14:2. Παισὶν, servants) The friends of princes are for the most part yonng. In time of fear, the great speak promiscuously with the small.—ΟὟΤΟς, this) Herod was tormented by his conscience. It was not consistent with the character of such a king to arrive at an absolute decision. He concluded, but with doubt; see Luke 9:7; Luke 9:9. Herod was a Sadducee; but Sadduceeism wavers when anything strange occurs. Reason [mere human reason] prefers ascribing marvellous circumstances to ancient, or at least departed saints, rather than to those who are alive; and to those whom it has once begun to esteem highly rather than to others.—ἸΩΆΝΝΗς, John) Herod had not heard of the works of Jesus before the death of John. John had not performed any miracles during his life; but because he had been a holy man, men now suppose that he must nevertheless have possessed miraculous power; cf. ch. Matthew 16:14. So great power has the reputation of holiness even with those who are themselves unholy. Moreover, as the actions of Christ were ascribed to John even when dead, it was necessary that he should decrease in order that Christ might increase. The Greeks speak much and often of the things which our Lord’s forerunner, slain before Him, announced and preached to the dead; see Leo Allatius, de libris ecclesiast. Gr. pp. 303, 304; and Wetstein on the dialogue against the Marcionites, p. 33. So do the Latins also, quoted by Ittigius in his dissertation on the gospel preached to the dead, § xi.; see also Ambrose on Luke 1:17, and Gerson’s second lecture on St Mark.—ὁ βαπτιστής, the Baptist) This surname is given to John even by Herod, even by the daughter of Herodias, even by Josephus, so celebrated was it.—αὐτὸς, he) himself.—αἱ δυνάμεις, mighty works) He speaks of them as objective realities.—ἐν αὐτῷ in Him) sc. in Jesus.
 Alluding to two of the meanings of παὶς, the one implying youth, the other attendance on a superior.—(I. B.)
 So far was he from speaking thus in jest.—E. B.
 John most speedily attained the consummation of his course; but those who had deprived him of life, subsequently atoned most dearly for it.—V. g.
 LEO ALLATIUS (or ALLACCI). A laborious and indefatigable writer, of a vast memory, whose writings display great reading. Born in the Isle of Chios, of Greek parents, 1586. Having been admitted into the Greek College at Rome, he embraced the Roman Catholic religion, and was eventually appointed keeper of the Vatican library by Pope Alexander VII. Died 1669.—(I. B.)
 The author here intended is not J. J. Wetstein, Bengel’s great critical rival, but JOHN RUDOLPH WETSTEIN, son of the author of the same name. He was a native of Basle, and became a theologian and philologist of that Academy. He was born in 1647, and died in 1711. He published at Basle, in 1674, “Origen against the Marcionites,” in Greek and Latin, with notes.—(I. B.)
 THOMAS ITTIGIUS, a native of Leipsic, of which Academy he became a theologian and historian; was born 1643, and died 1710. He was the author of many learned works.—(I. B.)
 JOHN GERSON; born at Gerson, in France, in 1363; educated at Paris, where he became Canon and Chancellor of the Church. He greatly distinguished himself, at the Council of Constance, by many speeches, especially by one, in which he enforced the superiority of the Council over the Pope. He was one of the most illustrious men of his time, and obtained the surname of Doctor Christianissimus. Cave says that no one can be conversant with his works without very great benefit. His writings are very numerous.—(I. B.)
For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife.Matthew 14:3. Ἡρωδιάδα, Herodias) This princess was hostile to the latter Elias, as Jezebel to the former.—τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ αὐτοῦ, his brother) Most authorities prefix Φιλίππου from St Mark, who is known not to have taken all things from St Matthew by his being the only one who names this brother of Herod. The shorter reading of St Matthew has been preserved intact by the Vulgate, ‘fratris,’ of his brother, alive, and not childless, as we learn from Josephus, 18. 7; but it was sufficient for the Evangelist to say that he was his brother. Herodias was also the niece of both, being the daughter of their brother Aristobulus.
 Such is the reading of E. M. In his App. Crit. Bengel writes,—“(Φιλίππου) Lat. plerique, et inde Cant. Angl. Mag. Augustin. sed habet Sax. Φιλίππου, præmittunt plerique ex Marco. Brevior,” etc., as in Gnomon.—(I. B.)
 See Genealogical Table, p. 120.—(I. B.)
Lachm. with BZ Orig. 3, 470b. reads Φιλίππου—αὐτοῦ. b has αὐτιὺ Φιλίππου. Tischend. omits Φιλίππου with Da (?) c Vulg. Φιλίππου looks like a gloss of the harmonies from Mark 6:17. However, the omission might also come similarly from Luke 3:19.—ED.
The marg. of both Editions agree with the Gnomon. But Vers. Germ. retains Φιλίππου in this passage.—E. B.
Matthew 14:3-12. Ὁ γάρ Ἡρώδης, κ.τ.λ., for Herod, etc.) It was not necessary that the death of John should be foretold in the Old Testament, or be described professedly and in order; because he did not die for us. The mention of him, however, is gracefully resumed when our Lord was now in the zenith of His career.
For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.Matthew 14:4. Οὐκ ἔξεστι, it is not lawful) John did not break the force of bitter truth by arguments of a too conciliatory nature; neither his words were soft, nor his dress. John did not come into Galilee, but yet he was able to reprove Herod.—σοὶ, to thee) Sins even of kings should be rebuked in the second person.—ἔχειν, to have) Theologians must not give up questions concerning marriage (see ch. Matthew 19:3-4), since it is their duty to examine everything which is lawful or unlawful; cf. ch. Matthew 22:17.
And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet.Matthew 14:5. Ἐφοβήθη, feared) They often fear who crush the witnesses of truth, whilst the witnesses themselves fear not their oppressors.
 An evil purpose, which has been scarcely begun, is afterwards, whenever a very slight opportunity may present itself, brought forth into action.—V. g.
But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod.Matthew 14:6. Γενεσίῳν) Either the day on which he was born, as the LXX. use the word in Genesis 40:20, or that on which he began to reign. Remarkable days of high festival are accompanied with great danger of falling into sin.—ὠρχήσατο, she danced) A light matter; the handle of a most weighty matter.—θυγάτηρ, daughter) Salome by name.—ἐν τῶ μέσῳ, in the midst) in the sight of all during the banquet.
 Of this kind are, for instance, dedication-festivals, market-days, etc.; for, when these are celebrated according to custom, often weariness and lamentations succeed to vain rejoicings. And yet the world does not allow itself to be advised to better things.—V. g.
Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask.Matthew 14:7. Ὡμολόγνσεν, promised, agreed) The girl had asked by dancing; and the king appears, even before this, to have been in the habit of giving her something on his birth-day.
And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger.Matthew 14:8. Προβιβασθεῖσα, being before instructed) i.e. before she asked.—ὧδε, here) Before the king could repent.—πίνακι, in a charger) which perhaps she held in her hand. The ungodly know how to propose the most horrible things with elegance of language and sweetness of sound.
And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her.Matthew 14:9. Ἐλυπήθη, was grieved) Conscience was not yet entirely banished from the monarch’s breast. The sudden necessity of executing an evil purpose startles even the worst. The joys of this world are accompanied by sadness.—ὁ βασιλεὺς, the king) strictly tetrarch; see Matthew 14:1.—συνανακειμένους, reclining at his table) The king feared the guests, the guests the king. By not interceding as they ought to have done for John, they became accomplices in his murder.
And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison.Matthew 14:10. Ἀπεκεφάλισε, he beheaded) Even this kind of death was a proof that John was not the Messiah: cf. John 19:36.—Ἰωάννην, John) a sudden and violent death, even by decapitation, is not always miserable.
 It was not fitting, to wit, that even a bone of Christ’s body should be broken, much less His head taken off.—V. g.
And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother.Matthew 14:11. Τῇ μητρὶ αὐτῆς, to her mother) who without doubt treated it cruelly.
And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.Matthew 14:12. Τὸ σῶμα, his body) without the head.—ἐλθόντες, κ.τ.λ., coming, etc.) From that circumstance the death of John was advantageous to his disciples.—ἀπήγγειλαν, announced) It is not said with what manifestation of feeling Jesus received this announcement; doubtless He received it as it befitted the Lord.
 That is, the death of their master was the means of leading them to Jesus—the greatest of all blessings.—ED.
When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.Matthew 14:13. Ἀκούσς, having heard) sc. those things which are mentioned in Matthew 14:1-12.—ἀνεχώρησεν, departed) The murderer of the Baptist was unworthy to hear or see the Lord: see ch. Matthew 21:23-27. Afterwards, indeed, he did see Him; Luke 23:8; not, however, coming of His own accord, but forced by the violence of His enemies; and therefore Herod’s seeing Him, on that occasion, was not a sign of favour. Cf. the case of Samuel and Saul, 1 Samuel 15:35; 1 Samuel 19:24.—κατʼ ἰδίαν, apart) no one being taken with Him, except His disciples.—πεξῇ, on foot) See Eustathius.
 Namely, that the fame of Himself had reached Herod. Comp. John 4:13.—Harm., p. 331.
 EUSTATHIUS, the grammarian, who flourished in the twelfth century, was Bishop of Thessalonica. He wrote commentaries on Homer, and on Dionysius the geographer. He must not be confounded with the amatory writer, Eumathius the Macrembolite, who wrote under this name in the fifteenth century, and was an obscure grammarian.—(I. B.)
And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion toward them, and he healed their sick.Matthew 14:14. Ἐξελθὼν, having come forth) sc. from His retreat into public.
And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals.Matthew 14:15. Ὀψίας, evening) The evening has various degrees; see Matthew 14:23.—ἡ ὥρα, the hour) sc. for dismissing the people, of taking food and rest, or of going to search for food.—ἑαυτοῖς for themselves) The disciples seem sometimes to have bought food for them.
But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat.Matthew 14:16. Οὐ χρείαν, no need) We should not labour for that which is not necessary.—ὑμεῖς, you) significantly. The disciples already possessed the rudiments of miraculous faith.
 In the original, “Rudimenta fidei miraculorum apud discipulos”—i.e. that special faith which is required for the performance of miracles.—(I. B.)
And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes.Matthew 14:17. Ἄρτους, loaves) obtained for the present exigency one by one.
He said, Bring them hither to me.
And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude.Matthew 14:19. Ἀνακλιθῆναι, to be seated) The faith of the people is thus exercised.—τοὺς ἄρτους, the loaves) sc. whatever was there.—ἀναβλέψας, looking up) Jesus referred everything to the Father (see John 11:41; John 17:1) with the most entire confidence: far different from the practice of sinners; see Luke 18:13.—οἱ δὲ μαθηταὶ, but His disciples) A prelude to their future administration. See Acts 4:35.
 Sc. of the charities distributed to the needy brethren.—ED.)
And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full.Matthew 14:20. Πἀντες, all) How much more can all partake of the one body of the Lord in the Holy Super.—κλασμάτων, of fragments) of most excellent bread; cf. John 2:10. A most substantial miracle. The people were not permitted to carry any away for the sake of curiosity.—δώδεκα, twelve) see Gnomon on ch. Matthew 16:9. There were remnants also of fishes; see Mark 6:43. They were preserved for future eating, not, like manna, as a memorial.
And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, beside women and children.Matthew 14:21. Γυναικῶν καὶ παιδίων, women and children) of whom no doubt there was a large number.
And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away.Matthew 14:22. Εὐθέως, straightway) Our consideration ought not to dwell on things which we have well done.—ἠνάγκασεν, constrained, compelled) as it is allowable to believe, for important reasons. They did not willingly sail alone.—τὸ πλοῖον, the vessel) mentioned in Matthew 14:13.—ἕως, κ.τ.λ., until, etc.) He is not said to have told them that He should pray. He gave an example of praying in secret.
And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone.Matthew 14:23. Τὸ ὄρος, the mountain) which was in that region. Mountains and elevated places (see Acts 10:9) are especially suited for prayer, on account of their solitude, and their being open to heaven.—κατʼ ἰδίαν, apart) Not even the disciples being present. In such a retreat, matters of the greatest importance took place between God and the Mediator. It was no dramatic representation that interceded for us. What passed between Christ and the Father may be inferred, for example, from Psalms 16 and Luke 11:2-3. Cf. Matthew 14:1 and John 17—προσεύξασθαι, to pray) beyond midnight; see Matthew 14:25. The fruit may be seen in Matthew 14:33-34.
 “Non intercessit actio scenica”—i.e. our Lord’s intercession was real, genuine, substantial; not mythical, theatrical, or fictitious.—(I. B.)
But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves: for the wind was contrary.
And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea.Matthew 14:25. Τετάρτη, fourth) and last. The Jews also divided the night into four watches. The disciples were subjected to great straits for some time, till He brought them help.—ἀπῆλθε, He departed) His prayers, though they had lasted a long while, being as it were broken off, He departed to help His disciples.—περιπατῶν, κ.τ.λ., walking) though the wind blew strong.
And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear.Matthew 14:26. Ἐτάραχθησαν, they were troubled) We often take Christ for another rather than for Christ: cf. Matthew 14:2. The disciples now feared not only the sea, but also the Lord.—φάντασμα, an apparition) φάντασμα and φάσμα are identical in meaning. See Wis 17:15; Wis 17:4. Nor does φαντασία greatly differ from them. Ibid. Matthew 18:17.
But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid.
And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water.Matthew 14:28. Κέλευσον, command) A remarkable exercise of faith. Peter, from desire for Jesus, leaves the vessel, whether he has to walk on the sea or to swim through it. Cf. John 21:7.
And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus.Matthew 14:29. Ἐλθε, come) More is required of him who offers himself spontaneously to Christ; he is more greatly tempted, more mightily preserved.
But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me.Matthew 14:30. Βλέπων, seeing) Peter both felt the wind, and saw it on the waves.—τὸν ἄνεμον the wind.) The wind had been strong before that, but had not been so much observed by Peter.—ἐφοβήθη, he was afraid) Although he was a fisherman, and a good swimmer; see John 21:7. They who have begun to depend on grace are less able to employ nature.—καταποντίζεσθαι, to sink) According to the measure of his faith, he was supported by the water; just as the Israelites prevailed according as the hands of Moses were held up.
And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?Matthew 14:31. Ὀλιγόπιστε, O thou of little faith) Even great faith is little in comparison of that which we ought to have. We should also possesss constancy.—εἰς τί, wherefore? to what end?) With what advantage? He is not blamed because he came out of the vessel, but because he did not remain in the firmness of faith. He was right in exposing himself to trial; but he ought to have persevered.—ἑδίστασας, didst thou doubt) The nature of faith is perceived from its opposites, doubt and fear. See Mark 5:36; Romans 14:23; Jam 1:6.
 Matthew 14:33. Θεοῦ υἱὸς εἶ, Thou art the Son of God) Since they perceived that Jesus was such by reason of His miraculous walking on the sea, they ought not to have wondered at this very miracle to such a degree as to be lost in amazement. It is for this reason they are censured by Mark 6:51-52. For the mind, which faith has rendered intelligent and sober, unlearns excess of astonishment—Harm., p. 333.
Matthew 14:35. οἱ ἄνδρες, the men) who perhaps were engaged in labouring in the fields.—V. g.
And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.
Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God.
And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret.
And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased;
And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched were made perfectly whole.Matthew 14:36. Μόνον, κ.τ.λ., only, etc.) Such was their pious humility.
 Ὅσοι ἥψαντο, as many as touched Him) Out of so great crowds of miserable men, not even one is found who met with a repulse in seeking help from Jesus. However, those who were ungrateful were subsequently reproved, and those who needed it were warned to avoid new acts of sin.—Harm., p. 337.