Homilies of Chrysostom
Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip.
For if the word spoken by angels was stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of reward;
How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;
God also bearing them witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?
For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak.
"For unto Angels He hath not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak. But one in a certain place testified, saying, What is man that Thou art mindful of him, or the son of man that Thou visitest him? Thou madest him a little lower than the Angels."
[1.] I could have wished to know for certain whether any hear with fitting earnestness the things that are said, whether we are not casting the seeds by the wayside: for in that case I should have made my instructions with more cheerfulness. For we shall speak, though no one hear, for the fear which is laid on us by our Saviour. For, saith He, testify to this people; even if they hear not, thou shalt thyself be guiltless. (See Ezekiel 3:19.) If however I had been persuaded of your earnestness, I should have spoken not for fear only, but should have done it with pleasure also. For now indeed, even if no man hear, even if my work, so long as I fulfill my own part, brings no danger, still the labor is not altogether pleasant. For what profit is it, when though I be not blamed, yet no one is benefited? But if any would give heed we shall receive advantage not so much from avoiding punishment ourselves as from your progress.
How then shall I know this? Having taken notice of some of you, who are not very attentive, I shall question them privately, when I meet them. And if I find that they retain any of the things that have been spoken (I say not all, for this would not be very easy for you), but even if [they retain] a few things out of many, it is plain I should have no further doubts about the rest. And indeed we ought, without giving notice beforehand, to have attacked you when off your guard. However it will suffice, if even in this way I should be able to attain my purpose. Nay rather, even as it is, I can attack you when you are off your guard. For that I shall question you, I have forewarned you; but when I shall question you I do not as yet make evident. For perhaps it may be to-day; perhaps to-morrow, perhaps after twenty or thirty days, perhaps after fewer, perhaps after more. Thus has God also made uncertain the day of our death. Nor hath He allowed it be clear to us, whether it shall befall us to-day, or to-morrow, or after a whole year, or after many years; that through the uncertainty of the expectation we may through all time keep ourselves firm in virtue. And that we shall indeed depart, He hath said,--but when, He hath not yet said. Thus too I have said that I shall question you, but I have not added when, wishing you always to be thoughtful.
And let no man say, I heard these things four or five weeks ago, or more, and I cannot retain them. For I wish the hearer so to retain them as to have his recollection perpetual and not apt to fade, nor yet that he should disown what is spoken. For I wish you to retain them, not, in order to tell them to me, but that ye may have profit; and this is of most serious interest to me. Let no one then say this.
[2.] However, I must now begin with what follows in the epistle. What then is set before us to speak on to-day?
"For not to angels," he says, "did He put in subjection the world to come,  whereof we speak." Is he then discoursing concerning some other world? No, but concerning this. Therefore he added "whereof we speak," that he might not allow the mind to wander away in search of some other. How then does he call it "the world to come"? Exactly as he also says in another place, "Who is the figure of him that was to come,"  (Romans 5:14 ,) when he is speaking about Adam and Christ in the Epistle to the Romans; calling Christ according to the flesh "Him that was to come" in respect of the times of Adam, (for [then] He was to come). So now also, since he had said, "but when he bringeth in the First-Begotten into the world": that thou mightest not suppose that he is speaking of another world, it is made certain from many considerations and from his saying "to come." For the world was to come, but the Son of God always was. This world then which was about to come, He put in subjection not to Angels but to Christ. For that this is spoken with reference to the Son (he says) is evident: for surely no one would assert the other alternative, that it had reference to Angels.
Then he brings forward another testimony also and says, "but one in a certain place testified, saying." Wherefore did he not mention the name of the prophet, but hid it? Yea, and in other testimonies also he doth this: as when he saith, "but when He bringeth in again the First-Begotten into the world, He saith, And let all the Angels of God worship Him. And again, I will be to Him a Father. And of the Angels He saith, Who maketh His angels spirits. And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundations of the earth" (c. i. 6, 5, 7, 10):--so also here he saith, "but one in a certain place testified, saying." And this very thing (I conceive) is the act of one that conceals himself, and shows that they were well skilled in the Scriptures; his not setting down him who uttered the testimony, but introducing it as familiar and obvious.
"What is man that Thou art mindful of him, or the son of man that Thou visitest him? Thou madest him a little lower than the angels: Thou crownedst him with glory and honor."  (Ver. 8.) "Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet."
Now although these things were spoken of human nature generally, they would nevertheless apply more properly to Christ according to the flesh. For this, "Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet," belongs to Him rather than to us. For the Son of God visited us when we were nothing: and after having assumed our [nature],  and united it to Himself, He became higher than all.
"For," he says, "in that He hath put all things in subjection under Him, He left nothing not put under Him: but now we see not yet all things put under Him." What he means is this:--since he had said, "Until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool" (c. i. 13),--and it was likely that they would still be grieved,--then having inserted a few things after this parenthetically, he added this testimony in confirmation of the former. For that they might not say, How is it that He hath put His enemies under His feet, when we have suffered so much? he sufficiently hinted at it in the former place indeed (for the word "until" showed, not what should take place immediately, but in course of time) but here he followeth it up. For do not suppose (he says) that because they have not yet been made subject, they are not to be made subject: for that they must be made subject, is evident; for, on this account was the prophecy spoken. "For," he says, "in that He hath put all things under Him, He left nothing not put under Him." How then is it that all things have not been put under Him? Because they are hereafter to be put under Him.
If then all things must be made subject to Him, but have not yet been made subject, do not grieve, nor trouble thyself. If indeed when the end were come, and all things were made subject, thou wert still suffering these things, with reason wouldst thou repine: "But now we see not yet all things put under Him." The King has not yet clearly conquered. Why then art thou troubled when suffering affliction? the preaching [of the Gospel] hath not yet prevailed over all; it is not yet time that they should be altogether made subject.
[3.] Then again there is another consolation if indeed He who is hereafter to have all put in subjection under Him, hath Himself also died and submitted to sufferings innumerable. (Ver. 9.) "But," he says, "we see Him who was made a little  lower than the angels, even Jesus, for the suffering of death"--then the good things again,--"crowned with glory and honor." Seest thou, how all things apply to Him? For the [expression], "a little," would rather suit Him, who was only three days in Hades, but not ourselves who are for a long time in corruption. Likewise also the [expression] "with glory and honor" will suit Him much more than us.
Again, he reminds them of the Cross, thereby effecting two things; both showing His care [for them] and persuading them to bear all things nobly, looking to the Master. For (he would say) if He who is worshiped of Angels, for thy sake endured to have a little less than the Angels, much more oughtest thou who art inferior to the Angels, to bear all things for His sake. Then he shows that the Cross is "glory and honor," as He Himself also always calls it, saying, "That the Son of Man might be glorified" (John 11:5); and, "the Son of Man is glorified." (John 12:23.) If then He calls the [sufferings] for His servants' sake "glory," much more shouldest thou the [sufferings] for the Lord.
Seest thou the fruit of the Cross, how great it is? fear not the matter: for it seemeth to thee indeed to be dismal, but it brings forth good things innumerable. From these considerations he shows the benefit of trial. Then he says, "That He by the grace of God should taste death for every man."
"That by the grace of God," he says. And He indeed because of the grace of God towards us suffered these things. "He who spared not His Own Son," he says, "but delivered Him up for us all." (Romans 8:32.) Why? He did not owe us this, but has done it of grace. And again in the Epistle to the Romans he says, "Much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace which is by one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many." (Romans 5:15.)
"That by the grace of God He should taste death for every man," not for the faithful only, but even for the whole world: for He indeed died for all; But what if all have not believed? He hath fulfilled His own [part].
Moreover he said rightly "taste death for every man," he did not say "die." For as if He really was tasting it, when He had spent a little time therein, He immediately arose.
By saying then "for the suffering of death," he signified real death, and by saying "superior to angels," he declared the resurrection. For as a physician though not needing to taste the food prepared for the sick man, yet in his care for him tastes first himself, that he may persuade the sick man with confidence to venture on the food, so since all men were afraid of death, in persuading them to take courage against death, He tasted it also Himself though He needed not. "For," He says, "the prince of this world cometh and findeth nothing in Me." (John 14:30.) So both the words "by grace" and "should taste death for every man," establish this.
[4.] Ver. 10. "For it became Him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings." He speaks here of the Father. Seest thou how again he applies the [expression] "by whom"  to Him? Which he would not have done, had it been [an expression] of inferiority, and only applicable to the Son. And what he says is this:--He has done what is worthy of His love towards mankind, in showing His First-born to be more glorious than all, and in setting Him forth as an example to the others, like some noble wrestler that surpasses the rest.
"The Captain of their salvation," that is, the Cause of their salvation. Seest thou how great is the space between? Both He is a Son, and we are sons; but He saves, we are saved. Seest thou how He both brings us together and then separates us; "bringing," he says, "many sons unto glory": here he brings us together,--"the Captain of their salvation," again he separates.
"To make perfect through sufferings."  Then sufferings are a perfecting, and a cause of salvation. Seest thou that to suffer affliction is not the portion of those who are utterly forsaken; if indeed it was by this that God first honored His Son, by leading Him through sufferings? And truly His taking flesh to suffer what He did suffer, is a far greater thing than making the world, and bringing it out of things that are not. This indeed also is [a token] of His loving-kindness, but the other far more. And [the Apostle] himself also pointing out this very thing, says, "That in the ages to come He might show forth the exceeding riches of His goodness, He both raised us up together, and made us sit together in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus." (Ephesians 2:7, 6.)
"For it became Him for whom are all things and by whom are all things in bringing many sons to glory, to make the Captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings." For (he means) it became Him who taketh tender care, and brought all things into being, to give up the Son for the salvation of the rest, the One for the many. However he did not express himself thus, but, "to make perfect through sufferings," showing the suffering for any one, not merely profits "him," but he himself also becomes more glorious and more perfect. And this too he says in reference to the faithful, comforting them by the way: for Christ was glorified then when He suffered. But when I say, He was glorified, do not suppose that there was an accession of glory to Him: for that which is of nature He always had, and received nothing in addition.
[5.] "For," he says, "both He that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one, for which cause He is not ashamed to call them brethren." Behold again how he brings [them] together, honoring and comforting them, and making them brethren of Christ, in this respect that they are "of one."  Then again guarding himself and showing that he is speaking of that which is according to the flesh, he introduces, "For He who sanctifieth," [i. e.] Christ, "and they who are sanctified," ourselves. Dost thou see how great is the difference?  He sanctifies, we are sanctified. And above he said, "the Captain of their salvation. For there is one God, of whom are all things."  (1 Corinthians 8:6.)
"For which cause He is not ashamed to call them brethren." Seest thou how again he shows the superiority? For by saying, "He is not ashamed," he shows that the whole comes not of the nature of the thing, but of the loving affection of Him who was "not ashamed" of anything, [yea] of His great humility. For though we be "of one," yet He sanctifieth and we are sanctified: and great is the difference.  Moreover "He" is of the Father, as a true Son, that is, of His substance; "we," as created, that is, brought out of things that are not, so that the difference is great. Wherefore he says, "He is not ashamed to call them brethren" (ver. 12), "saying, I will declare Thy name unto My brethren." (Psalm 22:22.) For when He clothed Himself with flesh, He clothed Himself also with the brotherhood, and at the same time came in the brotherhood.
This indeed he brings forward naturally. But this (ver. 13) "I will put my trust in Him" (2 Samuel 22:3), what does it mean? For what follows this is also [introduced] naturally. "Behold, I and the children which God hath given Me." (Isaiah 8:18.) For as here He shows Himself a Father, so before, a Brother. "I will declare Thy name unto My brethren," He saith.
And again he indicates the superiority and the great interval [between us], by what follows (ver. 14): "Since then the children," he saith, "are partakers of flesh and blood" (thou seest where he saith the likeness is? in reference to the flesh), "in like manner He also Himself took part of the same." Let all the Heretics be ashamed, let those hide their faces who say that He came in appearance and not in reality.  For he did not say, "He took part of these" only, and then say no more; although had he said thus, it would have been sufficient, but he asserted something more, adding "in like manner," not in appearance, he means, or by an image (since in that case "in like manner" is not preserved) but in reality; showing the brotherhood.
[6.] Next he sets down also the cause of the economy.  "That through death," he says, "He might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil."
Here he points out the wonder, that by what the devil prevailed, by that was he overcome, and the very thing which was his strong weapon against the world, [namely], Death, by this Christ smote him. In this he exhibits the greatness of the conqueror's power. Dost thou see how great good death hath wrought?
Ver. 15. "And should deliver them," he says, "who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage." Why (he means) do ye shudder? Why do you fear him that hath been brought to nought? He is no longer terrible, but has been trodden under foot, hath been utterly despised; he is vile and of no account. (2 Timothy 1:10.)
But what is "through fear of death were all their life-time subject to bondage"? He either means this, that he who fears death is a slave, and submits to all things rather than die; or this, that all men were slaves of death and were held under his power, because he had not yet been done away; or that men lived in continual fear, ever expecting that they should die, and being afraid of death, could have no sense of pleasure, while this fear was present with them. For this he hinted at in saying, "All their life-time." He here shows that the afflicted, the harassed, the persecuted, those that are deprived of country and of substance and of all other things, spend their lives more sweetly and more freely than they of old time who were in luxury, who suffered no such afflictions, who were in continual prosperity, if indeed these "all their life-time" were under this fear and were slaves; while the others have been made free and laugh at that which they shudder at. For this is now as if, when one was being led away to a captivity leading to death, and in continual expectation of it, one should feed him up with abundant dainties (something such as this was Death of old); but now, as if some one taking away that fear together with the dainties, were to promise a contest, and propose a combat that should lead no longer to death, but to a kingdom. Of which number wouldst thou have wished to be--those who are fed up in the prison-house, while every day looking for their sentence, or those who contend much and labor willingly, that they may crown themselves with the diadem of the kingdom? Seest thou how he has raised up their soul, and made them elated? He shows too, that not death alone has been put an end to, but that thereby he also who is ever showing that war without truce against us, I mean the devil, hath been brought to nought; since he that fears not death is out of reach of the devil's tyranny. For if "skin for skin, yea all things a man would give for his life" (Job 2:4)--when any one has determined to disregard even this, of what henceforward will he be the slave? He fears no one, he is in terror of no one, he is higher than all, and more free than all. For he that disregards his own life, much more [doth he disregard] all other things. And when the devil finds a soul such as this, he can accomplish in it none of his works. For what? tell me, shall he threaten the loss of property, and degradation, and banishment from one's country? But these are small matters to him who "counteth not even his life dear" (Acts 20:24) unto him, according to the blessed Paul. Thou seest that in casting out the tyranny of death, he also overthrew the strength of the devil. For he who has learnt to study innumerable [truths] concerning the resurrection,  how should he fear death? How should he shudder any more?
[7.] Therefore be ye not grieved, saying, why do we suffer such and such things? For so the victory becomes more glorious. And it would not have been glorious, unless by death He had destroyed death; but the most wonderful thing is that He conquered him by the very means by which he was strong, showing in every point the abundance of His means, and the excellence of His contrivances. Let us not then prove false to the gift bestowed on us. "For we," he says, "have received not a spirit of fear, but a spirit of power, and of love, and of a sound mind." (Romans 8:15; 2 Timothy 1:7.) Let us stand then nobly, laughing death to scorn.
But [I pause] for it comes over me to groan bitterly [at the thought of] whither Christ hath raised us up, and whither we have brought ourselves down. For when I see the wailings in the public places, the groanings over those departing life, the howlings, the other unseemly behavior, believe me, I am ashamed before those heathen, and Jews, and heretics who see it, and before all who for this cause openly laugh us to scorn. For whatever I may afterwards say, I shall talk to no purpose, when philosophizing concerning the resurrection. Why? Because the heathen do not attend to what is said by me, but to what is done by you. For they will say at once, when will any of these [fellows] be able to despise death, when he is not able to see another dead?'
Beautiful things were spoken by Paul, beautiful and worthy of Heaven, and of the love of God to man. For what does he say? "And He shall deliver them who through fear of death, were all their life-time subject to bondage." But ye do not allow these things to be believed, fighting against them by your deeds. And yet many things exist for this very end, God building a stronghold against it, that He might destroy this same evil custom. For tell me, what mean the bright torches? Do we not send them before as athletes? And what [mean] the hymns? Do we not glorify God, and give thanks that at last He has crowned the departed one, that He has freed him from his labors, that taking away uncertainty, He has him with Himself? Are not the Hymns for this? Is not Psalmody for this? All these are the acts of those rejoicing. "For," it is said, "is any merry? let him sing psalms." (James 5:13.) But to these things the heathen give no heed. For (one will say) do not tell me of him who is philosophical  when out of the affliction, for this is nothing great or surprising;--show me a man who in the very affliction itself is philosophical, and then I will believe the resurrection,
And indeed, that women engaged in the affairs of this life  should act thus is no way surprising. And yet indeed this even is dreadful; for from them also is the same philosophy required. Wherefore also Paul says, "But concerning them which are asleep, I would not have you ignorant, that ye sorrow not even as the rest who have no hope." (1 Thess. iv. 13.) He wrote not this to solitaries, nor to perpetual virgins, but to women and men in the world.  But however this is not so dreadful. But when any man or woman, professing to be crucified to the world, he tears his hair, and she shrieks violently--what can be more unseemly than this? Believe me when I say if things were done as they ought, such persons should be excluded for a long time from the thresholds of the Church. For those who are indeed worthy of being grieved for, are these who still fear and shudder at death, who have no faith in the resurrection.
But I do not disbelieve the resurrection' (one says) but I long after his society.' Why then, tell me, when he goes from home, and that for a long absence, dost not thou do the same? Yea, but I do weep then also' (she says) and mourn as I long after him.' But that is the conduct of those that really long after their associates, this that of her who despairs of his return.
Think, what thou singest on that occasion, "Return unto thy rest, O my soul, for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee." (Psalm 116:7.) And again, "I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me." (Psalm 23:4.) And again, "Thou art my refuge from the affliction which encompasseth me." (Psalm 32:7.) Think what these Psalms mean. But thou dost not give heed, but art drunk from grief.
Consider carefully the funeral lamentations of others that thou mayest have a remedy in thine own case. "Return, O my soul, to thy rest, for the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee." Tell me, sayest thou that the Lord hath dealt bountifully with thee, and weepest? Is not this mere acting, is it not hypocrisy? For if indeed thou really believest the things thou sayest, thy sorrow is superfluous: but if thou art in sport and acting a part, and thinkest these things fables, why dost thou sing psalms? Why dost thou even endure the attendants? Why dost thou not drive away the singers? But this would be the act of madmen. And yet far more the other.
For the present, then, I advise you: but as time goes on, I shall treat the matter more seriously: for indeed I am greatly afraid that by this practice some grievous disease may make its way into the Church. The case of the wailings then we will hereafter correct. And meanwhile I charge and testify, both to rich and poor, both to women and men.
May God indeed grant that you all depart out of life unwailed, and according to the fitting rule fathers now grown old may be attended to their graves by sons, and mothers by daughters, and grand-children, and great grand-children, in a green old age, and that untimely death may in no case occur. May this then be, and this I pray, and I exhort the prelates and all of you to beseech God for each other, and to make this prayer in common. But if (which God forbid, and may it never happen) any bitter death should occur, bitter, I mean, not in its nature (for henceforth there is no bitter death, for it differs not at all from sleep), but bitter in regard of your disposition, if it should happen, and any should hire these mourning women, believe me when I say (I speak not without meaning  but as I have resolved, let him who will, be angry), that person we will exclude from the Church for a long time, as we do the idolater. For if Paul calls "the covetous man an idolater" (Ephesians 5:5), much more him who brings in the practices of the idolaters over a believer.
For, tell me, for what cause dost thou invite presbyters, and the singers? Is it not to afford consolation? Is it not to honor the departed? Why then dost thou insult him? And why dost thou make him a public show? And why dost thou make game as on a stage? We come, discoursing of the things concerning the resurrection, instructing all, even those who have not yet been smitten, by the honor shown to him, to bear it nobly if any such thing should happen and dost thou bring those who overthrow our [teachings] as much as in them lieth? What can be worse than this ridicule and mockery? What more grievous than this inconsistency?
[8.] Be ashamed and show reverence: but if ye will not, we cannot endure the bringing in upon the Church of practices so destructive. For, it is said, "them that sin rebuke before all." (1 Timothy 5:20.) And as to those miserable and wretched women, we through you forbid them  ever to introduce themselves into the funerals of the faithful, lest we should oblige them in good earnest to wail over their own evils, and teach them not to do these things in the ills of others, but rather to weep for their own misfortunes. For an affectionate father too, when he has a disorderly son, not only advises him not to draw near to the wicked, but puts them in fear also. Behold then, I advise you, and those women through you, that you do not invite such persons, and that they do not attend. And may God grant that my words may produce some effect, and that my threat may avail. But if (which God forbid) we should be disregarded, we have no choice henceforward but to put our threat into execution, chastising you by the laws of the Church, and those women as befits them.
Now if any man is obstinate and contemptuous, let him hear Christ saying even now, "If any one trespass against thee, go, tell him his fault between thee and him alone"; but if he will not be persuaded, "take with thee one or two." But if even so he contradict, "tell it to the Church, but if he shall also refuse to hear the Church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican." (Matthew 18:15, 16, 17.) Now if when a man trespasses against me, and will not be persuaded, [the Lord] commands me thus to turn away from him, judge ye in what light I ought to hold him who trespasses against himself, and against God. For do not you yourselves condemn us when we come down so gently upon you?
If however any man disregard the bonds which we inflict, again let Christ instruct him, saying, "Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." (Matthew 18:18.) For though we ourselves be miserable and good for nothing and worthy to be despised, as indeed we are; yet are we not avenging ourselves nor warding off anger, but are caring for your salvation.
Be influenced by reverence, I beseech you, and respect. For if a man bear with a friend when he attacks him more vehemently than he ought, ascertaining his object, and that he does it with kind intention, and not out of insolence; much more [should he bear with] a teacher when rebuking him, and a teacher who does not himself say these things as of authority, nor as one in the position of a ruler, but in that of a kindly guardian. For we do not say these things as wishing to exhibit our authority, (for how could we, praying that we may never come to the trial of them?) but grieving and lamenting for you.
Forgive me then, and let no man disregard the bonds of the Church. For it is not man who binds, but Christ who has given unto us this authority, and makes men lords of this so great dignity. For we indeed wish to use this power for loosing; or rather, we wish to have no need even of that, for we wish that there should not be any bound among us--we are not so miserable and wretched [as that] even though some of us are extreme good-for-nothings. If however we be compelled [so to act], forgive us. For it is not of our own accord, nor wishing it, but rather out of sorrow for you that are bound that we put the chains around you. But if any man despise these chains, the time of judgment will come, which shall teach him. And what comes after I do not wish to speak of, lest I should wound your minds. For in the first place indeed we do not wish to be brought into this necessity; but if we are so brought, we fulfill our own part, we cast around the chains. And if any man burst through them, I have done my part, and am henceforth free from blame, and thou wilt have to give account to Him who commanded me to bind.
For neither, when a king is sitting in public, if any of the guard who stand beside him be commanded to bind one of the attendants, and to put the chains around [him], and he should not only thrust this man away, but also break the bonds in pieces, is it the guard who suffers the insult, and not much more the King who gave the order. For if He claim as His own, the things which are done to the faithful, much more will He feel as if Himself insulted when he is insulted who has been appointed to teach.
But God grant that none of those who are over this Church should be driven to the necessity of [inflicting] these bonds. For as it is a good thing not to sin, so is it profitable to endure reproof. Let us then endure the rebuke, and earnestly endeavor not to sin; and if we should sin let us bear the rebuke. For as it is an excellent thing not to be wounded, but, if this should happen, to apply the remedy to the wound, so also in this case.
But God forbid that any man should need such remedies as these. "But we are persuaded better things of you, and things that accompany salvation, though we thus speak." (c. vi. 9.) But we have discoursed more vehemently for the sake of greater security. For it is better that I should be suspected by you of being a harsh, and severe, and self-willed person, than that you should do things not approved of God. But we trust in God, that this reproof will not be unserviceable to you, but that ye will be so changed, that these discourses may be devoted to encomiums on you and to praises: that we may all be counted worthy to attain to those good things, which God hath promised to them that love Him in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost be glory, might, honor, now and for ever and world without end. Amen.
 ten mellousan
 tou mellontos
 S. B. add kai katestesas auton epi ta erga ton cheiron sou. This clause is omitted from the text of the Epistle by critical editors of the New Testament, and is not commented on by St. Chrysostom. [It is bracketed by Lu., Tr., W. H., and the Basle ed., but retained in the Revision.--F.G.]
 to ex hemon
 or, "for a short time."
 di hou, see above, note 4, p. 366.
 suffering perfects and works salvation.
 e x henos
 to meson
 This citation is connected with "they are of one," the intervening words, "Then again...salvation," being introduced parenthetically.
 to meson
 Cf. St. Iren. pp. 450, 482, 497, O.T.
 i. e. the Incarnation. [oikonomia is not so much the Incarnation as the whole arrangement of the Christian dispensation--here with especial reference to Christ's death.--F.G.]
 muria philosophein
 The word includes the ideas of being patient, as well as of thinking and speaking deep things.
 kosmikais kai kosmikois
 a llos
 The hired wailers were heathens and not present: St. Chrys. hints at having some corporal punishment inflicted on them.
But one in a certain place testified, saying, What is man, that thou art mindful of him? or the son of man, that thou visitest him?
Thou madest him a little lower than the angels; thou crownedst him with glory and honour, and didst set him over the works of thy hands:
Thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that he put all in subjection under him, he left nothing that is not put under him. But now we see not yet all things put under him.
But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.
For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.
For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren,
Saying, I will declare thy name unto my brethren, in the midst of the church will I sing praise unto thee.
And again, I will put my trust in him. And again, Behold I and the children which God hath given me.
Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;
And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.
For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham.
"For verily He taketh not hold of Angels, but of the seed of Abraham He taketh hold.  Wherefore in all things it behooved Him to be made like unto His brethren."
[1.] Paul wishing to show the great kindness of God towards man, and the Love which He had for the human race, after saying: "Forasmuch then as the children were partakers of blood and flesh, He also Himself likewise took part of the same" (c. v. 14)--follows up the subject in this passage. For do not regard lightly what is spoken, nor think this merely a slight [matter], His taking on Him our flesh. He granted not this to Angels; "For verily He taketh not hold of Angels, but of the seed of Abraham." What is it that he saith? He took not on Him an Angel's nature, but man's. But what is "He taketh hold of"? He did not (he means) grasp that nature, which belongs to Angels, but ours. But why did he not say, "He took on Him," but used this expression, "He taketh hold of"? It is derived from the figure of persons pursuing those who turn away from them, and doing everything to overtake them as they flee, and to take hold of them as they are bounding away. For when human nature was fleeing from Him, and fleeing far away (for we "were far off"-- Ephesians 2:13), He pursued after and overtook us. He showed that He has done this only out of kindness, and love, and tender care. As then when he saith, "Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation" (c. i. 14)--he shows His extreme interest in behalf of human nature, and that God makes great account of it, so also in this place he sets it forth much more by a comparison, for he says, "He taketh not hold of angels." For in very deed it is a great and a wonderful thing, and full of amazement that our flesh should sit on high, and be adored by Angels and Archangels, by the Cherubim and the Seraphim. For myself having oftentimes thought upon this, I am amazed at it, and imagine to myself great things concerning the human race. For I see that the introductions are great and splendid, and that God has great zeal on behalf of our nature.
Moreover he said not "of men (simply) He taketh hold," but wishing to exalt them [the Hebrews] and to show that their race is great and honorable, he says, "but of the seed of Abraham He taketh hold."
"Wherefore it behooved [Him] in all things to be made like unto His brethren." What is this, "in all things"? He was born (he means), was brought up, grew, suffered all things necessary, at last He died. This is, "in all things to be made like unto His brethren." For after he had discoursed much concerning His majesty and the glory on high, he then begins concerning the dispensation. And consider with how great power [he doth this]. How he represents Him as having great zeal "to be made like unto us": which was a sign of much care. For having said above, "Inasmuch then as the children were partakers of flesh and blood, He also Himself in like manner took part of the same"; in this place also he says, "in all things to be made like unto His brethren." Which is all but saying, He that is so great, He that is "the brightness of His glory," He that is "the express image of His person," He that "made the worlds," He that "sitteth on the right hand of the Father," He was willing and earnest to become our brother in all things, and for this cause did He leave the angels and the other powers, and come down to us, and took hold of us, and wrought innumerable good things. He destroyed Death, He cast out the devil from his tyranny, He freed us from bondage: not by brotherhood alone did He honor us, but also in other ways beyond number. For He was willing also to become our High Priest with the Father: for he adds,
[2.] "That He might become a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God." For this cause (he means) He took on Him our flesh, only for Love to man, that He might have mercy upon us. For neither is there any other cause of the economy, but this alone. For He saw us, cast on the ground, perishing, tyrannized over by Death, and He had compassion on us. "To make reconciliation," he says, "for the sins of the people. That He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest."
What is "faithful"? True, able. For the Son is a faithful High Priest, able to deliver from their sins those whose High Priest He is. In order then that He might offer a sacrifice able to purify us, for this cause He has become man.
Accordingly he added, "in things pertaining to God,"--that is, for the sake of things in relation to God. We were become altogether enemies to God, (he would say) condemned, degraded, there was none who should offer sacrifice for us. He saw us in this condition, and had compassion on us, not appointing a High Priest for us, but Himself becoming a High Priest. In what sense He was "faithful," he added [viz.], "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people."
Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.
For in that he himself hath suffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted.
Ver. 18. "For," he says, "in that He hath suffered Himself being tempted, He is able to succor them that are tempted." This is altogether low and mean, and unworthy of God. "For in that He hath suffered Himself," he says. It is of Him who was made flesh that he here speaks, and it was said for the full assurance of the hearers, and on account of their weakness. That is (he would say) He went through the very experience of the things which we have suffered; "now" He is not ignorant of our sufferings; not only does He know them as God, but as man also He has known them, by the trial wherewith He was tried; He suffered much, He knows how to sympathize. And yet God is incapable of suffering: but he describes here what belongs to the Incarnation, as if he had said, Even the very flesh of Christ suffered many terrible things. He knows what tribulation is; He knows what temptation is, not less than we who have suffered, for He Himself also has suffered.
(What then is this, "He is able to succor them that are tempted"? It is as if one should say, He will stretch forth His hand with great eagerness, He will be sympathizing.)
[3.] Since they wished for something great, and to have an advantage over the [converts] from the Gentiles, he shows that they have an advantage in this while he did not hurt those from the Gentiles at all. In what respect now is this? Because of them is the salvation, because He took hold of them first, because from that race He assumed flesh. "For," he says, "He taketh not hold of angels, but of the seed of Abraham He taketh hold." Hereby he both gives honor to the Patriarch, and shows also what "the seed of Abraham" is. He reminds them of the promise made to him, saying, "To thee and to thy seed will I give this land" (Genesis 13:15); showing by the very least thing, the nearness [of the relationship] in that they were "all of one." But that nearness was not great: [so] he comes back to this, and thenceforward dwells upon the dispensation which was after the flesh, and says, Even the mere willing to become man was a proof of great care and love; but now it is not this alone, but there are also the undying benefits which are bestowed on us through Him, for, he says, "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people."
Why said he not, of the world, instead of "the people"? for He bare away the sins of all. Because thus far his discourse was concerning them [the Hebrews]. Since the Angel also said to Joseph, "Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall save His people." (Matthew 1:21.) For this too ought to have taken place first, and for this purpose He came, to save them and then through them the rest, although the contrary came to pass. This also the Apostles said at the first, "To you [God] having raised up His Son, sent [Him] to bless you" (Acts 3:26): and again, "To you was the word of this Salvation sent." (Acts 13:26.) Here he shows the noble birth of the Jews, in saying, "to make reconciliation for the sins of the people." For a while he speaks in this way. For that it is He who forgives the sins of all men, He declared both in the case of the paralytic, saying, "Thy sins are forgiven" (Mark 2:5); and also in that of Baptism: for He says to the disciples, "Go ye and teach all nations, baptizing them in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." (Matthew 28:19.)
[4.] But when Paul has once taken in hand the flesh, he proceeds to utter all the lowly things, without any fear: for see what he says next:
C. iii. 1, 2. "Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus, who was faithful to Him that appointed [or made] Him, as also Moses [was faithful] in all His house."
Being about to place Him before Moses in comparison, he led his discourse to the law of the high-priesthood; for they all had a high esteem for Moses: moreover, he is already beforehand casting down the seeds of the superiority. Therefore he begins from the flesh, and goes up to the Godhead, where there was no longer any comparison. He began from the flesh [from His Human nature], by assuming for a time the equality, and says, "as also Moses in all His house": nor does he at first show His superiority lest the hearer should start away, and straightway stop his ears. For although they were believers, yet nevertheless they still had strong feeling of conscience as to Moses. "Who was faithful," he says, "to Him that made Him"--made [Him] what? "Apostle and High Priest." He is not speaking at all in this place of His Essence, nor of His Godhead; but so far concerning human dignities.
"As also Moses in all His house," that is, either among the people, or in the temple. But here he uses the expression "in His house," just as one might say, concerning those in the household; even as some guardian and steward of a household, so was Moses to the people. For that by "house" he means the people, he added, "whose house we are" (c. iii. 6); that is, we are in His creation. Then [comes] the superiority.
Ver. 3. "For this man was counted worthy of more glory than Moses," (Again [he is speaking] of the Flesh), "inasmuch as he who hath builded  [the house] hath more honor than the house"; [Moses] himself also (he means) was of the house. (Moreover he did not say, For this one was a servant, but the Other a master, but he covertly intimated it.) If the people were the house and he was of the people, then he certainly was of the household. For so also we are accustomed to say, such an one is of such an one's house. For here he is speaking of a house, not of the temple, for the temple was not constructed by God, but by men. But He that made  him [is] God. Moses he means. And see how he covertly shows the superiority. "Faithful," he says, "in all His house," being himself also of the house, that is, of the people. The builder has more honor than the house, yet he did not say "the artificer hath more honor than his works," but "he that hath builded the house, than the house." (Ver. 4.) "But He that built all things is God." Thou seest that he is speaking not about the temple but about the whole people.
Ver. 5. "And Moses verily [was] faithful in all His house, as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be spoken." See also another point of superiority, that [which is derived] from the Son and the servants. You see again that by the appellation of The Son, he intimates true relationship. (Ver. 6.) "But Christ as a Son over His own house." Perceivest thou how he separates the thing made and the maker, the servant and the son? Moreover He indeed enters into His Father's property as a master, but the other as a servant.
"Whose" [i. e.] God's "house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end." Here again he encourages them to press forward nobly, and not to fall: for we shall be the "house" of God (he says), as Moses was, "if we hold fist our confidence and our rejoicing firm unto the end." He however (he would say) that is distressed in his trials, and who falls, doth not glory: he that is ashamed, he that hideth himself, has no confidence, he that is perplexed doth not glory.
And then he also commends them, saying, "if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm unto the end," implying that they had even made a beginning; but that there is need of the end, and not simply to stand, but to have their hope firm "in full assurance of faith," without being shaken by their trials.
[5.] And be not astonished, that the [words] "Himself being tempted" (c. ii. 18) are spoken more after the manner of men. For if the Scripture says of the Father, who was not made flesh, "The Lord looked down from heaven, and beheld all the sons of men" (Psalm 14:2), that is, accurately acquainted Himself with all things; and again, "I will go down, and see whether they do altogether according to the cry of them" (Genesis 18:21); and again, "God cannot endure the evil ways of men" (Genesis 6:5 ?), the divine Scripture shows forth the greatness of His wrath: much more, who even suffered in the flesh, these things are said of Christ. For since many men consider experience the most reliable means of knowledge, he wishes to show that He that has suffered knows what human nature suffers.
"Whence  holy brethren" (he says "whence" instead of "for this cause"), "partakers of an heavenly calling"--(seek nothing here, if ye have been called yonder--yonder is the reward, yonder the recompense. What then?) "Consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus, who was faithful to Him that appointed Him, as also Moses [was faithful] in all His house." (What is "who was faithful to Him that appointed Him?" it is, well disposed, protecting what belongs to Him, not allowing them to be lightly carried away, "as also Moses in all His house") that is, know who your High Priest is, and what He is, and ye will need no other consolation nor encouragement. Now he calls Him "Apostle," on account of His having been "sent," and "high priest of our profession," that is of the Faith. This One also was entrusted with a people, as the other with the leadership of a people, but a greater one and upon higher grounds.
"For a testimony of those things which shall be spoken." What meanest thou? Doth God receive the witness of man? Yes, certainly. For if He call to witness heaven and earth and hills (saying by the prophet, "Hear, O heaven, and give ear, O earth, for the Lord hath spoken"-- Isaiah 1:2 --and "Hear ye ravines,  foundations of the earth, for the Lord hath a controversy with His people"-- Micah 6:2), much more men; that is, that they may be witnesses, when themselves [the Jews] shameless.
Ver. 6. "But Christ as a Son." The one takes care of the property of others, but this One of His own. "And the rejoicing of the hope." Well said he "of the hope." For since the good things were all in hope, and yet we ought so "to hold it fast," as even now to glory as for things which had already come to pass: for this cause he says, "the rejoicing of the hope."
And adds, "let us hold it firm unto the end." (Romans 8:24.) For "by hope we are saved"; if therefore "we are saved by hope," and "are waiting with patience" (Romans 8:25), let us not be grieved at present things, nor seek now those that have been promised afterwards; "For" (he says) "hope which is seen is not hope." For since the good things are great, we cannot receive them here in this transitory life. With what object then did He even tell us of them beforehand, when He was not about to give them here? In order that by the promise He might refresh our souls, that by the engagement He might strengthen our zeal, that He might anoint [preparing us for our contests] and stir up our mind. For this cause then all these things were done.
[6.] Let us not then be troubled, let no man be troubled, when he seeth the wicked prospering. The recompense is not here, either of wickedness or of virtue; and if in any instance there be either of wickedness or of virtue, yet is it not according to desert, but merely as it were a taste of the judgment, that they who believe not the resurrection may yet even by things that happen here be brought to their senses. When then we see a wicked man rich, let us not be cast down; when we see a good man suffering, let us not be troubled. For yonder are the crowns, yonder the punishments.
Yea and in another point of view, it is not possible either that a bad man should be altogether bad, but he may have some good things also: nor again that a good man should be altogether good, but he may also have some sins. When therefore the wicked man prospers, it is for evil on his own head, that having here received the reward of those few good things, he may hereafter be utterly punished yonder; for this cause does he receive his recompense in this life. And happy is he most of all who is punished here, that having put away all his sins, he may depart approved, and pure, and without having to be called to account. And this Paul teacheth us when he says, "For this cause many [are] weak and sickly among you, and many sleep." (1 Corinthians 11:30.) And again, "I have delivered such an one to Satan." (1 Corinthians 5:5.) And the prophet says, "for she hath received of the Lord's hand her sins double" (Isaiah 40.2); and again David, "Behold mine enemies that they are multiplied above the hairs of my head  and [with] an unjust hatred have they hated me": "and forgive Thou all my sins." (Psalm 25:19, 18.) And again another: "O Lord, our God, give peace unto us; for Thou hast rendered all things to us again." (Isaiah 26:12.)
These however are [the words] of one showing that good men receive here the punishments of their sins. But where are the wicked [mentioned] who receive their good things here, and there are utterly punished? Hear Abraham saying to the rich man, "Thou didst receive good things," and "Lazarus evil things." (Luke 16:25.) What good things? For in this place by saying "thou receivest,  " and not thou "hadst taken,  " he shows that it was according to what was due to him that each was treated, and that the one was in prosperity, and the other in adversity. And he says, "Therefore he is comforted" here (for thou seest him pure from sins) "and thou art tormented." Let us not then be perplexed when we see sinners well off here; but when we ourselves are afflicted, let us rejoice. For this very thing is paying off the penalty  of sins.
[7.] Let us not then seek relaxation: for Christ promised tribulation to His disciples and Paul says, "All Who will live godly in Christ Jesus, shall suffer persecution." (2 Timothy 3:12.) No noble-spirited wrestler, when in the lists,  seeks for baths, and a table full of food and wine. This is not for a wrestler, but for a sluggard. For the wrestler contendeth with dust, with oil, with the heat of the sun's ray, with much sweat, with pressure and constraint. This is the time for contest and for fighting, therefore also for being wounded, and for being bloody and in pain. Hear what the blessed Paul says, "So fight I, not as one that beateth the air." (1 Corinthians 9:26 .) Let us consider that our whole life is in combats, and then we shall never seek rest, we shall never feel it strange when we are afflicted: no more than a boxer feels it strange, when he combats. There is another season for repose. By tribulation we must be made perfect.
And even if there be no persecution, nor tribulation, yet there are other afflictions which befall us every day. And if we do not bear these, we should scarcely endure those. "There hath no temptation taken you," it is said, "but such as is common to man." (1 Corinthians 10:13.) Let us then pray indeed to God that we may not come into temptation; but if we come into it, let us bear it nobly. For that indeed is the part of prudent men, not to throw themselves upon dangers; but this of noble men and true philosophers. Let us not then lightly cast ourselves upon [dangers], for that is rashness; nor yet, if led into them, and called by circumstances let us give in, for that is cowardice. But if indeed the Gospel  call us, let us not refuse; but in a simple case, when there is no reason, nor need, nor necessity which calls us in the fear of God, let us not rush in. For this is mere display, and useless ambition. But should any of those things which are injurious to religion occur, then though it be necessary to endure ten thousand deaths, let us refuse nothing. Challenge not trials, when thou findest the things that concern godliness prosper as thou desirest. Why draw down needless dangers which bring no gain?
These things I say, because I wish you to observe the laws of Christ who commands us to "pray that we enter not into temptation" (Matthew 26:41), and commands us to "take up the cross and follow" Him. (Matthew 16:24.) For these things are not contradictory, nay they are rather exceedingly in harmony. Do thou be so prepared as is a valiant soldier, be continually in thine armor, sober, watchful, ever looking for the enemy: do not however breed wars, for this is not [the act] of a soldier but of a mover of sedition. But if on the other hand the trumpet of godliness call thee, go forth immediately, and make no account of thy life, and enter with great eagerness into the contests, break the phalanx of the adversaries, bruise the face of the devil, set up thy trophy. If however godliness be in nowise harmed, and no one lay waste our doctrines (those I mean which relate to the soul), nor compel us to do anything displeasing to God, do not be officious.
The life of the Christian must be full of blood-sheddings; I say not in shedding that of others, but in readiness to shed one's own. Let us then pour out our own blood, when it is for Christ's sake, with as great readiness as one would pour out water (for the blood which flows about the body is water), and let us put off our flesh with as much good temper, as one even would a garment. And this shall we do, if we be not bound to riches, if not to houses, if not to affections, if we be detached from all things. For if they who live this life of [earthly] soldiers bid farewell to all things, and whithersoever war calls them there present themselves, and make journeys, and endure all things with ready mind; much more ought we, the soldiers of Christ, so to have prepared ourselves, and to set ourselves firm against the war of the passions.
[8.] There is no persecution now, and God grant there may never be: but there is another war, that of the desire of money, of envy, of the passions. Paul, describing this war, says, "We wrestle not against flesh and blood." (Ephesians 6:12.) This war is ever at hand. Therefore he wishes us to stand ever armed. Because he wishes us to stand ever armed, he says, "Stand, having girded yourselves about." (Ephesians 6:14 .) Which itself also belongs to the time present, and expresses that we ought ever to be armed. For great is the war through the tongue, great that through the eyes; this then we must keep down--great [too] is that of the lusts.
Therefore he begins at that point to arm the soldier of Christ: for "stand," saith he, "having your loins girt about," and he added "with truth." (Ephesians 6:14.) Why "with truth"? Because lust is a mockery and a lie: wherefore the prophet says, "My loins are filled with mockings." (Psalm 38:7.) The thing is not pleasure, but a shadow of pleasure. "Having your loins," he says, "girt about with truth"; that is, with true pleasure, with temperance, with orderly behavior. For this cause he gives this advice, knowing the unreasonableness of sin, and wishing that all our members should be hedged round; for "unjust anger" it is said, "shall not be guiltless." (Ecclus. i. 22.)
Moreover he wishes us to have around us a breastplate and a buckler. For desire is a wild beast which easily springs forth, and we shall have need of walls and fences innumerable, to overcome, and to restrain it. And for this cause God has built this part [of our body] especially with bones, as with a kind of stones, placing around it a support, so that [desire] might not at any time, having broken or cut through, easily injure the whole man. For it is a fire (it is said) and a great tempest, and no other part of the body could endure this violence. And the sons of the physicians too say that for this cause the lungs have been spread under the heart, so that the heart being itself [put] into something soft and tender, by beating as it were into a sort of sponge, may continually be rested, and not [by striking] against the resisting and hard sternum, receive hurt through the violence of its beatings. We have need therefore of a strong breastplate, so as to keep this wild beast alway quiet.
We have need also of an helmet; for since the reasoning faculty is there, and from this it is possible for us either to be saved, when what is right is done, or it is possible for us to be ruined--therefore he says, "the helmet of salvation." (Ephesians 6:17.) For the brain is indeed by nature tender, and therefore is covered above with the skull, as with a kind of shell. And it is to us the cause of all things both good and evil, knowing what is fitting, or what is not so. Yea and our feet too and our hands need armor, not these hands, nor these feet, but as before those of the soul--the former by being employed about what is right, the latter, that they may walk where they ought. Thus then let us thoroughly arm ourselves, and we shall be able to overcome our enemies, and to wreathe ourselves with the crown in Christ Jesus our Lord, with whom to the Father together with the Holy Ghost be glory, might, honor, now and for ever and world without end. Amen.
 marg. of E.V.
 poiesas. Referring to what is implied in ver. 2 , that Moses was faithful to Him that made him.
 ho then
 St. Chrys. had mentioned hills (bounoi) as called to witness by God: in the verse preceding this (Micah 6:1) occur the words, "let the hills hear Thy voice" ; and this verse itself runs, "Hear ye hills" (bounoi) according to the Alexandrine mss. of the LXX. or "ye mountains" (o re according to the Vatican), "the judgment of the Lord, and ye ravines," &c.
 The words "above the hairs of my head" are part of another Psalm, xl. 12, or lxix. 4
 a pelabes
 e labes
 e ktisis