Homilies of Chrysostom
Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.
"Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour was come that He should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved His own which were in the world, He loved them unto the end."
[1.] "Be ye imitators of me," said Paul, "as I also am of Christ." (1 Corinthians 11:1.) For on this account He took also flesh of our substance,  that by means of it He might teach us virtue. For ("God sending His own Son) in the likeness of sinful flesh," it saith, "and for sin condemned sin in the flesh." (Romans 8:3.) And Christ Himself  saith, "Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart." (Matthew 11:29.) And this He taught, not by words alone, but by actions also. For they called Him a Samaritan, and one that had a devil, and a deceiver, and cast stones at Him; and at one time the Pharisees sent servants to take  Him, at another they sent plotters against Him; and they continued also insulting Him themselves, and that when they had no fault to find, but were even being continually benefited. Still after such conduct He ceaseth not to do well to them both by words and deeds. And, when a certain domestic smote Him on the face, He said, "If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil, but if well, why smitest thou Me?" (c. xviii. 23.) But this was to those who hated and plotted against Him. Let us see also what He doeth now towards the disciples, or rather what actions He now exhibiteth  towards the traitor. The man whom most of all there was reason  to hate, because being a disciple, having shared the table and the salt, having seen the miracles and been deemed worthy of such great things, he acted more grievously than any, not stoning indeed, nor insulting Him, but betraying and giving Him up, observe in how friendly sort He receiveth this man, washing his feet; for even in this way He desired to restrain him from that wickedness. Yet it was in His power, had He willed it, to have withered him like the fig-tree, to have cut him in two as He rent the rocks, to have cleft him asunder like the veil; but He would not lead him away from his design by compulsion, but by choice. Wherefore He washed his feet; and not even by this was that wretched and miserable man shamed.
"Before the feast of the Passover," it saith, "Jesus knowing that His hour was come." Not then "knowing," but (it means) that He did what He did having "known" long ago. "That He should depart." Magnificently  the Evangelist calleth His death, "departure." "Having loved His own, He loved them unto the end." Seest thou how when about to leave them He showeth greater love? For the, "having loved, He loved them unto the end," showeth that he omitted nothing of the things which it was likely that one who earnestly loved would do. Why, then did He not this from the beginning? He worketh  the greatest things last, so as to render more intense their attachment, and to lay up for them beforehand much comfort, against the terrible things that were about to fall on them. St. John calls them "His own," in respect of personal attachment, since he calls others also "His own," in respect of the work of creation; as when he saith, "His own received Him not." (c. i. 11.) But what meaneth, "which were in the world"? Because the dead also were "His own," Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and the men of that sort,  but they were not in the world. Seest thou that He is the God both of the Old and New (Testament)? But what meaneth, "He loved them unto the end"? It stands for, "He continued loving them unceasingly," and this the Evangelist mentions as a sure proof of great affection. Elsewhere indeed He spake of another (proof), the laying down life for His friends; but that had not yet come to pass. And wherefore did He this thing "now"? Because it was far more wonderful at a time when He appeared more glorious in the sight of all men. Besides, He left them no small consolation now that He was about to depart, for since they were going to be greatly grieved, He by these means introduceth also comfort to the grief.
And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;
Ver. 2. "And supper being ended, the devil having now put it into the heart of Judas  to betray Him."
This the Evangelist hath said  amazed, showing that Jesus washed the man who had already chosen to betray Him. This also proves his great wickedness, that not even the having shared the salt restrained him, (a thing which is most able to restrain wickedness;) not the fact that even up to the last day, his Master continued to bear with him. 
Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;
Ver. 3. "Jesus knowing that the Father had given  all things into His hands, and that He was come from God, and went to God."
Here the Evangelist saith, even  wondering, that one so great, so very great, who came from God and went to Him, who ruleth over all, did this thing, and disdained not even so to undertake such an action. And by the "giving over," methinks St. John means the salvation of the faithful. For when He saith, "All things are given over  to Me of My Father" (Matthew 11:27), He speaketh of this kind of giving over; as also in another place He saith, "Thine they were, and Thou gavest them Me" (c. xvii. 6); and again, "No man can come unto Me except the Father draw him" (c. vi. 44); and, "Except it be given him from heaven." (c. iii. 27 .) The Evangelist then either means this, or that Christ would be nothing lessened by this action, since He came from God, and went to God, and possessed all things. But when thou hearest of "giving over," understand it in no human sense, for it showeth how He honoreth the Father, and His unanimity with Him. For as the Father giveth over to Him, so He to the Father. And this Paul declares, saying, "When He shall have given over  the kingdom to God, even the Father." (1 Corinthians 15:24.) But St. John hath said it here in a more human sense, showing His great care for them, and declaring His unutterable love, that He now cared for them as for His own; teaching them the mother of all good, even humblemindedness, which He said was both the beginning and the end of virtue. And not without a reason is added the,  "He came from God and went to God": but that we may learn that He did what was worthy  of One who came thence and went thither, trampling down all pride.
He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself.
Ver. 4. "And having risen  from supper, and laid aside His garments." 
[2.] Observe how not by the washing only, but in another way also He exhibiteth humility. For it was not before reclining, but after they had all sat down, then He arose. In the next place, He doth not merely wash them, but doth so, putting off His garments. And He did not even stop here, but girded Himself with a towel. Nor was He satisfied with this, but Himself filled (the basin), and did not bid another fill it; He did all these things Himself, showing by all that we must do such things, when we are engaged in well doing, not merely for form's sake,  but with all zeal. Now He seemeth to me to have washed the feet of the traitor first from its saying,
After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.
Ver. 5. "He began to wash the disciples' feet,"  and adding,
Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?
Ver. 6. "Then cometh He to Simon Peter and Peter saith unto Him, Lord, dost Thou wash my feet?"
"With those hands," he saith, "with which Thou hast opened eyes, and cleansed lepers, and raised the dead?" For this (question) is very emphatic; wherefore He needed not to have said any more than the, "Thou"; for even of itself this would have sufficed to convey the whole. Some one might reasonably enquire, how none of the others forbade Him, but Peter only, which was a mark of no slight love and reverence. What then is the cause? He seemeth to me to have washed the traitor first, then to have come to Peter, and that the others were afterwards instructed from his case.  That He washed some one other before him is clear from its saying, "But when He came  to Peter." Yet the Evangelist is not a vehement accuser,  for the "began," is the expression of one implying this. And even if Peter were the first,  yet it is probable that the traitor, being a forward person, had reclined even before the chief.  For by another circumstance also his forwardness is shown, when He dippeth with his Master in the dish, and being convicted, feels no compunction; while Peter being rebuked but once on a former occasion, and for words which he spake from loving affection, was so abashed, that being even distressed and trembling, he begged another to ask a question. But Judas, though continually convicted, felt not. (Ver. 24.) When therefore He came to Peter, he saith unto Him, "Lord, dost Thou wash my feet?"
Ver. 7. "He saith unto him, What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know here after."
That is "thou shalt know how great is the gain from this, the profit of the lesson, and how it is able to guide us into all humblemindedness." What then doth Peter? He still hinders Him, and saith,
Ver. 8. "Thou shalt never wash my feet." "What doest thou, Peter? Rememberest thou not those former words? Saidst thou not, Be merciful to Thyself,'  and heardest thou not in return, Get thee behind Me, Satan'? (Matthew 16:22.) Art thou not even so sobered, but art thou yet vehement?" "Yea," he saith, "for what is being done is a great matter, and full of amazement." Since then he did this from exceeding love, Christ in turn subdueth him by the same; and as there He effected this by sharply rebuking him, and saying, "Thou art an offense unto Me," so here also by saying,
"If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me." What then saith that hot and burning one?
Ver. 9. "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head."
Vehement in deprecation, he becometh yet more vehement in acquiescence; but both from love. For why said He not wherefore He did this, instead of adding a threat? Because Peter would not have been persuaded. For had He said, "Suffer it, for by this I persuade you to be humbleminded," Peter would have promised it ten thousand times, in order that his Master might not do this thing. But now what saith He? He speaketh of that which Peter most feared and dreaded, the being separated from Him; for it is he who continually asks, "Whither goest Thou?" (Ver. 36.) Wherefore also he said, "I will give  even my life for Thee." (Ver. 37.) And if, after hearing, "What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter," he still persisted, much more would he have done so had he learnt (the meaning of the action). Therefore said He, "but thou shalt know hereafter," as being aware, that should he learn it immediately he would still resist. And Peter said not, "Tell me, that I may suffer Thee," but (which was much more vehement) he did not even endure to learn, but withstands Him,  saying, "Thou shalt never wash my feet." But as soon as He threatened, he straightway relaxed his tone. But what meaneth, "Thou shalt know after this"? "After this?" When? "When in My Name thou shalt have cast out devils; when thou shalt have seen Me taken up into Heaven, when thou shalt have learnt from the Spirit  that I sit  on His right hand, then shalt thou understand what is being done now." What then saith Christ? When Peter said, "not my feet only, but also my hands and my head," He replieth,
Ver. 10, 11. "He that is washed, needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit; and ye are clean,  but not all. For He knew who should betray Him." 
"And if they are clean, why washeth He  their feet?" That we may learn to be modest.  On which account He came not to any other part of the body, but to that which is considered more dishonorable than the rest. But what is, "He that is washed"? It is instead of, "he that is clean." Were they then clean, who had not  yet been delivered from their sins, nor deemed worthy of the Spirit, since sin still had the mastery, the handwriting of the curse still remaining, the victim not having yet been offered? How then calleth He them "clean"? That thou mayest not deem them clean, as delivered from their sins, He addeth,  Behold, "ye are clean through the word that I have spoken unto you." That is, "In this way ye are so far  clean; ye have received the light, ye have been freed from Jewish error. For the Prophet also saith, Wash you, make you clean, put away the wickedness from your souls' (Isaiah 1:16 , LXX.); so that such a one is washed and is clean." Since then these men had cast away all wickedness from their souls, and had companied with Him with a pure mind, therefore He saith according to the word of the Prophet, "he that is washed is clean already." For in that place also It meaneth not the "washing" of water, practiced by the Jews; but the cleansing of the conscience. 
[3.] Be we then also clean; learn we to do well. But what is "well"? "Judge for the fatherless, plead for the widow; and come, let us reason together, saith the Lord." (Isaiah 1:7.) There is frequent mention in the Scriptures of widows and orphans, but we make no account of this. Yet consider how great is the reward. "Though," it saith, "your sins be as scarlet, I will whiten them as snow; though they be red like crimson, I will whiten them as wool." For a widow is an unprotected being, therefore He  taketh much care for her. For they, when it is even in their power to contract a second marriage, endure the hardships of widowhood through fear of God. Let us then all, both men and women, stretch forth our hands to them, that we may never undergo the sorrows of widow-hood; or if we should have to undergo them, let us lay up  a great store of kindness for ourselves. Not small is the power of the widow's tears, it is able to open heaven itself. Let us not then trample on them, nor make their calamity worse, but assist them by every means. If so we do, we shall put around  ourselves much safety, both in the present life, and in that which is to come. For not here alone, but there also will they be our defenders, cutting away most of our sins by reason of our beneficence towards them, and causing us to stand boldly before the judgment-seat of Christ. Which  may it come to pass that we all obtain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
 lit. "our lump."
 al. "and Himself."
 al. "in order to kill."
 al. "doeth."
 e chren
 al. "magniloquently."
 al. "added."
 hoi kat ekeinous
 "Judas Iscariot, Simon's son," N.T.
 al. "hath put in by the way."
 al. "given over."
 al. "either he saith this."
 E.V. "delivered."
 "delivered up," E.V.
 al. "what then is added?"
 al. "went to God," that is, did what was worthy.
 a nastas (e geiretai, G. T.).
 "He riseth," &c., "and took a towel, and girded Himself." 5. "After that He poureth water into a basin." N.T.
 a phosioumenous
 "and to wipe them with the towel wherewith He was girded," N.T.
 a p ekeinou, al. hu p ek. "by him."
 "He cometh therefore," oun, N.T.
 i. e. of Judas.
 i. e. in dignity.
 "that be far from Thee," E.V.
 "lay down," N.T.
 al. "Him again."
 Ben. and mss. Sav. "the Father."
 Sav. "He sitteth."
 al. "clean through the word which I have spoken unto you" (from c. xv. 3).
 "Him, therefore said He, Ye are not all clean," N.T.
 al. "washest thou."
 al. "yet they had not."
 from c. xv. 3
 al. "of the creation."
 or, "It."
 al. "but we shall not undergo them if we lay up."
 al. "putting around."
 hou, al. he s, "which boldness."
Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.
Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me.
Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.
Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.
For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.
So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?
Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.
Ver. 13. "Ye call Me Lord  and Master,  and ye say well, for so I am."
"Ye call Me." He taketh to Him their judgment, and then that the words may not be thought to be words of their kindness, He addeth, "for so I am." By introducing a saying of theirs,  He maketh it not offensive, and by confirming it Himself when introduced from them, unsuspected. "For so I am," He saith. Seest thou how when He converseth with the disciples, He speaketh revealing more what belongeth unto Himself? As He saith, "Call no man master on earth,  for One is your guide"  (Matthew 23:8, 9), so also, "And call no man father upon earth." But the "one" and "one"  is spoken not of the Father only, but of Himself also. For had He spoken excluding Himself, how saith He, "That ye may become the children of the light"? And again, if He called the Father only, "Master," how saith He, "For so I am"; and again, "For one is your Guide, even Christ"? (c. xii. 26.)
If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet.
Ver. 14, 15. "If I then," He saith, "your Lord  and Master have washed your feet, ye ought also to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you."
And yet it is not the same thing, for He is Lord and Master, but ye are fellow-servants one of another. What meaneth then the "as"? "With the same zeal." For on this account He taketh instances from greater actions that we may, if so be, perform the less. Thus schoolmasters write the letters for children very beautifully, that they may come to imitate them though but in an inferior manner. Where now are they who spit on their fellow-servants? where now they who demand honors? Christ washed the feet of the traitor, the sacrilegious, the thief, and that close to the time of the betrayal, and incurable as he was, made him a partaker of His table; and art thou highminded, and dost thou draw up thine eyebrows? "Let us then wash one another's feet," saith some one, "then we must wash those of our domestics." And what great thing if we do wash even those of our domestics? In our case  "slave" and "free" is a difference of words; but there an actual reality. For by nature He was Lord and we servants, yet even this  He refused not at this time to do. But now it is matter for contentment if we do not treat free men as bondmen, as slaves bought with money. And what shall we say in that day,  if after receiving proofs of such forbearance, we ourselves do not imitate them at all, but take the contrary part, being in diametrical opposition, lifted up, and not discharging the debt? For God hath made us debtors one to another, having first so done Himself, and hath made us debtors of a less amount. For He was our Lord, but we do it, if we do it at all, to our fellow-servants, a thing which He Himself implied by saying, "If I then your Lord and Master--so also do ye." It would indeed naturally have followed to say, "How much more should ye servants," but He left this to the conscience of the hearers.
[2.] But why hath He done this "now"? They were for the future to enjoy, some greater, some less honor. In order then that they may not exalt themselves one above the other, and say as they did before, "Who is the greatest" (Matthew 18:1), nor be angry one against the other, He taketh down  the high thoughts of them all, by saying, that "although thou mayest be very great, thou oughtest to have no high thoughts towards thy brother." And He mentioned not the greater action, that "if I have washed the feet of the traitor, what great matter if ye one another's?" but having exemplified this by deeds, He then left it to the judgment of the spectators. Therefore He said, "Whosoever shall do and teach, the same shall be called great" (Matthew 5:19); for this is "to teach" a thing, actually to do it. What pride should not this remove? what kind of folly and insolence should it not annihilate!  He who sitteth upon the Cherubim washed the feet of the traitor, and dost thou, O man, thou that art earth and ashes and cinders and dust, dost thou exalt thyself, and art thou highminded? And how great a hell wouldest thou not deserve? If then thou desirest a high state of mind, come, I will show thee the way to it; for thou dost not even know what it is. The man then who gives heed to the present things as being great, is of a mean soul; so that there can neither be humility without greatness of soul, nor conceit except from littleness of soul. For as little children are eager for trifles, gaping upon balls and hoops and dice,  but cannot even form an idea of important matters; so in this case, one who is truly wise, will deem present things as nothing, (so that he will neither choose to acquire them himself, nor to receive them from others;) but he who is not of such a character will be affected in a contrary way, intent upon cobwebs and shadows and dreams of things less substantial than these.
For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.
Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.
Ver. 16-18. "Verily I say unto you, the servant is not greater than his lord, neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him. If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them. I speak not of you all  --but that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with Me hath lifted up his heel against Me."
What He said before, this He saith here also, to shame them; "For if the servant is not greater than his master, nor he that is sent greater than him that sent him, and these things have been done by Me, much more ought they to be done by you." Then, lest any one should say, "Why now sayest Thou these things? Do we not already know them?" He addeth this very thing, "I speak not to you as not knowing, but that by your actions ye may show forth the things spoken of." For "to know," belongeth to all; but "to do," not to all. On this account He said, "Blessed are ye if ye do them"; and on this account I continually and ever say the same to you, although ye know it, that I may set you on the work. Since even Jews "know," but yet they are not "blessed"; for they do not what they know. 
"I speak not," He saith, "of you all." O what forbearance! Not yet doth He convict the traitor, but veileth the matter, hence giving him room for repentance. He convicteth and yet doth not convict him when He saith thus, "He that eateth bread with Me hath lifted up his heel against Me." It seems to me that the, "The servant is not greater than his lord," was uttered for this purpose also, that if any persons should at any time suffer harm either from domestics or from any of the meaner sort, they should not be offended; looking to the instance of Judas, who having enjoyed ten thousand good things, repaid his Benefactor with the contrary. On this account He added, "He that eateth bread with Me," and letting pass all the rest, He hath put that which was most fitted to restrain and shame him; "he who was fed by Me," He saith, "and who shared My table." And He spake the words, to instruct them to benefit those who did evil to them, even though such persons should continue incurable.
But having said, "I speak not of you all," in order not to attach fear to more than one,  He at last separateth the traitor, speaking thus; "He that eateth bread with Me." For the, "not of you all," doth not direct the words to any single one, therefore He added, "He that eateth bread with Me"; showing to that wretched one that He was not seized in ignorance, but even with full knowledge; a thing which of itself was most of all fitted to restrain him. And He said not, "betrayeth Me," but, "hath lifted up his heel against Me," desiring to represent the deceit, the treachery, the secrecy of the plot.
[3.] These things are written that we bear not malice towards those who injure us; but rebuke them and weep for them; for the fit subjects of weeping are not they who suffer, but they who do the wrong. The grasping man, the false accuser, and whoso worketh any other evil thing, do themselves the greatest injury, and us the greatest good, if we do not avenge ourselves. Such a case as this: some one has robbed thee; hast thou given thanks for the injury, and glorified God? by that thanksgiving thou hast gained ten thousand rewards, just as he hath gathered for himself fire unspeakable. But if any one say, "How then, if I could' not defend myself against him who wronged me, being weaker?" I would say this, that thou couldest have put into action the being discontented, the being impatient, (for these things are in our power,) the praying against him, who grieved you, the uttering ten thousand curses against him, the speaking ill of him to every one. He therefore who hath not done these things shall even be rewarded for not defending himself, since it is clear that even if he had had the power, he would not have done it. The injured man uses any weapon that comes to hand, when, being little of soul, he defends himself against one who has injured him, by curses, by abuse, by plotting. Do thou then not only not do these things, but even pray for him; for if thou do them not, but wilt even pray for him, thou art become like unto God. For, "pray," it saith, "for them, that despitefully use you--that ye may be like unto  your Father which is in Heaven." (Matthew 5:44, 45.) Seest thou how we are the greatest gainers from the insolence of others? Nothing so delighteth God, as the not returning evil for evil? But what say I? Not returning evil for evil? Surely we are enjoined to return the opposite, benefits, prayers. Wherefore Christ also repaid him who was about to betray Him with everything opposite. He washed his feet, convicted him secretly, rebuked him sparingly, tended  him, allowed him to share His table and His kiss, and not even by these  was he made better; nevertheless (Christ) continued doing His own part.
But come, let us teach thee even from the example of servants, and (to make the lesson stronger) those in the Old (Testament), that thou mayest know that we have no ground of defense when we remember a wrong. Will you then that I tell you of Moses, or shall we go yet farther back? For the more ancient the instances that can be pointed out, the more are we surpassed. "Why so?" Because virtue was then more difficult. Those men had no written precepts, no patterns of living, but their nature fought, unarmed, by itself,  and was forced to float in all directions unballasted.  Wherefore also when praising Noah, God called him not simply perfect, but added, "in his generation" (Genesis 7:1); signifying, "at that time," when there were many hindrances, since many others shone after him, yet will he have nothing less than they; for in his own time he was perfect. Who then before Moses was patient? The blessed and noble Joseph, who having shone by his chastity, shone no less by his long suffering. He was sold when he had done no wrong, but was waiting on others, and serving, and performing all the duties of domestics. They brought against him an evil accusation, and he did not defend himself, though he had his father on his side. Nay, he even went to carry food to them in the desert, and when he found them not, he did not despair or turn back, (yet he had an excuse for doing so had he chosen,) but remained near the wild beasts and those savage men, preserving the feeling of a true brother. Again, when he dwelt in the prison house, and was asked the cause, he spake no evil of them, but only, "I have done nothing," and, "I was stolen out of the land of the Hebrews"; and after this again, when he was made lord, he nourished them, and delivered them from ten thousand dangers. If we be sober, the wickedness of our neighbor is not strong enough to cast us out of our own virtue. But those others were not like him; they both stripped him, and endeavored to kill him, and reproach him with his dream, though they had even received their meat from him, and planned to deprive him of life and of liberty. And they ate, and cared not for their brother lying naked in the pit. What could be worse than such brutality? Were they not worse than any number of murderers? And after this, having drawn him up, they gave him over to ten thousand deaths, selling him to barbarian and savage men, who were on their journey to barbarians. Yet he, when he became ruler, not only remitted them their punishment, but even acquitted them, as far at least as relating to himself, of their sin, calling what had been done a dispensation of God, not any wickedness of theirs; and the things which he did against them he did not as remembering evil, but in all these he dissembled, for his brother's  sake. After this, when he saw them clinging to him, he straightway threw away the mask, and wept aloud, and embraced them, as though he had received the greatest benefits, he, who formerly was made away with by them, and he brought them all down into Egypt, and repaid them with ten thousand benefits. What excuse then shall we have, if after the Law, and after grace, and after the addition of so much heavenly wisdom, we do not even strive to rival him who lived before grace and before the Law? Who shall deliver us from punishment? For there is nothing, there is nothing more grievous than the remembrance of injuries. And this the man hath showed that owed ten thousand talents; from whom payment was at one time not demanded, at another time again demanded; not demanded, because of the lovingkindness of God; but demanded, because of his own wickedness, and because of his malice toward his fellow-servant. Knowing all which things, let us forgive our neighbors their trespasses, and repay them by deeds of an opposite kind, that we too may obtain mercy from God, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
 "So when He had washed their feet, and had taken," &c., N.T.
 ten archen
 al. "fall away."
 al. "the Christ."
 "Master and Lord," N.T.
 al. "among them."
 "be not ye called Rabbi," N.T.
 i. e. one Master, one Father.
 al. "the Christ."
 e ntautha
 i. e. this humble office.
 al. "purgeth."
 a stragalous, square bones used as dice.
 "I speak not of you all, I know whom I have chosen," N.T.
 lit. "to many."
 "the children of," N.T.
 e therapeuse
 al. "by this."
 or, in its own way, kath heauten
 a nermatistos
 i. e. Benjamin's.
If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.
I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.
Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he.
Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.
"Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send, receiveth Me: and He that receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me."
[1.] Great is the recompense  of care bestowed upon the servants of God, and of itself  it yieldeth to us its fruits. For, "he that receiveth you," it saith, "receiveth Me, and he that receiveth Me, receiveth Him that sent Me." (Matthew 10:40.) Now what can be equal to the receiving Christ and His Father? But what kind of connection hath this with what was said before? What hath it in common with that which He had said, "If ye do these things happy are ye," to add, "He that receiveth you"? A close connection, and very harmonious.  Observe how. When they were about to go forth and to suffer many dreadful things, He comforteth them in two ways; one derived from Himself, the other derived from others. "For if," He saith, "ye are truly wise, ever keeping Me in mind, and bearing about all both what I said, and what I did, ye will easily endure terrible things. And not in this way only, but also from your enjoying great attention from all men." The first point He declared when He said, "If ye do these things happy are ye"; the second when He said, "He that receiveth you receiveth Me." For He opened the houses of all men to them, so that both from the sound wisdom of their manners, and the zeal of those who would tend them, they might have twofold comfort. Then when He had given these directions to them as to men about to run through all the world, reflecting that the traitor was deprived of both of these things, and would enjoy neither of them, neither patience in toils, nor the service of kind entertainers, He again was troubled. And the Evangelist to signify this besides, and to show that it was on his  account that He was troubled, adds,
When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.
Ver. 21. "When Jesus had thus said, He was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray Me."
Again He bringeth fear on all by not mentioning (the traitor) by name.
Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake.
Ver. 22. "But they are in doubt";  although conscious to themselves of nothing evil; but they deemed the declaration of Christ more to be believed than their own thoughts. Wherefore they "looked one on another." By laying the whole upon one, Jesus would  have cut short their fear, but by adding, "one of you," He troubled all. What then? The rest looked upon one another; but the ever fervent Peter "beckoneth"  to John. Since he had been before rebuked, and when Christ desired to wash him would have hindered Him, and since he is everywhere found moved indeed by love, yet blamed; being on this account afraid, he neither kept quiet, nor did he speak, but wished to gain information by means of John. But it is a question worth asking, why when all were distressed, and trembling, when their leader was afraid, John like one at ease  leans on Jesus' bosom, and not only leans, but even (lies) on His breast? Nor is this the only thing worthy of enquiry, but that also which follows. What is that? What he saith of himself, "Whom Jesus loved." Why did no one else say this of himself? yet the others were loved too. But he more than any. And if no other hath said this about him, but he about himself, it is nothing wonderful. Paul too does the same,  when occasion calls, saying thus, "I knew a man fourteen years ago"; yet in fact he  has gone through other no trifling praises of himself. Seems it to thee a small thing that, when he had heard, "Follow Me,"  he straightway left his nets, and his father, and followed; and that Christ took him alone with Peter into the mountain, (Matthew 17:1 ,) and another time again when He went into a house?  (Luke 8:51.) What high praise also has he himself passed on Peter without concealment, telling us that Christ said, "Peter,  lovest thou Me more than these?" (c. xxi. 15), and everywhere he showeth him warm, and nobly disposed towards himself;  for instance, when he said, "Lord, and what shall this man do?" he spake from great love. But why did  no other say (this ) concerning him? Because he would not himself have said it, unless he had come to this passage.  For if after telling us that Peter beckoned to John to ask, he had added nothing more, he would have caused considerable doubt, and have compelled us to enquire into the reason. In order therefore himself to solve this difficulty, he saith, "He lay on the bosom of Jesus." Thinkest thou that thou hast learnt a little thing when thou hast heard that "he lay," and that their Master allowed such boldness to them?  If thou desirest to know the cause of this, the action was of love;  wherefore he saith, "Whom Jesus loved."  I suppose also that John doth this for another reason, as wishing to show that he was exempt from the charge and so he speaks openly and is confident. Again, why did he use these words, not at any other point of time,  but only when the chief of the Apostles beckoned? That thou mightest not deem that Peter beckoned to him as being greater, he saith that the thing took place because of the great love (which Jesus bare him). But why doth he even lie on His bosom? They had not as yet formed any high surmises concerning Him; besides, in this way He  calmed their despondency; for it is probable that at this time their faces were overclouded. If they were troubled in their souls, much more would they be so in their countenances. Soothing them therefore by word and by the question, He makes a way beforehand, and allows him to lean on His breast. Observe too his modesty; he mentions not his own name, but, "whom He loved." As also Paul, when he said, "I knew a man about fourteen years ago." Now for the first time Jesus convicted the traitor, but not even now by name; but how?
Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.
Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.
He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?
Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.
Ver. 26. "He it is, to whom I shall give a sop when I have dipped it." 
Even the manner (of the rebuke) was calculated to put him to shame. He respected not the table, though he shared the bread; be it so; but the receiving the sop from His own hand, whom would not that have won over? yet him it won not.
And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly.
Ver. 27. "Then  Satan entered into him."
Laughing at him for his shamelessness. As long as he belonged to the band of disciples he dared not spring upon him, but attacked  him from without; but when Christ made him manifest and separated him, then he sprang upon him without fear. It was not fitting to keep within one of such a character, and who so long had remained incorrigible. Wherefore He henceforth cast him out, and then that other seized him when cut off, and he leaving them went forth by night. 
"Jesus saith unto him, Friend,  that thou doest, do quickly."
Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him.
Ver. 28. "Now no man at the table knew with what intent He spake this unto him." 
[3.] Wonderful insensibility! How could it be that he was neither softened nor shamed; but rendered yet more shameless, "went out." The "do quickly," is not the expression of one commanding, nor advising, but of one reproaching, and showing him that He desired to correct him, but that since he was incorrigible, He let him go. And this, the Evangelist saith, "no man of those that sat at the table knew." Some one may perhaps find here a considerable difficulty, if, when the disciples had asked, "Who is it?" and He had answered, "He to whom I shall give a sop when I have dipped it," they did not even so understand; unless indeed He spake it secretly, so that no man should hear. For John on this very account, leaning by His breast, asked Him almost close to His ear, so that the traitor might not be made manifest; and Christ answered in like manner, so that not even then did He discover him. And though He spake emphatically,  "Friend, that thou doest, do quickly," even so they understood not. But he spake thus to show that the things were true which had been said by Him to the Jews concerning His death. For He had said to them, "I have power to lay down My life, and I have power to take it again": and, "No man taketh it from Me." (c. x. 18.) As long then as He would retain it, no man was able (to take it); but when He resigned it, then the action became easy. All this He implied when He said, "That thou doest, do quickly." Yet not even then did He expose him,  for perhaps the others might have torn him in pieces, or Peter might have killed him. On this account "no man at the table knew." Not even John? Not even he: for he could not have expected that a disciple would arrive  at such a pitch of wickedness. For since they were far from such iniquity themselves, they could not suspect such things concerning others. As before He had told them, "I speak not of you all" (ver. 18), yet did not reveal the person; so here, they thought that it was said concerning some other matter.
"It was night," saith the Evangelist, when he went out. "Why tellest thou me the time?" That thou mayest learn his forwardness, that not even the time restrained him from his purpose. Yet not even did this make him quite manifest, for the others were at this time in confusion, occupied by fear and great distress, and they knew not the true reason of what had been said but supposed  that He spake thus, in order that Judas might give somewhat to the poor. For He cared greatly for the poor, teaching us also to bestow much diligence on this thing. But they thought this, not without a cause, but "because he had the bag." Yet no one appears to have brought money to Him; that the female disciples nourished Him of their substance, it has said, but this  it hath nowhere intimated. (Luke 8:3.) But how did He who bade His disciples bear neither scrip, nor money, nor staff, Himself bear a bag to minister to the poor? That thou mayest learn, that it behooveth even him who is exceedingly needy and crucified, to be very careful on this point. For many things He did in the way of dispensation  for our instruction. The disciples then thought that He said this, that Judas should give something to the poor; and not even this shamed him, His not being willing even to the last day to make him a public example. We too ought to do the like, and not parade the sins of our companions, though they be incurable. For even after this He gave a kiss to the man who came to betray Him, and endured,  such an action as that was, and then proceeded to a thing of far greater daring,  the Cross itself,  to the death of shame, and there again He manifested His lovingkindness. And here He calleth it "glory," showing us that there is nothing so shameful and reproachful which makes not brighter him who goeth to it, if it be done according to the will of God. At least after the going forth of Judas to the betraying, He saith,
Ver. 31. "Now is the Son of Man glorified." 
In this way rousing the dejected thoughts of the disciples, and persuading them not only not to despond, but even to rejoice. On this account He rebuked Peter at the first, because for one who has been in death to overcome death, is great glory. And this is what He said of Himself, "When I am lifted up,  then ye shall know that I Am" (c. viii. 28); and again, "Destroy this Temple" (c. ii. 19); and again, "No sign shall be given unto you  but the sign of Jonas." (Matthew 12:39.) For how can it be otherwise than great glory, the being able even after death to do greater things than before death? for in order that the Resurrection might be believed, the disciples did work greater things. But unless He had lived, and had been God, how could these men have wrought such things in His Name?
Ver. 32. "And God shall glorify Him." 
What is, "And God shall glorify Him in Himself"? It is "by means of  Himself, not by means of another."
"And shall straightway glorify Him."
[4.] That is, "simultaneously with the Cross." "For it will not be after much time," He saith, "nor will He wait for the distant season of the Resurrection, nor will He then show Him glorious, but straightway on the Cross itself His glories shall appear." And so the sun was darkened,  the rocks rent; the veil of the temple was parted asunder, many bodies of saints that slept arose, the tomb had its seals, the guards sat by, and while a stone lay over the Body the Body rose; forty days passed by, and the Gift of the Spirit came, and they all straightway preached Him. This is, "shall glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him"; not by Angels or Archangels, not by any other power, but by Himself. But how did He also glorify Him by Himself? By doing all for the glory of the Son. Yet the Son did all. Seest thou that He referreth to the Father the things done by Himself?
Ver. 33. "Little children, yet a little while I am with you--and  as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go ye cannot come, so now I say to you."
He now begins words of sorrow after the supper. For when Judas went forth it was no longer evening, but night. But since they  were about to come shortly, it was necessary to set all things before the disciples, that they might have them in remembrance; or rather, the Spirit recalled all to their minds. For it is likely that they would forget many things, as hearing for the first time, and being about to undergo such temptations. Men who were weighed down to sleep, (as another Evangelist saith,-- Luke 22:45 ,) who were possessed by despondency, as Christ saith Himself, "Because I have said these things unto you, sorrow hath filled your hearts" (c. xvi. 6), how could they retain all these things exactly? Why then were they spoken? It became no little gain to them with respect to their opinion of  Christ, that in after times when reminded  they certainly knew that they had long ago heard these things from Christ. But wherefore doth He first cast down their souls, saying, "Yet a little while I am with you"? "To the Jews indeed it was said with reason, but wherefore dost Thou place us in just the same class with those obstinate ones?" He by no means did so. "Why then said He, As I said to the Jews'?" He reminded them that He did not now, because troubles were upon them, warn them of these things, but that He had foreknown them from the first, and that they were witnesses who had heard that He had said these things to the Jews. Wherefore He added also the word, "little children," that when they heard, "As I said to the Jews," they might not deem that the expression was used in like sense towards themselves. It was not then to depress but to comfort them that He thus spake, that their dangers might not, by coming upon them suddenly, trouble them to excess.
"Whither I go, ye cannot come." He showeth that His death is a removal, and a change for the better  to a place which admits not corruptible bodies. This He saith, both to excite their love towards Him, and to make it more fervent. Ye know that when we see any of our dearest friends departing from us, our affection is warmest, and the more so, when we see them going to a place to which it is not even possible for us to go. These things then He said, terrifying the Jews, but kindling longing in the disciples. "Such is the place, that not only not they, but not even you, My best beloved, can come there." Here He showeth also His Own dignity.
"So now I say to you." Why "now"? "In one way to them, to you in another way"; that is, "not with them." But when did the Jews seek Him, when the disciples? The disciples, when they fled the Jews, when they suffered miseries unendurable and surpassing all description at the capture of their city, when the wrath of God was borne down upon them from every side. To the Jews therefore He  spake then, because of their unbelief, "but to you now, that troubles might not come upon you unexpected."
Ver. 34. "A new commandment I give unto you." 
For since it was likely that they would be troubled when they heard these things, as though they were about to be deserted, He comforteth them, investing them with that which was the root of all blessings and a safeguard, love. As though He had said, "Grieve ye at My departure? Nay, if ye love one another, ye shall be the stronger." Why then said He not this? Because He said what profited them more than this.
Ver. 35. "By this shall all men know that ye are My disciples." 
[5.] By this He at the same time showed that the company  should never be extinguished, when He gave them a distinguishing token. This He said when the traitor was cut off from them. But how calleth He that a new commandment which is contained also in the Old (covenant)? He made it new Himself by the manner; therefore He added, "As I have loved you." "I have not paid back to you a debt of good deeds first done by you, but Myself have begun," He saith. "And so ought you to benefit your dearest ones, though you owe them nothing"; and omitting to speak of the miracles which they should do, He maketh their characteristic, love. And why? Because it is this which chiefly shows men holy; it is the foundation of all virtue; by this mostly we are all even saved. For "this," He saith, "is to be a disciple; so shall all men praise you, when they see you imitating My Love." What then? Do not miracles much more show this? By no means. For "many will say, Lord, have we not in Thy Name cast out devils?" (Matthew 7:22.) And again, when they rejoice that the devils obey them, He saith, "Rejoice not that the devils obey  you, but that your names are written in heaven." (Luke 10:20.) And  this indeed brought over the world, because that  was before it; had not that been, neither would this have endured. This then straightway made them perfect,  the having  all one heart and one soul. But had they separated one from the other, all things would have been lost.
Now He spake this not to them only, but to all who should believe on Him; since even now, there is nothing else that causes the heathen  to stumble, except that there is no love. "But," saith some one, "they also urge against us the absence of miracles." But not in the same way. "But where did the Apostles manifest their love?" Seest thou Peter and John inseparable from one another, and going up to the Temple? (Acts 3:1.) Seest thou Paul disposed in a like way towards them, and dost thou doubt? If they had gained the other blessings, much more had they the mother of them all. For this is a thing that springs from a virtuous soul; but where wickedness is, there the plant withers away. For "when,"  it saith, "iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold." (Matthew 24:12.) And miracles do not so much attract the heathen as the mode of life; and nothing so much causes a right life as love. For those who wrought miracles they often even called deceivers; but they could have no hold upon a pure life. While then the message of the Gospel was not yet spread abroad, miracles were with good reason marveled at, but now men must get to be admired by their lives. For nothing so raises respect in the heathen as virtue, nothing so offends them as vice. And with good reason. When one of them sees the greedy man, the plunderer, exhorting others to do the contrary, when he sees the man who was commanded to love even his enemies, treating his very kindred like brutes, he will say that the words are folly. When he sees one trembling at death, how will he receive the accounts of immortality? When he sees us fond of rule, and slaves to the other passions, he will more firmly remain in his own doctrines, forming no high opinion of us. We, we are the cause of their remaining in their error. Their own doctrines they have long condemned, and in like manner they admire ours, but they are hindered by our mode of life. To follow wisdom in talk is easy, many among themselves have done this; but they require the proof by works. "Then let them look to the ancients of our profession." But about them they by no means believe; they enquire concerning those now living. For, "show me," it saith, "thy faith by thy works"  (James 2:18); but this is not the case; on the contrary, seeing us tear our neighbors worse than any wild beast, they call us the curse of the world. These things restrain the heathen, and suffer them not to come over to our side. So that we shall be punished for these also; not only for what we do amiss ourselves, but because the name of God is blasphemed. How long shall we be given up to wealth, and luxury, and the other passions? For the future let us leave them. Hear what the Prophet saith of certain foolish ones, "Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die." (Isaiah 22:31.) But in the present case we cannot even say this,  so "many" gather round themselves what belongs to all. So chiding them also, the Prophet said, "Will ye dwell alone upon the earth?" (Isaiah 5:8.) Wherefore I fear lest some grievous thing come to pass, and we draw down upon us heavy vengeance from God. And that this may not come to pass, let us be careful of  all virtue, that we may obtain the future blessings, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom and with whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost, be glory now and forever, and world without end. Amen.
 Ver. 19 omitted. "Now I tell you before it come, that when it is come to pass ye may believe that I[am."
 al. "return."
 e nteuthen
 al. "one may see even a close connection, since," &c.
 i. e. the traitor's.
 "Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom He spake." N.T.
 al. "The laying, &c. would."
 Ver. 23-25. "Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of His disciples, whom Jesus loved. Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom He spake. He then, lying on Jesus' breast, saith unto Him, Lord, who is it?"
 e ntruphon
 i. e. speaks of himself.
 St. John.
 not in St. John, but see Matthew 4:21
 of Jairus.
 "Simon, son of Jonas."
 or, "Christ," auton
 al. "on this account then."
 i. e. that Jesus loved him.
 i. e. in his Gospel history.
 Sav. conject. "him."
 a gapes
 e phile
 or, "Christ."
 "And when He had dipped the sop, He gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon." N.T.
 "after the sop," N.T.
 al. "put forward."
 al. "went forth out."
 "unto him, That," &c., N.T.
 Ver. 29, 30. "For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast, or that he should give something to the poor. He then having received the sop, went immediately out."
 al. "more plainly."
 al. "have gone out."
 al. "thought it saith."
 the carrying of money.
 al. "far more grievous."
 al. "His Cross."
 "And God is glorified in Him." N.T.
 "When ye have lifted up the Son of Man." N.T.
 "this generation," N.T.
 "If God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify," &c., N.T.
 al. "turned away."
 "Ye shall seek Me, and," &c., N.T. and Ben.
 i. e. they who were to take Him.
 or, "the glory of."
 i. e. by the Spirit.
 metathesis ameinon
 al. "I. "
 "That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." N.T.
 "if ye have love one to another," N.T.
 i. e. of Christian people, choros
 "are subject to," N.T.
 the working of miracles.
 kalous kagathous, beautiful and good.
 al. "and to have."
 lit. "Greeks."
 "because," N.T.
 so read in some copies.
 i. e. "certain" foolish ones.
 al. "lay hold on."
For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor.
He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night.
Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.
If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him.
Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.
A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.
By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.
Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.
"Simon Peter said unto Him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go thou canst not follow Me now, but thou shalt follow Me afterwards."
[1.] A great thing  is love, and stronger than fire itself, and it goeth up to the very heaven; there is  no hindrance which can restrain its tearing  force. And so the most fervent Peter, when he hears, "Whither I go ye cannot come," what saith he? "Lord, whither goest thou?" and this he said, not so much from wish to learn, as from desire to follow. To say openly, "I go," he dared not yet, but, "Whither goest thou?" Christ answered, not to his words, but to his thoughts. For that this was his wish, is clear from what Christ said, "Whither I go thou canst not follow Me now." Seest thou that he longed for the following Him, and therefore asked the question? And when he heard, "thou shalt follow Me afterwards," not even so did he restrain his longing, and, though he had gained good hopes, he is so eager as to say,
Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake.
Ver. 37. "Why cannot I follow Thee now? I will lay down my life for Thee."
When he had shaken off the dread of being the traitor, and was shown to be one of His own,  he afterwards asked boldly himself, while the others held their peace. "What sayest thou, Peter? He said, thou canst not,' and thou sayest, I can'? Therefore thou shalt know from this temptation that thy love is nothing without the presence of the impulse  from above." Whence it is clear that in care for him He allowed even that fall. He desired indeed to teach him even by the first words, but when he continued in his vehemence, He did not indeed throw or force him into the denial, but left him alone, that he might learn his own weakness. Christ had said that He must be betrayed; Peter replied, "Be it far from Thee, Lord; this shall not happen unto Thee." (Matthew 16:22.) He was rebuked, but not instructed. On the contrary, when Christ desired to wash his feet, he said, "Thou shalt never wash my feet."  (Ver. 8.) Again, when he hears, "Thou canst not follow Me now," he saith, "Though all deny Thee, I will not deny Thee." Since then it was likely that he would be lifted up to folly by his practice of contradiction, Jesus next teacheth him not to oppose Him. This too Luke implies, when he telleth us that Christ said, "And I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not" (Luke 22:32); that is, "that thou be not finally lost." In every way teaching him humility, and proving that human nature by itself is nothing. But, since great love made him apt for contradiction, He now sobereth him, that he might not in after times be subject to this, when he should have received the stewardship of the world, but remembering what he had suffered, might know himself. And look at the violence of his fall; it did not happen to him once or twice, but he was so beside himself, that in a short time thrice did he utter the words of denial, that he might learn that he did not so love as he was loved. And yet, to one who had so fallen He saith again, "Lovest thou Me more than these?" So that the denial was caused not by the cooling of his love, but from his having been stripped of aid from above. He accepteth then Peter's love, but cutteth off the spirit of contradiction engendered by it. "For if thou lovest, thou oughtest to obey Him who is beloved. I said  to thee and to those with thee, Thou canst not'; why art thou contentious? Knowest thou what a thing it is to contradict God? But since thou wilt not learn in this way that it is impossible that what I say should not come to pass, thou shalt learn  it in the denial." And yet this appeared to thee to be much more incredible. For this thou did not even understand, but of that thou hadst the knowledge  in thy heart. Yet still that came to pass which was not even  expected.
"I will lay down my life for Thee." For since he had heard, "Greater love than this hath, no man,"  he straightway sprang forward, insatiably eager and desirous to reach even to the highest pitch of virtue. But Christ, to show that it belonged to Himself alone to promise these things with authority, saith,
Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice.
Ver. 38. "Before the cock crow." 
That is, "now"; there was but a little interval. He spake when it was late at night, and the first and second watch was past.
Chap. xiv. ver. 1. "Let not your heart be troubled."
This He saith, because it was probable that when they heard they would be troubled. For if the leader of their band, one so entirely fervent, was told that before the cock crew he should thrice deny his Master, it was likely that they would expect to have to undergo some great reverse, sufficient to bend even souls of adamant. Since then it was probable that they considering these things would be astounded, see how He comforteth them, saying, "Let not your heart be troubled." By this first word showing the power of His Godhead, because, what they had in their hearts He knew and brought to light.
"Ye believe in God, believe also in Me." That is, "All dangers shall pass you by, for faith in Me and in My Father is more powerful than the things which come upon you, and will permit no evil thing to prevail against you." Then He addeth,