Homilies of Chrysostom
After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.
"After these things Jesus walked in Galilee; for He would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill Him. Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand."
[1.] Nothing is worse than envy and malice; through these death entered into the world. For when the devil saw man honored, he endured not his prosperity, but used every means to destroy him. (Wisd. ii. 24.) And from the same root one may everywhere see this same fruit produced. Thus Abel was slain; thus David, with many other just men, was like to have been so; from this also the Jews became Christ-slayers. And declaring this the Evangelist said, "After these things Jesus walked in Galilee; for He had not power  to walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill Him." What sayest thou, O blessed John? Had not He "power," who was able to do all that He would? He that said, "Whom seek ye?" (c. xviii. 6) and cast them backward? He who was present, yet not seen (c. xxi. 4), had not He "power"? How then afterwards did He come among them in the midst of the temple, in the midst of the feast, when there was an assembly, when they that longed for murder were present, and utter those sayings which enraged them yet the more? Yea, this at least men marveled at, saying, "Is not this He, whom they seek to kill? And, lo, He speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto Him." (Ver. 25, 26.) What mean these riddles? Away with the word!  The Evangelist spake not so that he might be supposed to utter riddles, but to make it plain that He showeth proofs both of His Godhead and His Manhood. For when he saith, that "He had not power," he speaketh of Him as a man, doing many things after the manner of men; but when he saith, that He stood in the midst of them, and they seized Him not, he showeth to us the power of the Godhead, (as man He fled, as God He appeared,) and in both cases he speaks truly. To be in the midst of those who were plotting against Him, and yet not be seized by them, showed His unrivaled and irresistible nature; to yield strengthened and authenticated the Dispensation, that neither Paul of Samosata,  nor Marcion,  nor those affected with their maladies, might have anything to say. By this then he stoppeth all  their mouths.
"After these things was the Jews' feast of tabernacles." The words, "after these things," mean only, that the writer has here been concise, and has passed over a long interval of time, as is clear from this circumstance. When Christ sat  on the mountain, he saith, that it was the feast of the Passover;  while here the writer mentions the "feast of tabernacles," and during the five months hath neither related or taught us anything else, except the miracle of the loaves, and the sermon made to those who ate them. Yet He ceased not to work miracles, and to converse, both in the day, and in the evening, and oftentimes at night; at least, it was thus that He presided over His disciples, as all the Evangelists tell us. Why then have they omitted that interval? Because it was impossible to recount everything fully, and moreover, because they were anxious to mention those points which were followed  by any fault-finding or gainsaying of the Jews. There were many circumstances like those which here are omitted; for that He raised the dead, healed the sick, and was admired, they have frequently recorded;  but when they have anything uncommon to tell, when they have to describe any charge seemingly put forth against Him, these things they set down; such as this now, that "His brethren believed Him not." For a circumstance like this brings with it no slight suspicion, and it is worth our while to admire their truth-loving disposition, how they are not ashamed to relate things which seem to bring disgrace upon their Teacher, but have been even more anxious to report these than other matters. For instance, the writer having passed by many signs and wonders and sermons, has sprung at once to this.
Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand.
His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judaea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.
Ver. 3-5. For, saith he, "His brethren said unto Him, Depart hence, and go into Jud?a, that Thy disciples also may see the works that Thou doest; for there is no man that doeth anything in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. Show thyself to the world. For neither did His brethren believe in Him."
[2.] What unbelief, saith some one, is here? They exhort  Him to work miracles. It is great deed; for of unbelief come their words, and their insolence, and their unseasonable freedom of speech. For they thought, that owing to their relationship, it was lawful  for them to address Him boldly. And their request seems forsooth to be that of friends, but the words were those of great maliciousness.  For in this place they reproach Him with cowardice and vainglory: since to say, "no man doeth anything in secret," is the expression of persons charging Him with cowardice, and suspecting the things done by Him as being not really done; and to add, that "he seeketh to be known," was to accuse Him of vainglory. But observe, I pray you, the power of Christ. Of those who said these things, one became first Bishop of Jerusalem, the blessed James, of whom Paul saith, "Other of the Apostles saw I none, save James, the Lord's brother" (Galatians 1:19); and Judas also is said to have been a marvelous man. And yet these persons had been present also at Cana, when the wine was made, but as yet they profited nothing. Whence then had they so great unbelief? From their evil mind,  and from envy; for superiority among kindred is wont somehow to be envied by such as are not alike exalted. But who are those that they call disciples here? The crowd that followed Him, not the twelve. What then saith Christ? Observe how mildly He answered; He said not, "Who are ye that counsel and instruct Me thus?" but,
For there is no man that doeth any thing in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, shew thyself to the world.
For neither did his brethren believe in him.
Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is alway ready.
Ver. 6. "My time is not yet come."
He here seemeth to me to hint at something other than He expresseth; perhaps in their envy they designed to deliver Him up to the Jews; and pointing out this to them, He saith, "My time is not yet come," that is, "the time of the Cross and the Death, why then hasten ye to slay Me before the time?"
"But your time is always ready."
As though He had said, "Though ye be ever with the Jews, they will not slay you who desire the same things with them; but Me they will straightway wish to kill. So that it is ever your time to be with them without danger, but My time is when the season of the Cross is at hand, when I must die." For that this was His meaning, He showed by what followed.
The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.
Ver. 7. "The world cannot hate you;" (how should it hate those who desire, and who run for the same objects as itself?) "but Me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil."
"That is, because I upbraid and rebuke it, therefore I am hated." From this let us learn to master our anger, and not to give way to unworthy passion, though they be mean men who give us counsel. For if Christ meekly bore with unbelievers counseling Him, when their counsel was improper and not from any good intention, what pardon shall we obtain, who being but dust and ashes, yet are annoyed with those who counsel us, and deem that we are unworthily treated, although the persons who do this may be but a little humbler than ourselves? Observe in this instance how He repelleth their accusation with all gentleness; for when they say, "Show Thyself to the world," He replieth, "The world cannot hate you, but Me the world hateth"; thus removing their accusation. "So far," He saith, "am I from seeking honor from men, that I cease not to reprove them, and this when I know that by this course hatred is produced against and death prepared for Me." "And where," asketh some one, "did He rebuke men?" When did He ever cease to do so? Did He not say, "Think not that I will accuse you to the Father? There is one that accuseth you, even Moses." (c. v. 45.) And again; "I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you": and "How can ye believe, who receive honor from men,  and seek not the honor that cometh from God only?" Seest thou how He hath everywhere shown, that it was the open rebuke, not the violation of the Sabbath, which caused the hatred against Him?
And wherefore doth He send them to the feast, saying,
Ver. 8. "Go ye up to the feast: I go not up yet"?
To show that He said these things not as needing them, or desiring to be flattered  by them, but permitting them to do what pertained to Jews. "How then," saith some one, "went He up after saying, I go not up'?" He said not, once for all,  "I go not up," but, "now," that is, "not with you."
"For My time is not yet fulfilled."
And yet He was about to be crucified at the coming Passover. "How then went He not up also? for if He went not up because the time was not yet come, He ought not to have gone up at all." But He went not up for this purpose, that He might suffer, but that He might instruct them. "But wherefore secretly? since He might by going openly both have been amidst them, and have restrained their unruly impulses as He often did." It was because He would not do this continually. Since had He gone up openly, and again blinded them,  He would have made His Godhead to shine through in a greater degree, which at present behooved not, but He rather concealed it.  And since they thought that His remaining was from cowardice, He showeth them the contrary, and that it was from confidence, and a dispensation,  and that knowing beforehand the time when He should suffer, He would, when it should at length be at hand, be most desirous of going up to Jerusalem. And methinks by saying, "Go ye up," He meant, "Think not that I compel you to stay with Me against your will," and this addition of, "My time is not yet fully come," is the expression of one declaring that miracles must be wrought and sermons spoken, so that greater multitudes might believe, and the disciples be made more steadfast by seeing the boldness and the sufferings of their Master.
[3.] Learn we then, from what hath been said, His kindness and gentleness; "Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly of heart" (Matthew 11:29); and let us cast away  all bitterness. If any exalt himself against us, let us be humble; if any be bold, let us wait upon him; if any bite and devour us with mocks and jests, let us not be overcome; lest in defending ourselves we destroy ourselves. For wrath is a wild beast, a wild beast keen and angry. Let us then repeat to ourselves  soothing charms drawn from the holy Scripture, and say, "Thou art earth and ashes." "Why is earth and ashes proud?" (Ecclus. x. 9), and, "The sway of his fury shall be his destruction" (Ecclus. i. 22): and, "The wrathful man is not comely" (Proverbs 11:25 , LXX.); for there is nothing more shameful, nothing uglier than a visage inflamed with anger. As when you stir up mud there is an ill savor, so when a soul is disturbed by passion there is great indecency and unpleasantness. "But," saith some one, "I endure not insult from mine enemies." Wherefore? tell me. If the charge be true, then thou oughtest, even before the affront, to have been pricked at heart, and thank thine enemy for his rebukes; if it be false, despise  it. He hath called thee poor, laugh at him; he hath called thee base-born and foolish, then mourn for him; for "He that saith to his brother, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire." (Matthew 5:22.) Whenever therefore one insults thee, consider the punishment that he undergoeth; then shalt thou not only not be angry, but shalt even shed tears for him. For no man is wroth with one in a fever or inflammation, but pities and weeps for all such; and such a thing is a soul that is angry. Nay, if even thou desire to avenge thyself, hold thy peace, and thou hast dealt thine enemy a mortal blow; while if thou addest reviling to reviling, thou hast kindled a fire. "But," saith some one, "the bystanders accuse us of weakness if we hold our peace." No, they will not condemn your weakness, but admire you for your wisdom. Moreover, if you are stung by insolence, you become insolent; and being stung, compel men to think that what hath been said of you is true. Wherefore, tell me, doth a rich man laugh when he is called poor? Is it not because he is conscious that he is not poor? if therefore  we will laugh at insults, we shall afford the strongest proof that we are not conscious of the faults alleged. Besides, how long are we to dread the accounts we render to men? how long are we to despise our common Lord, and be nailed to the flesh? "For whereas there is among you strife, and envying, and divisions, are ye not carnal?" (1 Corinthians 3:3.) Let us then become spiritual, and bridle this dreadful wild beast. Anger differs nothing from madness, it is a temporary devil, or rather it is a thing worse than having a devil; for one that hath a devil may be excused, but the angry man deserves ten thousand punishments, voluntarily casting himself into the pit of destruction, and before the hell which is to come suffering punishment from this already, by bringing a certain restless turmoil and never silent  storm of fury, through all the night and through all the day, upon the reasonings of his soul. Let us therefore, that we may deliver ourselves from the punishment here and the vengeance hereafter, cast out this passion, and show forth all meekness and gentleness, that we may find rest for our souls both here and in the Kingdom of Heaven. To which may we all attain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom and with whom, to the Father and the Holy Spirit be glory, now and ever and world without end. Amen.
 ou gar eichen exousian
 al. "they are not riddles, God forbid! but this may be said, that," &c.
 p. 30.
 p. 30.
 al. "both."
 al. "when he showed Him sitting."
 "The Passover was nigh," c. vi. 4
 al. "to be followed."
 al. "we have often heard."
 al. "what a word of unbelief, spake they, exhorting."
 al. "was fitting."
 al. "bitterness."
 al. "deliberate choice."
 "one of another," N.T.
 al. "desiring their company and honor."
 hautous eperose
 al. "He would have displayed greater signs of the Godhead, and revealed It in greater degree."
 al. "at once a dispensation and a confidence."
 al. "cut up."
 al. "to it."
 al. "laugh at."
 al. "so also do ye; if rather."
 al. "unbearable."
Go ye up unto this feast: I go not up yet unto this feast; for my time is not yet full come.
When he had said these words unto them, he abode still in Galilee.
"When He had said these words unto them, He abode still in Galilee. But when His brethren were gone up, then went He up also unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret." 
[1.] The things done  by Christ after the manner of men, are not so done only to establish the Incarnation, but also to educate us for virtue. For had He done all as God, how could we have known, on falling in with such things as we wished not, what we must do? As, for instance, when He was in this very place, and the Jews would have killed Him, He came into the midst of them, and so appeased the tumult. Now had He done this continually, how should we, not being able to do so, and yet falling into the like case, have known in what way we ought to deal with the matter, whether to perish at once, or even to use some contrivance  in order that the word might go forward? Since, therefore, we who have no power could not have understood what to do on coming into the midst of our foes, on this account we are taught this very thing by Him. For, saith the Evangelist, Jesus, "when He had said these words, abode in Galilee; but when His brethren were gone up, then went He up also unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret." The expression, "when His brethren were gone up," is that of one showing that He chose not to go up with them. On which account He abode where He was, and manifested not Himself, although they in a manner urged  Him to do so. But why did He, who ever spake openly, do so now "as it were in secret"? The writer saith not "secretly," but, "as it were in secret." For thus, as I have said, He seemed  to be instructing us how to manage matters. And, apart from this,  it was not the same to come among them when heated and restive,  as to do so afterwards when the feast was ended.
But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.
Then the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he?
Ver. 11. "Then the Jews sought Him,  and said, Where is He?"
Excellent truly the good deeds at their feasts! they are eager for murder, and wish to seize Him, even during the feast.  At least, in another place they speak thus, "Think ye that He will not come to the feast?" (John 11:56); and here they said, "Where is He?" Through their excessive hatred and enmity they would not even call Him by name. Great was their reverence towards the feast, great their caution. By occasion of  the very feast they wished  to entrap Him!
And there was much murmuring among the people concerning him: for some said, He is a good man: others said, Nay; but he deceiveth the people.
Ver. 12. "And there was much murmuring among the people concerning Him."
I think they were exasperated by the place where the miracle had been wrought, and were  greatly infuriated and afraid, not so much from anger at what had gone before, as from fear lest He should again work something similar. But all fell out contrary to what they desired, and against their will they rendered Him conspicuous.
"And some said, He is a good man; others said, Nay, but He deceiveth the people."
Methinks the first of these opinions was that of the many, the other that of the rulers and priests. For to slander Him suited their malice and wickedness. "He deceiveth," say they, "the people." How, tell me? Was it by seeming to work, not really working miracles? But experience witnesses  the contrary.
Howbeit no man spake openly of him for fear of the Jews.
Ver. 13. "Howbeit no man spake openly of Him for fear of the Jews."
Seest thou everywhere the ruling body corrupted, and the ruled sound indeed in judgment, but not having that proper courage  which a multitude especially lacketh? 
Now about the midst of the feast Jesus went up into the temple, and taught.
Ver. 14. "Now about the middle of the feast Jesus went up  and taught."
By the delay He made them more attentive; for they who had sought Him on the first days and said,  "Where is He?" when they saw Him suddenly present, observe how they drew near, and were like to press upon Him as He was speaking, both those who said that He was a good man, and those who said that He was not such;  the former so as to profit by and admire Him, the latter to lay hold on and detain Him. One party then said, "He deceiveth the people," by reason of the teaching and the doctrines, not understanding His meaning; the other on account of the miracles said, "He is a good man." He therefore thus came among them when He had slackened  their anger, so that they might hear His words at leisure, when passion no longer stopped their ears. What He taught, the Evangelist hath not told us; that He taught marvelously, this only he saith, and that He won  and brought them over. Such was the power of His speech. And they who had said, "He deceiveth the people," altered their opinion, "and marveled." Wherefore also they said,
Ver. 15. "How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?"
Observest thou how the Evangelist showeth here also their marveling to be full of wickedness? for he saith not, that they admired the teaching, or that they received the words, but simply that they "marveled." That is, were thrown into a state of astonishment, and doubted, saying, "Whence hath this man  these things"? when they ought from this very difficulty to have known that there was nothing merely human in Him. But because they would not confess  this, but stopped at wondering only, hear what He saith.
Ver. 16. "My doctrine is not Mine."
Again He answereth to their secret thoughts, referring them to the Father, and so desiring to stop their mouths.
Ver. 17. "If any man will do His will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of Myself."
What He saith is this, "Cast out from yourselves the malice and wrath and envy and hatred which has without cause been conceived against Me, then there is nothing to hinder you from knowing that My words are indeed the words of God. For at present these things cast a darkness over you, and destroy the light of right judgment, while if ye remove them this shall no longer be your case." Yet He spake not (plainly) thus, (for so He would have confounded them exceedingly,) but implied it all by saying, "He that doeth His will shall know of the doctrine, whether it is of God, or whether I speak of Myself"; that is, "whether I speak anything different and strange and contrary to God." For, "of Myself" is always put with this meaning, that "I say nothing except what seemeth good to Him, but all that the Father willeth, I will also."
"If any man do His will, he shall know of the doctrine."
"What meaneth," "If any man do His will?" "If any man be a lover of the life which is according to virtue, he shall know the power of the sayings." "If any man will give heed to the prophecies, to see whether I speak according to them or not."
[2.] But how is the doctrine His and not His? For He said not, "This doctrine is not Mine"; but having first said, "it is Mine," and having claimed it as His own, He then added, "it is not Mine." How then can the same thing be both "His" and not "His"? It is "His," because He spake it not as one who had been taught; and it is "not His," because it was the doctrine of the Father. How then saith He, "All that is the Father's is Mine, and Mine His"? (c. xvii. 10. ) "For if because the doctrine is the Father's, it is not thine, that other assertion is false, for according to that it ought to be thine." But the "is not Mine," affords a strong proof that His doctrine and the Father's are one; as if He had said, "It hath nothing different,  as though it were another's. For though My Person  be different, yet so do I speak and do as not to be supposed to speak or do anything contrary to the Father, but rather the very same things that the Father saith and doeth." Then He addeth another incontrovertible argument, bringing forward something merely human, and instructing them by things to which they were accustomed. And what is that?
Ver. 18. "He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory."
That is, "He that desireth to establish any doctrine of his own, desireth to do so only that he himself may enjoy the glory.  Now if I desire not to enjoy glory, wherefore should I desire to establish any doctrine of My own? He that speaketh of himself, that is, who speaketh anything peculiar or different from others, speaketh on this account, that he may establish his own glory; but if I seek the glory of Him that sent Me, wherefore should I choose to teach other  things?" Seest thou that there was a cause wherefore He said there too that He "did nothing of Himself"? (c. v. 19, and viii. 28.) What was it? It was that they might believe that He desired not the honor of the many. Therefore when His words are lowly, "I seek," He saith, "the glory of the Father," everywhere desiring to persuade them that He Himself loveth not glory. Now there are many reasons for His using lowly words, as that He might not be deemed unbegotten, or opposed to God, His being clothed with flesh, the infirmity of His hearers, that He might teach men to be modest, and to speak no great thing of themselves: while for speaking lofty words one could only find one reason, the greatness of His Nature. And if when He said, "Before Abraham was, I am" (c. viii. 58), they were offended, what would have been their case if they had continually heard high expressions?
And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?
Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.
If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.
He that speaketh of himself seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him.
Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?
Ver. 19. "Did not Moses give you the Law? and yet none of you keepeth the Law? Why go ye about to kill Me?"
"And what connection," saith some one, "has this, or what has this to do with what was said before?" The Jews brought against Him two accusations; one, that He broke the Sabbath; the other, that He called God His Father, making Himself equal with God. And that this was no imagination of theirs, but His own declared judgment,  and that He spake not as do the many, but in a special and peculiar sense, is clear from this circumstance. Many often called God their Father; as "Have we not all one Father, hath not one God created us?" (Malachi 2:10), but not for that was the people equal to God, on which account the hearers were not offended. As then when the Jews said, "This man is not from God," He often healed them,  and made defense for the violation of the Sabbath; so now had the sense they assigned to His words been according to their imagination, not according to His intention, He would have corrected them, and said, "Why suppose ye Me equal to God? I am not equal"; yet He said nothing of the kind, but, on the contrary, declared by what followed, that He is equal. For, "As the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them, so also the Son" (c. v. 21); and "That all may honor the Son as they honor the Father"; and "The works which He doeth, the same doeth the Son likewise;" all these go to establish His equality. Again, concerning the Law He saith, "Think not that I am come to destroy the Law or the Prophets." (Matthew 5:17.) Thus He knoweth how to remove evil suspicions which are in their minds; but in this place He not only doth not remove, but even confirmeth their suspicion of His equality. On which account also, when they said in another place, "Thou makest thyself God," He did not remove their suspicion, but even confirmed it, saying, "That ye may know that the Son of Man hath power on earth to forgive sins, He saith to the sick of the palsy, Take up thy bed, and walk."  (Matthew 9:6.) This then He first aimed at, to make Himself equal with God, showing that He was not God's adversary, but that He said the same and taught the same with Him, and afterwards He setteth Himself to  the breach of the Sabbath, saying, "Did not Moses give you the Law, and none of you keepeth the Law?" As though He had said, "The Law saith, Thou shalt not kill; but ye kill, and yet accuse Me as transgressing the Law." But wherefore saith He, "None of you"? Because they all sought to kill Him. "And if," He saith, "I even have broken the Law, it was in saving a man, but ye transgress it for evil. And if My action was even a transgression, yet it was in order to save, and I ought not to be judged by you who transgress in the greatest matters. For your conduct is a subverting of the whole Law." Then also He presseth it farther, although He had said many things to them before, but at that former time He spake after a loftier manner, and more suitably to His own dignity, while now He speaketh more humbly. Wherefore? Because He would not continually irritate them. At present their anger had become intense, and they went on to murder. And therefore He continueth to check them in these two ways, by reproving their evil daring, and saying, "Why go ye about to kill Me?" and by modestly calling Himself, "A Man that hath told you the truth" (c. viii. 40), and by showing that murderers in heart are not worthy to judge others. And observe both the humility of Christ's question, and the insolence of their answer.
Ver. 20. "Thou hast a devil; who goeth about to kill thee?"
[3.] The expression is one of wrath and anger, and of a soul made shameless by an unexpected reproof, and put to confusion before their time, as they thought.  For just as a sort of robbers who sing over their plots, then when they desire to put him against whom they are plotting off his guard, effect their object by keeping silence, so also do these. But He, omitting to rebuke them for this, so as not to make them more shameless, again taketh in hand His defense with respect to the Sabbath, reasoning with them from the Law. And observe how prudently. "No wonder," He saith, "if ye disobey Me, when ye disobey the Law which ye think ye obey, and which ye hold to have been given you by Moses. It is therefore no new thing, if ye give not heed to My words." For because  they said, "God spake to Moses, but as for this fellow we know not whence he is" (c. ix. 29), He showeth that they were insulting Moses as well as Himself, for Moses gave them the Law, and they obeyed it not.
Ver. 21. "I have done one work, and ye all marvel."
Observe how He argueth, where it is necessary to defend Himself, and make His defense a charge against them.  For with respect to that which had been wrought, He introduceth not the Person of the Father, but His own: "I have done one work." He would show,  that not to have done it would have been to break the Law, and that there are many things more authoritative  than the Law, and that "Moses" endured to receive a command against  the Law, and more authoritative than the Law. For "circumcision" is more authoritative than the Sabbath, and yet circumcision is not of the Law, but of "the fathers." "But I," He saith, "have done that which is more authoritative and better than circumcision." Then He mentioneth not the command of the Law; for instance, that the Priests profane the Sabbath, as He had said already, but speaketh more largely. The meaning of, "Ye marvel" (Matthew 12:5) is, "Ye are confused," "are troubled." For if the Law was to be lasting, circumcision would not have been more authoritative than it. And He said not, "I have done a thing greater than circumcision," but abundantly refuteth them by saying, 
The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?
Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one work, and ye all marvel.
Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision; (not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;) and ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man.
If a man on the sabbath day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath day?
Ver. 23. "If a man receive circumcision." 
"Seest thou that the Law is most established when a man breaketh it? Seest thou that the breaking of the Sabbath is the keeping of the Law? that if the Sabbath were not broken, the Law must needs have been broken? so that I also have established the Law." He said not, "Ye are wroth with Me because I have wrought a thing which is greater than circumcision," but having merely mentioned what had been done, He left it to them to judge, whether entire health was not a more necessary thing than circumcision. "The Law," He saith, "is broken, that a man may receive a sign which contributeth nothing to health; are ye vexed and indignant at its being broken, that one might be freed from so grievous a disease?"
Ver. 24. "Judge not according to appearance."
What is, "according to appearance"? "Do not, since Moses hath the greatest honor among you, give your decision according to your estimation of persons, but according to the nature of things; for this is to judge rightly. Wherefore hath no one of you reproved Moses? Wherefore hath no one disobeyed him when he ordereth that the Sabbath be broken by a commandment introduced from without into the Law? He alloweth a commandment to be of more authority than his own Law; a commandment not introduced by the Law, but from without, which is especially wonderful; while ye who are not lawgivers are beyond measure jealous for the Law, and defend it. Yet Moses, who ordereth that the Law be broken by a commandment which is not of the Law, is more worthy of confidence than you." By saying then, (I have made) "a whole man (healthy)," He showeth that circumcision also was "partial" health. And what was the health procured by circumcision? "Every soul,"  It saith, "that is not circumcised, shall be utterly destroyed." (Genesis 17:14.) "But I have raised up a man not partially afflicted, but wholly undone." "Judge not," therefore, "according to appearance."
Be we persuaded that this is  said not merely to the men of that time, but to us also, that in nothing we pervert justice, but do all in its behalf; that whether a man be poor or rich, we give no heed to persons, but enquire into things. "Thou shalt not pity,"  It saith, "the poor in judgment." (Exodus 23:3.) What is meant? "Be not broken down, nor bent," It saith, "if he that doth the wrong be a poor man." Now if you may not favor a poor man, much less a rich. And this I say not only to you who are judges, but to all men, that they nowhere pervert justice, but preserve it everywhere pure. "The Lord," It saith, "loveth righteousness"; and, "he that loveth iniquity hateth his own soul." (Psalm 11:7 and 5 , LXX.) Let us not, I entreat, hate our own souls, nor love unrighteousness. For certainly its profit in the present world is little  or nothing, and for the world to come it brings great damage.  Or rather, I should say, that not even here can we enjoy it; for when we live softly, yet with an evil conscience, is not this vengeance and punishment? Let us then love righteousness, and never look aside  from that law. For what fruit shall we gain from the present life, if we depart without having attained unto excellence? What there will help us? Will friendship, or relations, or this or that man's favor? What am I saying? this or that man's favor? Though we have Noah, Job, or Daniel for a father, this will avail us nothing if we be betrayed by our own works. One thing alone we need, that is, excellency of soul. This will be able to carry you safe through, and to deliver you from everlasting fire, this will escort  you to the Kingdom of Heaven. To which may we all attain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom and with whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever and world without end. Amen.
 al. "but secretly."
 lit. "dispensed."
 lit. "economize somewhat."
 al. "were eager."
 al. "it behooved."
 al. "besides, because."
 sphadazonton, al. a kmazonton
 "at the feast," N.T.
 al. "they were always eager for murder, and by means of these (feasts) desired to catch Him."
 or, "directly after."
 al. "were eager."
 al. "and at the same time."
 al. "showed."
 al. "opinion."
 al. "which thing is especially characteristic of the multitude."
 "into the Temple," N.T.
 al. "they who seek Him and say."
 al. "was wicked."
 chalasas, al. chaunosas
 lit. "took."
 al. "knoweth he."
 al. "reveal."
 "all Mine are Thine," &c.
 i. e. from the Father's.
 hu postasis
 al. "He that desires to speak of himself, desires it on no other account, but only to reap glory from this."
 i. e. other than He willeth.
 i. e. of their error.
 "go to thine house," N.T.
 i. e. to meet the charge of.
 prokataplettomenes auton hos oonto. This appears to be the meaning, if the text is correct. The passage is suspected, but there is no other reading.
 or, "when."
 al. "to admit what had taken place as a charge against Himself."
 i. e. by ver. 22. "Moses therefore gave you circumcision (not because it is of Moses, but the fathers) and ye on the Sabbath day circumcise a man."
 kata tou n
 al. "but hinted by saying."
 ver. 23. "If a man on the Sabbath day receive circumcision, that the Law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at Me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the Sabbath day? "
 al. "soul of man."
 al. "but this is."
 e leeseis
 al. "for how great is, &c. little."
 al. "and afterwards we perish miserably."
 al. "offend against."
 al. "escorts."
Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgment.
Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill?
"Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill? But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ? Howbeit we know this man whence he is."
[1.] Nothing is placed in the Holy Scriptures without a reason, for they were uttered by the Holy Ghost, therefore let us enquire exactly into every point. For it is possible from one expression to find out the entire meaning (of a passage), as in the case before us. "Many of them of Jerusalem said, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill? But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him." Now why is added, "them of Jerusalem"? The Evangelist by this shows, that they who had most enjoyed His mighty miracles were more pitiable than any; they who had beheld the greatest proof of His Godhead, and yet committed all to the judgment of their corrupt rulers. For was it not a great proof of it, that men furious and bent on murder, who went about and sought to kill Him, should be quiet of a sudden, when they had Him in their hands? Who could have effected this? who thus quenched their absolute fury? Still after such proofs, observe the folly and the madness of the men. "Is not this he, whom they seek to kill?" See how they accuse themselves; "whom," It saith, "they seek to kill, and yet they say nothing to him." And not only do they say nothing to Him, but nothing even when He "speaketh boldly." For one who spoke boldly and with all freedom would naturally have the more angered them; but they did nothing. "Do they know indeed that this is the very Christ?" "What think ye? What opinion give ye?" The contrary, It saith. On which account they said, "We know this man whence he is." What malice,  what contradiction! They do not even follow the opinion of their rulers, but bring forward another, perverse, and worthy of their own folly; "We know him whence he is."
"But when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is." (Matthew 2:4.)
"Yet your rulers when asked replied, that He should be born in Bethlehem." And others again said, "God spake unto Moses, but as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is." (c. ix. 29.) "We know whence he is," and "we know not whence He is"; observe the words of drunken men. And again, "Doth Christ come out of Galilee?" (Ver. 41.) Is He not of "the town of Bethlehem"? Seest thou that theirs is the decision of madmen? "We know," and, "we know not"; "Christ cometh from Bethlehem"; "When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is." What can be plainer than this contradiction? For they only looked to one thing, which was, not to believe. What then is Christ's reply?
But, lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ?
Howbeit we know this man whence he is: but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.
Then cried Jesus in the temple as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not.
Ver. 28. "Ye both know Me, and ye know whence I:am: and I am not come of Myself, but He that sent Me is true, whom ye know not."
[2.] And again, "If ye had known Me, ye should have known My Father also." (c. viii. 19.) How then saith He, that they both "know Him," and "whence He is," and then, "that they neither know Him, nor the Father"? He doth not contradict, (away with the thought,) but is very consistent with Himself. For He speaketh of a different kind of knowledge, when He saith, "ye know not"; as when He saith, "The sons of Eli were wicked sons, they knew not the Lord" (1 Samuel 2:12); and again, "Israel doth not know Me." (Isaiah 1:3.) So also Paul saith, "They profess that they know God, but in works they deny Him." (Titus 1:16.) It is therefore possible, "knowing," "not to know." This then is what He saith: "If ye know Me, ye know that I am the Son of God." For the "whence I am" doth not here denote place. As is clear from what followeth, "I am not come of Myself, but He that sent Me is true, whom ye know not," referring here to the ignorance shown by their works. [As Paul saith, "They profess that they know God, but in works they deny Him."] For their fault came not merely of ignorance, but of wickedness, and an evil will; because even though they knew this, they chose to be ignorant. But what manner of connection is there here? How is it that He, reproving them, useth their own words? For when they say, "We know this man whence he is," He addeth, "ye both know Me." Was their expression, "We know him not"? Nay, they said, "We know him." But (observe), they by saying the, "We know whence he is," declared nothing else than that He was "of the earth," and that He was "the carpenter's son"; but He led them up to heaven, saying, "Ye know whence I am," that is, not thence whence ye suppose, but from that place whence He that sent Me (hath sent Me). For to say, "I am not come of Myself," intimateth to them, that they knew that He was sent by the Father, though they did not disclose it.  So that He rebuketh them in a twofold manner; first, what they said in secret He published aloud, so as to put them to shame; after that He revealed also what was in their hearts. As though He had said, "I am not one of the abjects, nor of those who come for nothing, but He that sent Me is true, whom ye know not.'" What meaneth,"He that sent Me is true"? "If He be true, He hath sent Me for the truth; if He be true, it is probable that He who is sent is true also." This also He proveth in another way, vanquishing them with their own words. For whereas they had said, "When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is," He proveth from this that He Himself is the Christ. They used the words, "No man knoweth," with reference to distinction of some definite locality; but from the same words He showeth Himself to be the Christ, because He came from the Father; and everywhere He witnesseth that He alone hath the knowledge of the Father, saying, "Not that any man hath seen the Father, save He which is from the Father."  (c. vi. 46.) And His words exasperated them; for to tell them, "Ye know Him not," and to rebuke them because knowing they pretended to be ignorant, was sufficient to sting and annoy them.
But I know him: for I am from him, and he hath sent me.
Ver. 29. "I know Him," He saith, "for I am from Him, and He hath sent Me."
Seest thou how He continually seeketh to prove the, "I am not come of Myself," and, "He that sent Me is true," striving not to be thought an enemy of God? And observe how great is the profit of the humility of His words; for, it saith, after this many said,
Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.
Ver. 30. "Then they sought to take Him, and no man laid his hand upon Him, because His hour was not yet come."
Seest thou that they are invisibly restrained, and their anger bridled? But wherefore saith It not, that He had restrained them invisibly, but, "Because His hour was not yet come"? The Evangelist was minded to speak more humanly and in a lowlier strain, so that Christ might be deemed to be also Man. For because Christ everywhere speaketh of sublime matters, he therefore intersperseth expressions of this kind. And when Christ saith, "I am from Him," He speaketh not as a Prophet who learneth, but as seeing Him, and being with Him.
And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?
Ver. 31. "When Christ cometh, will He do more miracles than these which this man hath done?"
How many were the miracles? In truth, there were three, that of the wine, that of the paralytic, and that of the nobleman's son; and the Evangelist hath related no more. From which circumstance it is plain, as I have often said, that the writers pass by most of them, and discourse to us of those alone on account of which the rulers ill-treated Him. "Then they sought to take Him," and kill Him. Who "sought"? Not the multitude, who had no desire of rule, nor could be made captives by malice; but the priests. For they of the multitude said, "When Christ cometh, will He do more miracles?" Yet neither was this sound faith, but, as it were, the idea of a promiscuous  crowd; for to say, "When He cometh," was not the expression of men firmly persuaded that He was the Christ. We may either understand the words thus, or that they were uttered by the multitudes when they came together. "Since," they may have said, "our rulers are taking every pains to prove that this man is not the Christ, let us suppose that he is not the Christ; will the Christ be better than he?" For, as I ever repeat, men of the grosser sort are led in not by doctrine, nor by preaching, but by miracles.
Ver. 32. "The Pharisees heard the people murmuring,  and sent  servants to take Him."
Seest thou that the violation of the Sabbath was a mere pretense? and that what most stung them was this murmuring? For here, though they had no fault to find with Him for anything said or done, they desired to take Him because of the multitude. They dared not do it themselves, suspecting danger, but sent their hired servants.  Alas! for their tyranny and their madness, or rather, I should say, for their folly. After having often attempted themselves, and not prevailed, they committed the matter to servants, simply satisfying their anger. Yet He had spoken much at the pool (c. v.), and they had done nothing of the kind; they sought indeed occasion, but they attempted not, while here they can endure it no longer, when the multitude is about to run to Him. What then saith Christ?
Ver. 33. "Yet a little while am I with you." Having power to bow and terrify His hearers, He uttereth words full of humility. As though He had said, "Why are ye eager to persecute and kill Me? Wait a little while, and even though you should be eager to keep Me back, I shall not endure it." That no one should (as they did) suppose that the, "Yet a little while am I with you," denoted a common death, that no one might suppose this, or that He wrought  nothing after death, He added,
Ver. 34. "And where I am, thither ye cannot come."
Now had He been about to continue in death, they might have gone to Him, for to that place we all depart. His words therefore bent the simpler portion of the multitude, terrified the bolder, made the more intelligent anxious to hear Him, since but little time was now left, and since it was not in their power always to enjoy this teaching. Nor did He merely say, "I am here," but, "I am with you," that is, "Though ye persecute, though ye drive Me away, yet for a little while I shall not cease dispensing what is for your good, saying and recommending the things that relate to your salvation."
Ver. 33. "And I go unto Him that sent Me." This was enough to terrify and throw them into an agony. For that they should stand in need of Him, He declareth also.
Ver. 34. "Ye shall seek Me," He saith, (not only "ye shall not forget Me," but ye shall even "seek Me,") "and shall not find Me."
[3.] And when did the Jews "seek Him"? Luke saith that the women mourned over Him, and it is probable that many others, both at the time and when the city was taken, remembered Christ and His miracles, and sought His presence. (Luke 23:49.) Now all this He added, desiring to attract them. For the facts that the time left was short, that He should after His departure be regretfully desired by them, and that they should not then be able to find Him, were all together sufficient to persuade them to come to Him. For had it not been that His presence should with regret be desired by them, He would not have seemed to them to be saying any great thing; if, again, it was about to be desired, and they able to find Him, neither so would this have disturbed them. Again, had He been about to stay with them a long time, so also they would have been remiss. But now He in every way compelleth and terrifieth them. And the, "I go to Him that sent Me," is the expression of one declaring that no harm will happen to Him from their plotting, and that His Passion was voluntary. Wherefore now He uttered two predictions, that after a little while He should depart, and that they should not come to Him; a thing which belonged not to human intelligence, the foretelling His own death. Hear for instance, David saying, "Lord, make me to know mine end and the number of my days, what it is, that I may know what time I have."  (Psalm 39:4.) There is no man at all that knoweth this; and by one  the other is confirmed. And I think that He speaketh this covertly to the servants, and directeth His discourse to them, thus specially attracting them, by showing them that He knew the cause of their arrival. As though He had said, "Wait a little, and I shall depart."
The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him; and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him.
Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that sent me.
Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come.
Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
Ver. 35. "Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go?"
Yet they who had wished to be rid of Him, who did all in their power not to see Him, ought not to have asked this question, but to have said, "we are glad of it, when will the departure take place?" but they were somewhat affected at His words, and with foolish suspicion question one another, "whither will he go?"
"Will he go unto the dispersion of the Gentiles?" 
What is, "the dispersion of the Gentiles"? The Jews gave this name to other nations, because they were everywhere scattered and mingled fearlessly with one another. And this reproach they themselves afterwards endured, for they too were a "dispersion." For of old all their nation was collected into one place, and you could not anywhere find a Jew, except in Palestine only; wherefore they called the Gentiles a "dispersion," reproaching them, and boasting concerning themselves. What then meaneth, "Whither I go ye cannot come"? For all nations at that time had intercourse with them, and there were Jews everywhere. He would not therefore, if He had meant the Gentiles, have said, "Where ye cannot come." After saying, "Will he go to the dispersion of the Gentiles?" they did not add, "and ruin," but, "and teach them." To such a degree had they abated their anger, and believed His words; for they would not, had they not believed, have enquired among themselves what the saying was.
These words were spoken indeed to the Jews, but fear there is lest they be suited to us also, that "where He is" we "cannot come" on account of our life being full of sins. For concerning the disciples He saith, "I will that they also be with Me where I am" (c. xvii. 24), but concerning ourselves, I dread lest the contrary be said, that, "Where I am, ye cannot come." For when we act contrary to the commandments, how can we go to that place? Even in the present life, if any soldier act unworthily towards his king, he will not be able to see the king, but being deprived of his authority will suffer the severest punishment; if therefore we steal, or covet, if we wrong or strike others, if we work not deeds of mercy, we shall not be able to go thither, but shall suffer what happened to the virgins. For where He was, they were not able to enter in, but retired, their lamps having gone out, that is, grace having left them. For we can, if we will, increase the brightness of that flame which we received straightway  by the grace of the Spirit; but if we will not do this, we shall lose it, and when that is quenched, there will be nothing else than darkness in our souls; since, as while a lamp is burning the light is strong, so when it is extinguished there is nothing but gloom. Wherefore the Apostle saith, "Quench not the Spirit." (1 Thess. v. 19.) And It is quenched when It hath not oil, when there is any violent gust of wind, when It is cramped and confined, (for so fire is quenched,) and It is cramped by worldly cares, and quenched by evil desires. In addition to the causes we have mentioned, nothing quencheth It so much as inhumanity, cruelty, and rapine. For when, besides having no oil, we pour upon it cold water, (for covetousness is this, which chills with despondency the souls of those we wrong,) whence shall it be kindled again? We shall depart, therefore, carrying dust and ashes with us, and having much smoke to convict us of having had lamps and of having extinguished them; for where there is smoke, there needs must have been fire which hath been quenched. May none of us ever hear that word, "I know you not." (Matthew 25:12.) And whence shall we hear that word, but from this, if ever we see a poor man, and are as though we saw him not? If we will not know Christ when He is an hungered, He too will not know us when we entreat His mercy. And with justice; for how shall he who neglects the afflicted, and gives not of that which is his own, how shall he seek to receive of that which is not his own? Wherefore, I entreat you, let us do and contrive everything, so that oil fail not us, but that we may trim our lamps, and enter with the Bridegroom into the bride-chamber. To which may we all attain, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom and with whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever and world without end. Amen.
 al. "perplexity."
 e xekalupton
 "of God," N.T.
 "murmuring such things concerning Him," N.T.
 "the Pharisees and Chief Priests sent," N.T.
 or, "sent their s. to be exposed" (e kdotous).
 e nergei
 ti hustero ego, LXX. , thus rendered in margin of E.V.
 i. e. one prediction.
 lit. "Greeks."
 i. e. in baptism.
What manner of saying is this that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come?
In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.
"In the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water."
[1.] They who come to the divine preaching and give heed to the faith, must manifest the desire of thirsty men for water, and kindle in themselves a similar longing; so will they be able also very carefully to retain what is said. For as thirsty men, when they have taken a bowl, eagerly drain it and then desist, so too they who hear the divine oracles if they receive them thirsting, will never be weary until they have drunk them up. For to show that men ought ever to thirst and hunger, "Blessed," It saith, "are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness" (Matthew 5:6); and here Christ saith, "If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink." What He saith is of this kind, "I draw no man to Me by necessity and constraint; but if any hath great zeal, if any is inflamed with desire, him I call."
But why hath the Evangelist remarked that it was "on the last day, that great day"? For both the first day and the last were "great," while the intermediate days they spent rather in enjoyment. Wherefore then saith he, "in the last day"? Because on that day they were all collected together. For on the first day He came not, and told the reason to His brethren, nor yet on the second and third days saith He anything of this kind, lest His words should come to nought, the hearers being about to run into indulgence. But on the last day when they were returning home He giveth them supplies  for their salvation, and crieth aloud, partly by this showing to us His boldness, and partly for the greatness of the multitude. And to show that He spake not of material drink, He addeth, "He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water." By "belly" he here meaneth the heart, as also in another place It saith, "And Thy Law in the midst of my belly." (Psalm 40.10 ; Theodotion.) But where hath the Scripture said, that "rivers of living water shall flow from his belly"? Nowhere. What then meaneth, "He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture saith"? Here we must place a stop, so that the, "rivers shall flow from his belly," may be an assertion of Christ.  For because many said, "This is the Christ"; and, "When the Christ cometh will He do more miracles?" He showeth that it behooveth to have a correct knowledge, and to be convinced not so much from the miracles as from the Scriptures. Many, in fact, who even saw Him working marvels received Him not as Christ, and were ready to say, "Do not the Scriptures say that Christ cometh of the seed of David?" and on this they  continually dwelt. He then, desiring to show that He did not shun the proof from the Scriptures, again referreth them to the Scriptures. He had said before, "Search the Scriptures" (c. v. 39); and again, "It is written in the Prophets, And they shall be taught of God" (c. vi. 45); and, "Moses accuseth you" (c. v. 45); and here,"As the Scripture hath said, rivers shall flow from his belly," alluding to the largeness and abundance of grace. As in another place He saith, "A well of water springing up unto eternal life" (c. iv. 14), that is to say, "he shall possess much grace"; and elsewhere He calleth it, "eternal life," but here, "living water." He calleth that "living" which ever worketh; for the grace of the Spirit, when it hath entered into the mind and hath been established, springeth up more than any fountain, faileth not, becometh not empty, stayeth not. To signify therefore at once its unfailing supply and unlimited  operation, He hath called it "a well" and "rivers," not one river but numberless; and in the former case He hath represented its abundance by the expression, "springing." And one may clearly perceive what is meant, if he will consider the wisdom of Stephen, the tongue of Peter, the vehemence of Paul, how nothing bare, nothing withstood them, not the anger of multitudes, not the risings up of tyrants, not the plots of devils, not daily deaths, but as rivers borne along with a great rushing sound, so they went on their way hurrying all things with them.
He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.
(But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
Ver. 39. "But this spake He of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive; for the Holy Ghost was not yet given."
[2.] How then did the Prophets prophesy and work those ten thousand wonders? For the Apostles cast not out devils by the Spirit, but by power received from Him; as He saith Himself, "If I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out?" (Matthew 12:27.) And this He said, signifying that before the Crucifixion  not all cast out devils by the Spirit, but that some did so by the power received from Him. So when  He was about to send them, He said, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost" (c. xx. 22); and again, "The Holy Ghost came upon them" (Acts 19:6), and then they wrought miracles. But when  He was sending them, the Scripture said not, that "He gave to them the Holy Ghost," but that He gave to them "power," saying, "Cleanse the lepers, cast out devils, raise the dead, freely ye have received, freely give." (Matthew 10:1, 8.) But in the case of the Prophets, all allow that the Gift was that of the Holy Spirit. But this Grace was stinted and departed and failed from off the earth, from the day in which it was said, "Your house is left unto you desolate" (Matthew 23:38); and even before that day its dearth had begun, for there was no longer any prophet among them, nor did Grace visit their holy  things. Since then the Holy Ghost had been withheld, but was for the future to be shed forth abundantly, and since the beginning of this imparting was after the Crucifixion, not only as to its abundance, but also as to the increased greatness of the gifts, (for the Gift was more marvelous, as when It saith, "Ye know not what Spirit ye are of" (Luke 9:55); and again, "For ye have not received the Spirit of bondage, but the Spirit of adoption" (Romans 8:15); and the men of old possessed the Spirit themselves, but imparted It not to others, while the Apostles filled tens of thousands with It,) since then, I say, they were to receive this Gift, but It was not yet given, for this cause he addeth, "The Holy Ghost was not yet." Since then the Lord spoke of this grace,  the Evangelist hath said, "For the Holy Ghost was not yet," that is, "was not yet given,"
"Because Jesus was not yet glorified."
Calling the Cross, "glory." For since we were enemies, and had sinned, and fallen short of the gift of God, and were haters of God, and since grace was a proof of our reconciliation, and since a gift is not given to those who are hated, but to friends and those who have been well-pleasing; it was therefore necessary that the Sacrifice should first be offered for us, that the enmity (against God) which was in our flesh should be done away, that we should become friends of God, and so receive the Gift. For if this was done with respect to the promise made to Abraham, much more with respect to grace. And this Paul hath declared, saying, "If they which are of the Law be heirs, faith is made void--because the Law worketh wrath." (Romans 4:14, 15.) What he saith, is of this kind: God "promised that He would give the earth to Abraham and to his seed: but his descendants were unworthy of the promise, and of their own deeds could not be well-pleasing unto God. On this account came in faith, an easy action, that it might draw grace unto it, and that the promise might not fail. And It saith,
"Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace, to the end the promise might be sure." (Romans 4:16.) Wherefore it is by grace, since by their own labors they prevailed not.
But wherefore after saying, "according to the Scriptures,"  did He not add the testimony? Because their mind was corrupt; for,
Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet.
Ver. 40-42.  "Some said, This is the Prophet. Others said, He deceiveth the people;  others said, Christ cometh not from Galilee, but from the village of Bethlehem."
Others said, "When Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence He is" (ver. 27); and there was a difference of opinion, as might be expected in a confused  multitude; for not attentively did they listen to His words, nor for the sake of learning. Wherefore He maketh them no answer; yet they said, "Doth Christ come out of Galilee?" And He had praised, as being "an Israelite indeed," Nathanael, who had said in a more forcible and striking manner, "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" (c. i. 46.) But then these men, and they who said to Nicodemus, "Search and look, for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet" (ver. 52), said it not seeking to learn, but merely to overturn the opinion concerning Christ. Nathanael said this, being a lover of the truth, and knowing exactly all the ancient histories; but they looked only to one thing, and that was to remove the opinion that He was the Christ, on which account He revealed nothing to them. For they who even contradicted themselves, and said at one time, "No man knoweth whence He cometh," at another, "From Bethlehem," would manifestly even if they had been informed have opposed Him. For be it that they knew not the place of His birth, that He was from Bethlehem, because of His dwelling  in Nazareth, (yet this cannot be allowed, for He was not born there,) were they ignorant of His race also, that He was "of the house and lineage of David"? How then said they, "Doth not Christ come of the seed of David?" (Ver. 42.) Because they wished to conceal even this fact by that question, saying all that they said with malicious intent. Why did they not come to Him and say, "Since we admire thee in other respects, and thou biddest us believe thee according to the Scriptures, tell us how it is that the Scriptures say that Christ must come from Bethlehem, when thou art come from Galilee?" But they said nothing of the kind, but all in malice. And to show that they spoke not enquiringly, nor as desiring to learn, the Evangelist straightway hath added, that,
Ver. 44. "Some of them would have taken Him, but no man laid his hand upon Him."
This, if nothing else, might have been sufficient to cause compunction in them, but they felt it not, as the Prophet saith, "They were cleft asunder, and were not pricked in heart." (Psalm 35:15 , LXX.)
[3.] Such a thing is malice! it will give way to nothing, it looks to one thing only, and that is, to destroy the person against whom it plotteth. But what saith the Scripture? "Whoso diggeth a pit for his neighbor, shall fall into it himself." (Proverbs 26:27.) Which was the case then. For they desired to kill Him, to stop, as they thought, His preaching; the result was the opposite. For the preaching flourishes by the grace of Christ, while all that was theirs is quenched and perished; they have lost their country, their freedom, their security, their worship, they have been deprived of all their prosperity, and are become slaves and captives.
Knowing then this, let us never plot against others, aware that by so doing we whet the sword against ourselves, and inflict upon ourselves the deeper wound. Hath any one grieved thee, and desireth thou to avenge thyself on him? Avenge not thyself; so shalt thou be able to be avenged; but if thou avenge thyself, thou art not avenged. Think not that this is a riddle, but a true saying. "How, and in what way?" Because if thou avenge not thyself on him, thou makest God his enemy; but if thou avenge thyself, no longer so. "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay, saith the Lord." (Romans 12:19.) For if we have servants, and they having quarreled  with each other, do not give place to us for judgment and for punishment, but take it upon themselves; though they come to us ten thousand times, we not only shall not avenge them, but shall even be wroth with them, saying, "Thou runaway, thou flogging-post, thou oughtest to have submitted all to us, but since thou hast prevented us and avenged thyself, trouble us no farther"; much more shall God, who hath bidden us commit all unto Him, say this. For how can it be otherwise than absurd, when we demand from our servants so much minding of wisdom and obedience, but will not yield to our Master in those matters in which we desire our domestics to yield to us? This I say because of your readiness to inflict punishment one upon another. The truly wise man ought not to do this even, but to pardon and forgive offenses, though there were not that great reward proposed, the receiving in return forgiveness. For, tell me, if thou condemnest one who hath sinned, wherefore dost thou sin thyself, and fall into the same fault? Hath he insulted? Insult not thou again, or thou hast insulted thyself. Hath he struck? Strike not thou again, for then there is no difference between you. Hath he vexed thee? Vex him not again, for the profit is nothing, and thou wilt in thy turn be placed on an equality with those who have wronged thee. Thus, if thou bear with meekness and gentleness, thou shalt be able to reprove thine enemy, to shame him, to weary  him of being wroth. No man cures evil with evil, but evil with good. These rules of wisdom give some of the heathen; now if there be such wisdom among the foolish heathen, let us be ashamed to show ourselves inferior to them. Many of them have been injured, and have borne it; many have been maliciously accused, and not defended themselves; have been plotted against, and have repaid by benefits. And there is no small fear lest some of them be found in their lives to be greater than we, and so render our punishment severer. For when we who have partaken of the Spirit, we who look for the Kingdom, who follow wisdom for the sake of heavenly things,  who fear (not) hell, and are bidden to become angels, who enjoy the Mysteries; when we reach not to the virtue unto which they have attained, what pardon  shall we have? If we must go beyond the Jews, (for, "Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the Kingdom of Heaven"-- Matthew 5:20 ,) much more the heathen; if the Pharisees, much more the unbelievers. Since if when we go not beyond the righteousness of the Jews, the Kingdom is shut against us, how shall we be able to attain unto it when we prove ourselves worse than the heathen? Let us then cast out all bitterness, and wrath, and anger. To speak "the same things, to me indeed is not grievous, but for you it is safe," (Philip. iii. 1.) For physicians also often use the same remedy, and we will not cease from sounding the same things in your ears, reminding, teaching, exhorting, for great is the tumult of worldly things, and it causes in us forgetfulness, and we have need of continual teaching. Let us then, in order that we meet not together in this place uselessly and in vain, exhibit the proof  which is by works, that so we may obtain the good things to come, through the grace and lovingkindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom and with whom, to the Father and the Holy Ghost be glory, now and ever and world without end. Amen.
 e phodia
 i. e. not of the Scripture.
 al. "He dwelt desiring," &c.
 lit. "unspeakable."
 lit. "the Cross."
 i. e. after the Crucifixion.
 i. e. before the Crucifixion.
 al. "divine."
 In Ben. the reading is different, and the sense seems incomplete. "Since then speaking of this grace, the Ev. "
 "as saith the Scripture," ver. 38
 not verbally quoted.
 ver. 12
 al. "not well ordered."
 al. "bringing up."
 al. "disputed."
 or, "hinder."
 al. "the heavens."
 al. "hope of p."
 or, "display."
Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?
Hath not the scripture said, That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?
So there was a division among the people because of him.
And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.
Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?
"Then came the officers to the Chief Priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him? The officers answered, Never man spake like this Man."
[1.] There is nothing clearer, nothing simpler than the truth, if we deal not perversely; just as (on the other hand) if we deal perversely, nothing is more difficult. For behold, the Scribes and Pharisees, who seemed forsooth to be wiser than other men, being ever with Christ for the sake of plotting against Him, and beholding His miracles, and reading the Scriptures, were nothing profited, but were even harmed; while the officers, who could not claim one of these privileges, were subdued by one single sermon, and they who had gone forth to bind Him, came back bound themselves by wonder. We must not only marvel at their understanding, that they needed not signs, but were taken by the teaching alone; (for they said not, "Never man wrought miracles thus," but, "Never man spake thus";) we must not, I say, merely marvel at their understanding, but also at their boldness, that they spake thus to those that had sent them, to the Pharisees, to His enemies, to men who were doing all with a view to gratify their enmity. "The officers," saith the Evangelist, "came, and the Pharisees said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?" To "come" was a far greater deed than to have remained, for in the latter case they would have been rid of the annoyance of these men, but now they become heralds of the wisdom of Christ, and manifested their boldness in greater degree. And they say not, "We could not become of the multitude, for they gave heed unto Him as unto a prophet"; but what? "Never man spake as this Man." Yet they might have alleged that, but they show their right feeling. For theirs was the saying not only of men admiring Him, but blaming their masters, because they had sent them to bind Him whom it behooved rather to hear. Yet they had not heard a sermon either, but a short one; for when the long mind is impartial, there is no need of long arguments. Such a thing is truth. What then say the Pharisees? When they ought to have been pricked at the heart, they, on the contrary, retort a charge on the officers, saying,
The officers answered, Never man spake like this man.
Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also deceived?
Ver. 47. "Are ye also deceived?"
They still speak them fair, and do not express themselves harshly, dreading lest the others should entirely separate themselves, yet nevertheless they give signs of anger, and speak sparingly. For when they ought to have asked what He spake, and to have marveled at the words, they do not so, (knowing that they might have been captivated,) but reason with them from a very foolish argument;
Have any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him?
Ver. 48. "Wherefore," saith one, "hath none  of the rulers  believed on Him?"
Dost thou then make this a charge against Christ, tell me, and not against the unbelievers?
But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed.
Ver. 49. "But the  people," saith one, "which knoweth not the Law, are accursed."
Then is the charge against you the heavier, because the people believed, and ye believed not. They acted like men that knew the Law; how then are they accursed? It is ye that are accursed, who keep not the Law, not they, who obey the Law. Neither was it right, on the evidence of unbelievers, to slander one in whom they believed not, for this is an unjust mode of acting. For ye also believed not God, as Paul saith; "What if some did not believe? shall their unbelief make the faith of God of none effect? God forbid." (Romans 3:3, 4.) For the Prophets ever rebuked them, saying, "Hear, ye rulers of Sodom"; and, "Thy rulers are disobedient" (Isaiah 1:10, 23); and again, "Is it not for you to know judgment?" (Micah 3:1.) And everywhere they attack them vehemently. What then? Shall one blame God for this? Away with the thought. This blame is theirs. And what other proof can a man bring of your not knowing the Law than your not obeying it? For when they had said, "Hath any of the rulers believed on him?" and, "These who know not the Law," Nicodemus in fair consequence upbraids them, saying,
Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night, being one of them,)
Doth our law judge any man, before it hear him, and know what he doeth?
Ver. 51. "Doth our  law judge any man before it hear him?"
He showeth that they neither know the Law, nor do the Law; for if that Law commandeth to kill no man without first hearing him, and they before hearing were eager for this deed, they were transgressors of the Law. And because they said, "None of the rulers hath believed on him" (ver. 50), therefore the Evangelist informs us that Nicodemus was "one of them," to show that even rulers believed on Him; for although they showed not yet fitting boldness, still they were becoming attached  to Christ. Observe how cautiously he rebukes them; he said not, "Ye desire to kill him, and condemn the man for a deceiver without proof"; but spake in a milder way, hindering their excessive violence, and their inconsiderate and murderous disposition. Wherefore he turns his discourse to the Law, saying, "Except it hear him carefully, and know what he doeth." So that not a bare "hearing," but "careful hearing" is required. For the meaning of, "know what he doeth," is, "what he intendeth," "on what account," "for what purpose," "whether for the subversion of the order of things and as an enemy." Being therefore perplexed, because they had said, "None of the rulers hath believed on him," they addressed him, neither vehemently, nor yet with forbearance. For tell me, after he had said, "The Law judgeth no man," how doth it follow that they should say,
They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee? Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.
Ver. 52. "Art thou also of Galilee?"
[2.] When they ought to have shown that they had not sent to summon Him without judgment, or that it was not fitting to allow Him speech, they take the reply rather in a rough and angry manner.
"Search, and look: for out of Galilee hath arisen no prophet."
Why, what had the man said? that Christ was a prophet? No; he said, that He ought not to be slain unjudged; but they replied insolently, and as to one who knew nothing of the Scriptures; as though one had said, "Go, learn," for this is the meaning of, "Search, and look." What then did Christ? Since they were continually dwelling upon Galilee and "The Prophet," to free all men from this erroneous suspicion, and to show that He was not one of the prophets, but the Master of the world, He said,
Chap. viii. ver. 12.  "I am the light of the world."
Not "of Galilee," not of Palestine, nor of Jud?a. What then say the Jews?
Ver. 13. "Thou bearest record of thyself, thy record is not true."
Alas! for their folly, He continually referred them to the Scriptures, and now they say, "Thou bearest record of thyself." What was the record He bare? "I am the light of the world." A great thing to say, great of a truth, but it did not greatly amaze them, because He did not now make Himself equal to the Father, nor assert that He was His Son, nor that He was God, but for a while calleth Himself "a light." They indeed desired to disprove this also, and yet this was a much greater thing than to say,
"He that followeth Me, shall not walk in darkness."
Using the words "light" and "darkness" in a spiritual sense, and meaning thereby "abideth not in error." In this place He draweth on Nicodemus, and bringeth him in as having spoken very boldly, and praiseth the servants who had also done so. For to "cry aloud,"  is the act of one desirous to cause that they also should hear. At the same time He hinteth at these  who were secretly contriving treacheries, being both in darkness and error, but that they should not prevail over the light. And He remindeth Nicodemus of the words which He had uttered before, "Every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved." (c. iii. 20.) For since they had asserted that none of the rulers had believed on Him, therefore He saith, that "he that doeth evil cometh not to the light," to show that their not having come proceedeth not from the weakness of the light, but from their own perverse will.
"They answered and said unto Him, Dost thou bear witness to thyself?"
What then saith He?
Ver. 14. "Though I bear record of Myself, My record is true; for I know whence I come, and whither I go; but ye cannot tell whence I come."
What He had before said,  these men bring forward as if it had been specially  asserted. What then doth Christ? To refute this, and to show that He used those expressions as suitable to them and to their suspicions, who supposed Him to be a mere man, He saith, "Though I bear record of Myself, My record is true, for I know whence I come." What is this? "I am of God, am God, the Son of God, and God Himself is a faithful witness unto Himself, but ye know Him not; ye willingly err,  knowing ye pretend not to know, but say all that ye say according to mere human imagination, choosing to understand nothing beyond what is seen."
Ver. 15. "Ye judge after the flesh."
As to live after the flesh is to live badly, so to judge after the flesh is to judge unjustly. "But I judge no man."
Ver. 16. "And yet if I judge, My judgment is true." 
What He saith, is of this kind; "Ye judge unjustly." "And if," saith some one, "we judge unjustly, why dost Thou not rebuke us? why dost Thou not punish us? why dost Thou not condemn us?" "Because," He saith, "I came not for this." This is the meaning of, "I judge no man; yet if I judge, My judgment is true." "For had I been willing to judge, ye would have been among the condemned. And this I say, not judging you. Yet neither do I tell you that I say it, not judging you, as though I were not confident that had I judged you, I should have convicted you; since if I had judged you, I must justly have condemned you. But now the time of judgment is not yet." He alluded also to the judgment to come, saying,
"I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent Me."
Here He hinted, that not He alone condemneth them, but the Father also. Then He concealed this, by leading them to His own testimony.
Ver. 17. "It is written in your Law, that the testimony of two men is true."
[3.] What would the heretics say here? (They would say,) "How is he better than man, if we take what he hath said simply? For this rule is laid down in the case of men, because no man by himself is trustworthy. But in the case of God, how can one endure such a mode of speaking? How then is the word two' used? Is it because they are two, or because being men they are therefore two? If it is because they are two, why did he not betake himself to John, and say, I bear witness of myself, and John beareth witness of me? Wherefore not to the angels? Wherefore not to the prophets? For he might have found ten thousand other testimonies." But he desireth to show not this only that there are Two, but also that they are of the same Substance.
And every man went unto his own house.