Jeremiah 49:37
For I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life: and I will bring evil on them, even my fierce anger, said the LORD; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
49:34-39 The Elamites were the Persians; they acted against God's Israel, and must be reckoned with. Evil pursues sinners. God will make them know that he reigns. Yet the destruction of Elam shall not be for ever. But this promise was to have its full accomplishment in the days of the Messiah. In reading the Divine assurance of the destruction of all the enemies of the church, the believer sees that the issue of the holy war is not doubtful. It is blessed to recollect, that He who is for us, is more than all against us. And he will subdue the enemies of our souls.In a whirlwind violent gales seem to blow from every quarter, and whatever is exposed to their fury they scatter over the whole country. With similar violence the whole nation of Elam shall be dispersed far and wide. 37. consumed—as a distinct nation (Da 8:2-27). Fulfilled under Alexander and his successors. We met with the like threatenings Jeremiah 49:5,24,29, as to fear; and as to their destruction, we have often met with the like threatenings. For I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies,.... Frightened; thrown into the utmost consternation, so that they shall have no heart nor spirit to go out against them, and meet them, and defend themselves; but make all haste imaginable to flee from them, such a panic would seize them:

and before them that seek their life; a further description of their enemies; they being such, who, not content with their substance, sought to take away their lives; nothing less would satisfy them, being: cruel and blood thirsty ones:

and I will bring evil upon them, even my fierce anger, saith the Lord; and a greater evil than that cannot be; signifying that the destruction that should be made among them would be the effect of the wrath of God upon them for their sins:

and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them; that is, those that slay with the sword, as the Targum; these should go after those that fled, and destroy them, till the greater part of them were consumed; for all of them that were taken were not destroyed; or otherwise there would have been none to return from captivity, as is promised at the close of this prophecy.

For I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their life: and I will bring evil upon them, even my fierce anger, saith the LORD; and I will send the sword after them, till I have consumed them:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Jeremiah 49:31 does not declare the plan of the king of Babylon; but the words, "Arise, go ye up," etc., are once more the summons of the Lord, as is shown by the expression "saith Jahveh." The enemy is to march against a peaceful nation, dwelling securely, that has neither doors nor bars, i.e., does not live in cities surrounded by walls with gates and bars (cf. 1 Samuel 23:7; Deuteronomy 3:5), whose territory, therefore, is easily conquered. They dwell alone, apart from others, without connection and intercourse with other nations, from which they could obtain help and support. שׁליו, like זעיר, Job 36:2; Daniel 7:8, is a Chaldaizing form; elsewhere it is written שׁליו, Job 21:23, or שׁלו, Job 16:12. As to living securely, cf. Judges 18:7; Ezekiel 38:11; on living alone, 15:17. This last is elsewhere said only of Israel, Numbers 23:9; Deuteronomy 33:28. Their possessions will become the spoil of the enemy; God will scatter them to every wind (cf. Ezekiel 5:12; Ezekiel 12:14), and bring destruction on them from every side (on עבריו, cf. 1 Kings 5:4).
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