Vincent's Word Studies
After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would come.
Wrong; for he had not appointed seventy previously. Rev., rightly, seventy others, with reference to the twelve.
Therefore said he unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest.
The harvest (θερισμὸς)
From θέρος, summer (compare θέρομαι, to become warm). Harvest, that which is gathered in summer. Wyc., much ripe corn is, but few workmen.
See on Luke 8:38.
Send forth (ἐκβάλῃ)
Lit., drive or thrust forth, implying the urgency of the mission. See on Mark 1:12.
Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves.
I send forth (ἀποστέλλω)
See on Matthew 10:2.
Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way.
Used by Luke only. For money.
For victuals. Rev., wallet.
Salute no man
Oriental salutations are tedious and complicated. The command is suited to a rapid and temporary mission. Compare 2 Kings 4:29. "These instructions were also intended to reprove another propensity which an Oriental can hardly resist, no matter how urgent his business. If he meets an acquaintance, he must stop and make an endless number of inquiries, and answer as many. If they come upon men making a bargain, or discussing any other matter, they must pause and intrude their own ideas, and enter keenly into the business, though it in nowise concerns them; and, more especially, an Oriental can never resist the temptation to assist when accounts are being settled or money counted out. The clink of coin has a positive fascination to them" (Thomson, "Land and Book").
And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house.
Peace to this house
The usual oriental salutation. See Judges 19:20.
And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn to you again.
If a son of peace be there
So Rev. A Hebraism, referring to the character of the head of the house, and the tone of the household. Compare Job 21:9.
And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house.
The workman is worthy, etc
See on Matthew 10:10.
And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you:
And heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.
But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go your ways out into the streets of the same, and say,
Even the very dust of your city, which cleaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: notwithstanding be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.
From κόνις, dust, and ὄρνυμι, to stir up. Strictly, dust that is raised by walking.
See on Matthew 19:5. Frequent in medical language of the uniting of wounds.
Wipe off (ἀπομάσσομεθα)
See on Luke 5:2. Only here in New Testament.
But I say unto you, that it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom, than for that city.
Woe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
See on Matthew 11:20.
From the Hebrew sak: what is knotted together; net-shaped; coarsely woven. It was made of goats' or camels' hair (Revelation 6:12), and was a material similar to that upon which Paul wrought in tent-making. The same word in Hebrew is used to describe a grain-sack, and this coarse material of which it is made (Genesis 42:25; Joshua 9:4). So the Greek σαγή means a pack or baggage. The same root, according to some etymologists, appears in σαγήνη, a drag-net (see Matthew 13:47), and σάγος, Latin sagum, a coarse, soldier's cloak. It was employed for the rough garments for mourners (Esther 4:1; 1 Kings 21:27), in which latter passage the sackcloth is put next the flesh in token of extreme sorrow. Compare 2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15.
As a sign of mourning. Defiling one's self with dead things, as ashes or dirt, as a sign of sorrow, was common among the Orientals and Greeks. Thus Homer describes Achilles on hearing of the death of Patroclus:
"Grasping in both hands
The ashes of the hearth, he showered them o'er
His head, and soiled with them his noble face."
Iliad, xviii., 28.
And Priam, mourning for Hector:
"In the midst the aged man
Sat with a cloak wrapped round him, and much dust
Strewn on his head and neck, which, when he rolled
Upon the earth, he gathered with his hands."
Iliad, xxiv., 162-5.
See 1 Samuel 4:12; 2 Samuel 1:2; 2 Samuel 13:19; Job 2:12; Ezekiel 17:30; Revelation 18:19. In Judith 4:14, 15, in the mourning over the ravages of the Assyrians, the priests minister at the altar, girded with sackcloth, and with ashes on their mitres. Sir Gardner Wilkinson, describing a funeral at Thebes, says: "Men, women, and children, with the body exposed above the waist, throw dust on their heads, or cover their faces with mud" ("Modern Egypt and Thebes"). Stifling with ashes was a Persian mode of punishment. Compare Apocrypha, 2 Maccabees 13:5-7. Herodotus relates that Nitocris, an Egyptian queen, after having drowned the murderers of her brother, threw herself into an apartment full of ashes, in order to escape the vengeance of their friends.
But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment, than for you.
Rev., howbeit. See on Matthew 11:22.
And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shalt be thrust down to hell.
Which art exalted to heaven
For ἡ, the article, rendered which, the best texts give μὴ, the interrogative particle; and for the participle having been exalted, the future shalt be exalted. Render, as Rev., Shalt thou be exalted, etc.
Rev., Hades. See on Matthew 16:18.
He that heareth you heareth me; and he that despiseth you despiseth me; and he that despiseth me despiseth him that sent me.
And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name.
"The fuller development of the new dispensation begins with the mission of the seventy, and not with the mission of the apostles. Its ground-work, from Luke's point of sight, is the symbolic evangelization of every nation upon earth, and not the restoration of the twelve tribes of Israel. According to Jewish tradition, there were seventy or seventy-two different nations and tongues in the world. In Luke 10:1, some read seventy-two instead of seventy" (Westcott, "Int. to the Study of the Gospels").
And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.
I beheld (ἐθεώρουν)
The verb denotes calm, intent, continuous contemplation of an object which remains before the spectator. So John 1:14, we beheld, implying that Jesus' stay upon earth, though brief, was such that his followers could calmly and leisurely contemplate his glory. Compare John 2:23 :" they beheld his miracles," thoughtfully and attentively. Here it denotes the rapt contemplation of a vision. The imperfect, was beholding, refers either to the time when the seventy were sent forth, or to the time of the triumphs which they are here relating. "While you were expelling the sub-ordinates, I was beholding the Master fall" (Godet). The Revisers do not seem to have had any settled principle in their rendering of this word throughout the New Testament. See my article on the Revised New Testament, Presbyterian Review, October, 1881, p. 646 sq.
A transcription of the Hebrew word, derived from a verb to lie in wait or oppose. Hence an adversary. In this sense, of David, 1 Samuel 29:4, and of the angel who met Balaam, Numbers 22:22. Compare Zechariah 3:1, Zechariah 3:2; Job 1, Job 2:1-13. Διάβλος, devil, is the more common term in the New Testament. In Revelation 12:9, both terms are applied to him.
Describing vividly a dazzling brilliance suddenly quenched.
Lit., having fallen. The aorist marks the instantaneous fall, like lightning.
Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.
Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.
In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.
The best texts omit Jesus.
See on 1 Peter 1:6.
The best texts add τῷ ἁγίῳ, the holy, and render in the Holy Spirit.
See on Matthew 11:25.
All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.
Are delivered (παρεδόθη)
See on Matthew 11:27.
And he turned him unto his disciples, and said privately, Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see:
For I tell you, that many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
And, behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
See on Luke 7:30.
See on temptation, Matthew 6:13.
See on inheritance, 1 Peter 1:4.
The word will be fully discussed in the second volume.
He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
See on Luke 4:16.
And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.
Thou shalt love, etc
See on Mark 12:30. Luke adds strength.
And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.
But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour?
Rev., desiring. See on Matthew 1:19. I think this is stronger than desiring; rather, determined.
See on Matthew 5:43.
And Jesus answering said, A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
Used by Luke only, and in this sense only here. See on Luke 7:43. It means, strictly, to take up; and hence, of conversation, to take up another's discourse and reply.
See on James 1:2.
See on Matthew 26:55; and Luke 23:39-43. These were not petty stealers, but men of violence, as was shown by their treatment of the traveller. The road from Jerusalem to Jericho passed through a wilderness (Joshua 16:1), which was so notorious for robberies and murders that a portion of it was called "the red or bloody way," and was protected by a fort and a Roman garrison.
Not of his clothing only, but of all that he had.
Wounded (πληγὰς ἐπιθέντες)
Lit., having laid on blows. Blows or stripes is the usual sense of the word in the New Testament. See Luke 12:48; Acts 16:23. It has the metaphorical sense of plagues in Revelation 15:1, Revelation 15:6, Revelation 15:8, etc.
Half dead (ἡμιθανῆ τυγχάνοντα)
The full force of the expression cannot be rendered into English. The word τυγχάνοντα throws an element of chance into the ease. Lit., happening to be half dead; or "leaving him half dead, as it chanced;" his condition being a matter of unconcern to these robbers. The word ἡμιθανῆ, half dead, occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. The best texts, however, omit τυγχάνοντα.
And by chance there came down a certain priest that way: and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.
By chance (κατὰ συγκυρίαν)
Only here in New Testament. The word means, literally, a coincidence. By coincidence of circumstances.
There came down
Imperfect, was going down, as Rev.
The Talmudists said that there were almost as many priests at Jericho as at Jerusalem.
Passed by on the other side (ἀντιπαρῆλθεν)
The verb occurs only here and Luke 10:32.
And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side.
Came and looked
Rev., saw. Seeming to imply that the Levite went farther than the priest in coming near to the wounded man, and, having observed his condition, passed on.
But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him,
Came where he was
There is a strong contrast with the other cases, and a downright heartiness in the words, κατ' αὐτὸν, down to him. The Levite had come κατὰ τόπον, "down to the place."
And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
Bound up (κατέδησεν)
Only here in New Testament.
Only here in New Testament.
Pouring in (ἐπιχέων)
Rather upon (ἐπί), as Rev. Wine to cleanse, and oil to soothe. See Isaiah 1:6.
Oil and wine
Usual remedies for sores, wounds, etc. Hippocrates prescribes for ulcers, "Bind with soft wool, and sprinkle with wine and oil."
Perhaps akin to κτῆμα, a possession ; since animals anciently constituted wealth, so that a piece of property and a beast were synonymous terms.
Only here in New Testament. From πᾶν, all, and δέχομαι, to receive: a place of common reception. See on inn, Luke 2:7. Remains of two khans, or inns, on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem are mentioned by modern travellers. Porter ("Handbook of Syria and Palestine") speaks of one about a mile from Bethany, and another farther on, at the most dangerous part of the road, an extensive, ruined caravanserai, called Khan el Almah, situated on the top of a bleak ridge. Concerning the former, Hepworth Dixon ("Holy Land") says: "About midway in the descent from Bethany to Jericho, in a position commanding a view of the road above and below,... on the very spot where search would be made for them, if no such ruins were suspected of existing, stands a pile of stones, archways, lengths of wall, which the wandering Arabs call Khan Houdjar, and still make use of as their own resting-place for the night. These ruins are those of a noble inn; the lewan, the fountain, and the court, being plainly traceable in the ruins."
And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.
About thirty-five cents. See on Matthew 20:2.
I will repay
The I is expressed (ἐγὼ), and is emphatic. Trouble him not for the reckoning; I will repay.
Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves?
Was neighbor (πλησίον γεγονέναι)
More correctly, has become neighbor. Jesus throws himself back to the time of the story. So Rev., proved neighbor. "The neighbor Jews became strangers. The stranger Samaritan became neighbor to the wounded traveller" (Alford).
And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.
He that shewed mercy on him. (μετά)
Rather with him: (μετά): dealt with him as with a brother. The lawyer avoids the hated word Samaritan.
Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman named Martha received him into her house.
From ὕπο, under, and δέχομαι, to receive. Received him under her roof. Martha is marked as the head of the household. It was her house. She received the guest, and was chiefly busy with the preparations for his entertainment (Luke 10:40).
And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word.
Only here in New Testament. Lit., sat beside (παρά).
But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me.
Was cumbered (περιεσπᾶτο)
Only here in New Testament. The Rev. might better have inserted in the text the marginal rendering, woe distracted. The verb means, literally, to draw from around (περί). Martha's attention, instead of centring round Jesus, was drawn hither and thither. The περί, around, in composition with the verb, is followed immediately by another περί, "about much serving."
Came to him (ἐπιστᾶσα)
Came up to him, as Rev., suddenly stopping in her hurry.
Hath left (κατέλιπεν)
The aorist, as Rev., did leave, indicating that she had been assisting before she was drawn off by Jesus' presence. Some read κατέλειπεν the imperfect, was leaving.
The verb consists of three elements: λαμβάνω, to take hold; σύν, together with; ἀντι, reciprocally - doing her part as Martha does hers. It might be paraphrased, therefore, take hold and do her part along with me. It occurs only here and Romans 8:26, of the Spirit helping our infirmities, where all the elements of the verb are strikingly exemplified.
And Jesus answered and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful and troubled about many things:
Thou art anxious (μεριμνᾷς)
See on Matthew 6:25.
From θόρυβος, tumult. Anxious denotes the inward uneasiness: troubled, the outward confusion and bustle.
But one thing is needful: and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.