Revelation 18:11
New International Version
"The merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her because no one buys their cargoes anymore--

New Living Translation
The merchants of the world will weep and mourn for her, for there is no one left to buy their goods.

English Standard Version
And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn for her, since no one buys their cargo anymore,

Berean Study Bible
And the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her, because there is no one left to buy their cargo—

Berean Literal Bible
And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn for her, because no one buys their cargo any longer--

New American Standard Bible
"And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargoes any more--

New King James Version
“And the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise anymore:

King James Bible
And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:

Christian Standard Bible
The merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargo any longer--

Contemporary English Version
Every merchant on earth will mourn, because there is no one to buy their goods.

Good News Translation
The merchants of the earth also cry and mourn for her, because no one buys their goods any longer;

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The merchants of the earth will also weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their merchandise any longer--

International Standard Version
The world's businesses cry and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargo anymore—

NET Bible
Then the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn for her because no one buys their cargo any longer--

New Heart English Bible
The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more;

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the merchants of The Earth will weep and grieve over her, and there is no one buying their cargo again:

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"The merchants of the earth cry and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargo anymore.

New American Standard 1977
“And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their cargoes any more;

Jubilee Bible 2000
And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise anymore:

King James 2000 Bible
And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buys their merchandise any more:

American King James Version
And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buys their merchandise any more:

American Standard Version
And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no man buyeth their merchandise any more;

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the merchants of the earth shall weep, and mourn over her: for no man shall buy their merchandise any more.

Darby Bible Translation
And the merchants of the earth weep and grieve over her, because no one buys their lading any more;

English Revised Version
And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no man buyeth their merchandise any more;

Webster's Bible Translation
And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:

Weymouth New Testament
And the merchants of the earth weep aloud and lament over her, because now there is no sale for their cargoes--

World English Bible
The merchants of the earth weep and mourn over her, for no one buys their merchandise any more;

Young's Literal Translation
'And the merchants of the earth shall weep and sorrow over her, because their lading no one doth buy any more;
Study Bible
Lament over Babylon
10In fear of her torment, they will stand at a distance and cry out: “Woe, woe to the great city, the mighty city of Babylon! For in a single hour your judgment has come.” 11And the merchants of the earth will weep and mourn over her, because there is no one left to buy their cargo— 12cargo of gold, silver, precious stones, and pearls; of fine linen, purple, silk, and scarlet; of all kinds of citron wood and every article of ivory, precious wood, bronze, iron, and marble;…
Cross References
Isaiah 13:19
And Babylon, the jewel of the kingdoms, the glory of the pride of the Chaldeans, will be overthrown by God like Sodom and Gomorrah.

Isaiah 47:15
This is what they are to you--those with whom you have labored and traded from youth--each one strays in his own direction; not one of them can save you.

Ezekiel 27:9
The elders of Gebal were aboard as shipwrights, repairing your leaks. All the ships of the sea and their sailors came alongside to barter for your goods.

Ezekiel 27:27
Your wealth, wares, and goods, your sailors, captains, and shipwrights, your merchants and all the warriors within you, with all the other people on board, will sink into the heart of the sea on the day of your downfall.

Revelation 18:3
All the nations have drunk the wine of the passion of her immorality. The kings of the earth were immoral with her, and the merchants of the earth have grown wealthy from the extravagance of her luxury."

Revelation 18:15
The merchants who sold these things and grew their wealth from her will stand at a distance, in fear of her torment. They will weep and mourn,

Treasury of Scripture

And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buys their merchandise any more:

the merchants.

Revelation 18:3,9,15,20,23
For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies…

Revelation 13:16,17
And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: …

Isaiah 23:1-15
The burden of Tyre. Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in: from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them…

buyeth.

Proverbs 3:14
For the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold.

Matthew 22:5
But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise:

John 2:16
And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.







Lexicon
And
Καὶ (Kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

the
οἱ (hoi)
Article - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

merchants
ἔμποροι (emporoi)
Noun - Nominative Masculine Plural
Strong's Greek 1713: A merchant, trader; one on a journey. From en and the base of poreuomai; a tradesman.

of the
τῆς (tēs)
Article - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 3588: The, the definite article. Including the feminine he, and the neuter to in all their inflections; the definite article; the.

earth
γῆς (gēs)
Noun - Genitive Feminine Singular
Strong's Greek 1093: Contracted from a primary word; soil; by extension a region, or the solid part or the whole of the terrene globe.

will weep
κλαίουσιν (klaiousin)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 2799: To weep, weep for, mourn, lament. Of uncertain affinity; to sob, i.e. Wail aloud.

and
καὶ (kai)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 2532: And, even, also, namely.

mourn
πενθοῦσιν (penthousin)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 3996: To mourn, lament, feel guilt. From penthos; to grieve.

over
ἐπ’ (ep’)
Preposition
Strong's Greek 1909: On, to, against, on the basis of, at.

her,
αὐτήν (autēn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Accusative Feminine 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

because [there is]
ὅτι (hoti)
Conjunction
Strong's Greek 3754: Neuter of hostis as conjunction; demonstrative, that; causative, because.

no one
οὐδεὶς (oudeis)
Adjective - Nominative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 3762: No one, none, nothing.

left
οὐκέτι (ouketi)
Adverb
Strong's Greek 3765: No longer, no more. Also ouk eti from ou and eti; not yet, no longer.

to buy
ἀγοράζει (agorazei)
Verb - Present Indicative Active - 3rd Person Singular
Strong's Greek 59: To buy. From agora; properly, to go to market, i.e. to purchase; specially, to redeem.

their
αὐτῶν (autōn)
Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Plural
Strong's Greek 846: He, she, it, they, them, same. From the particle au; the reflexive pronoun self, used of the third person, and of the other persons.

cargo—
γόμον (gomon)
Noun - Accusative Masculine Singular
Strong's Greek 1117: A cargo, freight. From gemo; a load, i.e. a cargo, or wares.
(11-13) And the merchants of the earth . . .--Better, The merchants of the earth weep and mourn (not "shall weep;" the vividness of the description is intensified by the use of the present tense) over her; because their cargo no one buyeth any longer--the cargo of gold, &c. The list of the cargoes and merchandise is not without arrangement. The various goods are placed in groups. The treasures come first--gold, silver, precious stones, and pearls. The soft goods used for raiment are placed next--fine linen, purple, silk and scarlet; in the description of Dives, clothed in purple and fine linen (Byssus, the same word as here), we have a suggestive resemblance. Materials used in giving splendour to the furnishing of houses come next. Thyine wood, and every article (vessel, as in the English version, is hardly wide enough in meaning) of ivory, costly wood, brass, iron, and marble. The thyine wood was derived probably from a kind of citron-tree of African growth; the wood was sweet-scented, and was a favourite wood for doors, panels, and ceilings; its rich brown hue was often relieved by inlaid ivory. To articles used in furniture aromatics succeed. Cinnamon, amomum (this is omitted in the English version, but authority is in favour of its insertion), odours, ointments, and frankincense. Cinnamon, on its use, comp. Exodus 30:2-3; it was one of the perfumes employed to enhance the delight of the voluptuary (Proverbs 7:17). It is doubtful whether it is the same as our modern cinnamon. Amomum, a kind of sweet-scented shrub, yielding an ointment much used for the hair. Odours, employed in incense. Next come articles of food--wine, oil, fine meal, wheat, cattle, and sheep. Then come the equipages--horses and chariots. The chariot (rheda) was a vehicle much used in Rome by the wealthy classes. Lastly, the traffic in human beings closes the list. Slaves (literally, bodies, and souls of men. There is perhaps an allusion specially to those slaves who were attached to the chariots or litters used by the rich. The traffic in slaves ("persons of men") is mentioned as part of the commerce of Tyre (Ezekiel 27:13). The number of slaves in Rome was enormous. "Souls of men." The climax of wicked worldliness is reached in this last; it gives the finishing touch to the picture of society wholly engrossed in pleasure and indolence and selfishness, which lays every market under tribute to add to its luxuriousness, and sacrifices not only the happiness, but the lives and liberties of their fellow-creatures, to their own enjoyment. It has been said that the general description here does not suit Rome, as Rome never was, and never could be, a commercial centre; but the picture is designed to show the corrupt luxury and voluptuousness of society in great Babylon, not necessarily the accumulated merchandize of a great commercial city. The various wares are "for her use and consumption," not for her to sell. All the avenues from every distant spot of the earth found their focus in Rome; her existence, her political supremacy, and her luxuriousness of living, created and sustained all the commercial activity here described; with her fall, the hope of their gains passed from the merchants of the earth. Compare the language of Gibbon:--"The most remote countries of the ancient world were ransacked to supply the pomp and delicacy of Rome. The forests of Scythia afforded some valuable furs; amber was brought from the shores of the Baltic and the Danube; and the barbarians were astonished at the price which they received for so useless a commodity. There was a considerable demand for Babylonian carpets and other manufactures of the East; but the most important and unpopular branch of foreign trade was carried on with Arabia and India. Every year, about the time of the summer solstice, a fleet of an hundred and twenty vessels sailed from Myos-hormos, a port of Egypt on the Red Sea. The coast of Malabar or the island of Ceylon was the usual term of their navigation, and it was in those markets that the merchants from the more remote countries of Asia expected their arrival. The return of the fleet was fixed to the months of December or January; and as soon as their rich cargo had been transported on the backs of camels, from the Red Sea to the Nile, and had descended that river as far as Alexandria, it was poured without delay into the capital of the Empire. The objects of Oriental traffic were splendid and trifling: silk, a pound of which was esteemed in value not inferior to a pound of gold; precious stones also, among which the pearl claimed the first rank after the diamond, and a variety of aromatics that were consumed in religious worship and the pomp of funerals. The labour and risk of the voyage was rewarded with almost incredible profits; but the profits were made upon Roman subjects, and a few individuals were enriched at the expense of the public" (Gibbon's Decline and Fall, vol. i., Rev. ii.).

Verse 11. - And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her. Weep and mourn; the historical present (see on ver. 9). The kings have been mentioned; the merchants and next the seamen are referred to, showing the wide distribution of "Babylon," and forbidding the application to a single state or city. The description which follows is analogous to that in Ezekiel 27; Isaiah 23. For no man buyeth their merchandise any more; their cargo. We are naturally reminded of the action of the second beast in forbidding to buy and sell (Revelation 13:17). Alford here recognizes the difficulty in applying the prophecy to Rome, either pagan or papal, and adds, "I leave this difficulty unsolved .... The details of this mercantile lamentation far more nearly suit London than Rome." (See the interpretation given of the harlot and Babylon on Revelation 17:1.) 18:9-19 The mourners had shared Babylon's sensual pleasures, and gained by her wealth and trade. The kings of the earth, whom she flattered into idolatry, allowing them to be tyrannical over their subjects, while obedient to her; and the merchants, those who trafficked for her indulgences, pardons, and honours; these mourn. Babylon's friends partook her sinful pleasures and profits, but are not willing to share her plagues. The spirit of antichrist is a worldly spirit, and that sorrow is a mere worldly sorrow; they do not lament for the anger of God, but for the loss of outward comforts. The magnificence and riches of the ungodly will avail them nothing, but will render the vengeance harder to be borne. The spiritual merchandise is here alluded to, when not only slaves, but the souls of men, are mentioned as articles of commerce, to the destroying the souls of millions. Nor has this been peculiar to the Roman antichrist, and only her guilt. But let prosperous traders learn, with all their gains, to get the unsearchable riches of Christ; otherwise; even in this life, they may have to mourn that riches make to themselves wings and fly away, and that all the fruits their souls lusted after, are departed from them. Death, at any rate, will soon end their commerce, and all the riches of the ungodly will be exchanged, not only for the coffin and the worm, but for the fire that cannot be quenched.
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