Acts 18
Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth;
Acts 18:1. Χωρισθεὶς, having departed) as if unwilling, speedily [lit. having been separated or constrained to depart from]. The same verb occurs in the following ver. Paul did not stay long at Athens. Men endowed with intelligence readily hear as much as is sufficient [for informing them of the way of salvation], if they wish to accept it.—Ἀθηνῶν, from Athens: Κόρινθον, to Corinth) In the former city, literature and philosophy; in the latter, commerce, most chiefly flourished. Thence the bearing of the one city in relation to the Gospel may be beautifully compared with that of the other. Paul had much greater fruit at Corinth than at Athens.

And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
Acts 18:2. Προσφάτως) So the LXX., Deuteronomy 24:5.—ἐληλυθότα, who had come) They afterwards returned to Rome, Romans 16:3, after various travels.—τοὺς Ἰουδαίους, the Jews) The Romans, in their proud contempt of both, did not care to distinguish between Jews and Christians. He expelled all who were Jews by nation.

And because he was of the same craft, he abode with them, and wrought: for by their occupation they were tentmakers.
Acts 18:3. Εἰργάζετο, he worked) in a city so splendid.—σκηνοποιοὶ, tentmakers. The Jews were wont to join to doctrinal (learned) studies manual labours.

And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks.
And when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia, Paul was pressed in the spirit, and testified to the Jews that Jesus was Christ.
Acts 18:5. Συνείχετο τῷ λόγῳ, was constrained by the word) The power of the word within urged Paul: comp. Jeremiah 20:9; Jeremiah 23:9, wherein there is added the parallelism, ἐγενήθην ὡς ἄνθρωπος συνεχόμενος ἀπὸ οἴνου, I became as a man constrained or PRESSED by wine. Instead of λόγῳ, some have written πνεύματι, from Acts 18:25, or else from ch. Acts 17:16.—[λόγῳ, a striking reading.—Not. Crit.[109]] Each one ought to observe even in his own soul such a ΣΥΝΟΧῊ, or constraining force, and, when he feels it what is right, to follow it. To do so causes the greatest joy; but to neglect doing so, the greatest sorrow. The tidings which Silas and Timothy had announced, stimulated Paul.

[109] ABDEde Vulg. support λόγῳ: Rec. Text, without any very old authority, πνεύματι.—E. and T.

And when they opposed themselves, and blasphemed, he shook his raiment, and said unto them, Your blood be upon your own heads; I am clean: from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles.
Acts 18:6. Ἐκτιναξάμενος, having shaken) The meaning of this gesture (significant act) is understood from the words with which he accompanied it.—αἷμα, your blood) souls. “Life” and death are put in antithesis: also, “life” and soul on the one hand, and death and the shedding of the blood on the other: comp. 1 Samuel 22:22, εἰμι αἴτιος τῶν ψυχῶν, “I am the occasion of the lives” (being taken).—ἐπὶ) The Hebrew על, upon. This denotes guilt resting or falling upon.—καθαρὸς ἐγὼ, I am clean) No one can say so, who has not previously fulfilled (the duty of giving) his testimony.—πορεύσομαι, I will go) So Paul changed his lodging: and yet he did not entirely withdraw himself from the better class of Jews, whom he made by this very act the more earnestly attentive.

And he departed thence, and entered into a certain man's house, named Justus, one that worshipped God, whose house joined hard to the synagogue.
Acts 18:7. [Ἐκεῖθεν, thence) So also ch. Acts 19:9.—V. g.]—Ἰούστου, of Justus) a Gentile.—συνομοροῦσα, adjoining to) So that those who frequented the synagogue might further [besides] hear the doctrine concerning Jesus Christ.

And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.
Acts 18:8. Ἐπίστευσε τῷ Κυρίῳ, believed on the Lord) The Lord Jesus Himself testified through Paul: ch. Acts 14:3, “They speaking boldly in the Lord, who gave testimony unto the word of His grace.”—ἀκούοντες, hearing) of the conversion of Crispus, and hearing the word spoken by Paul.

Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision, Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace:
Acts 18:9. Μὴ φοβοῦ, be not afraid) To this refer the first διότι, because, for, in Acts 18:10.—λάλει, speak) To this refer the second διότι, because, for, Acts 18:10.

For I am with thee, and no man shall set on thee to hurt thee: for I have much people in this city.
Acts 18:10. Ἐγὼ, I) The foundation of confidence.—οὐδεὶς, no man) This is fulfilled in Acts 18:14-15.—ἐπιθήσεται) will set on, will direct himself against. Neuter, as frequently in the LXX.—[λαὸςπολὺς, people—much) Since so few at Athens had received the faith, the comfort now administered was of the greatest advantage to him; and accordingly he subsequently exhibited extraordinary patience in bearing with the Corinthians, with the hope that their nation might be won over to the faith, of whom he might otherwise have become easily wearied: 2 Corinthians 10:6, “Having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience, when your obedience is fulfilled.”—V. g.]

And he continued there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them.
Acts 18:11. Ἐκάθισε, he sat, i.e. continued settled) This apostolic chair (cathedra) of Paul at Corinth is better attested than that of Peter at Rome.—ἐνιαυτὸν καὶ μῆνας ἓξ, a year and six months) A long time: but in the present day how little the gain (how few are the souls converted) in the same space of time! The teachers and the hearers are in fault (are to blame for this).

And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, the Jews made insurrection with one accord against Paul, and brought him to the judgment seat,
Acts 18:12. Γαλλίωνος) This Gallio was brother of Seneca, and was commended by Seneca and others for his yielding disposition and sweet temper. The action of Gallio in this passage is in accordance with such a character.—ἀνθυπατεύοντος) Achaia was then strictly a proconsular province [ἀνθυπαος = proconsul].—’Αχαΐας, of Achaia) of which Corinth was the metropolis.

Saying, This fellow persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law.
Acts 18:13. Ἀναπείθει) by persuasions excites. They declare repeatedly that all was tranquil previously.

And when Paul was now about to open his mouth, Gallio said unto the Jews, If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O ye Jews, reason would that I should bear with you:
Acts 18:14. Εἶπεν, said) Either because he was favourable to Paul, or because he despised the Jews.—ἀδίκημα, a matter of wrong) demanding a civil action.—ῥᾳδιούργημα, wanton wickedness) worthy of a criminal action.—ἠνεσχόμην, I would bear with you) Certainly ἀνοχὴ, forbearance, is becoming in a judge, if he is rightly to discharge the duties of his office. Gallio implies that the Jews were troublesome (an annoyance) to him.

But if it be a question of words and names, and of your law, look ye to it; for I will be no judge of such matters.
Acts 18:15. Εἰ, if) Gallio speaks slightingly (contemptuously): as presently, in the word τούτων, of such matters.—ζήτημα) Such men do not like questions: ch. Acts 23:29, CI. Lysias of Paul, “Whom I perceived to be accused of questions of their law, but—nothing,” etc.; Acts 25:19-20, Festus of Paul, “They had certain questions against him of their own superstition.”—περὶ λόγου) concerning doctrine [Engl. Vers., words].—ὀνομάτων, names) But the question concerning the name Jesus is one of great moment. The names of the Gentiles were fables and shadows. The Christian religion has in it something peculiar; and therefore human reason, most curious as it is in respect to all other things, has an aversion from becoming acquainted with it.

And he drave them from the judgment seat.
Then all the Greeks took Sosthenes, the chief ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. And Gallio cared for none of those things.
Acts 18:17. Ἐπιλαβόμενοι, having laid hold of) in compliment to Gallio.—Σωσθένην, Sosthenes) the successor of Crispus [who was converted], Acts 18:8 : with this comp. ch. Acts 13:15, note. This Sosthenes headed the accusation against Paul: he was afterwards converted: 1 Corinthians 1:1, “Paul—and Sosthenes our brother—to the church in Corinth,” etc.—οὐδὲν, none) although an Acts of wrong arose out of the question.—τῷ Γαλλίωνι, to Gallio) who connived at the act of the Greeks against the Jews.

And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: for he had a vow.
Acts 18:18. Ἱκανὰς, several days) until their minds became composed, and that he should not seem to have fled away.—ἀποταξάμενος, having taken his leave of) by word of mouth, at a public meeting.—Συρίαν, Syria) Acts 18:22 at the end (Antioch was in Syria).—σὺν αὐτῷ, with him) A happy (blessed) retinue, as far as to Ephesus.—Πρίσκιλλα, Priscilla) The wife, as being the more approved, is put before the husband.—κειράμενος, having shorn [shaven]) As was customary in the case of a vow: ch. Acts 21:24; Numbers 6:18.—ἐν Κεγχρεαῖς, in Cenchrea) After having left Corinth, he adopted a Jewish custom as to the head (shaving off the hair), when setting out to Jews. Paul devoted this journey to the Jews rather (than to the Gentiles): Acts 18:19.—εὐχὴν) This vow, whatever was its object, was not properly that of a Nazarite, but one akin to it. And Paul seems to have taken it up for this reason, in order that he might impose on himself the necessity of speedily accomplishing this journey to Jerusalem. See following verses.

And he came to Ephesus, and left them there: but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews.
When they desired him to tarry longer time with them, he consented not;
Acts 18:20. Ἐρωτώντων, when they desired him) It is not always that there is a Divine call present under the plausible invitation of men.

But bade them farewell, saying, I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem: but I will return again unto you, if God will. And he sailed from Ephesus.
Acts 18:21. Εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα, in Jerusalem[110]) To this is to be referred Acts 18:22. The particular feast is not expressed in this passage: several years after (from Miletus) he hastened thither to keep Pentecost: ch. Acts 20:16.—ἀνακάμψω), I will return) He did so: ch. Acts 19:1. In the interim their longings for him increased.

[110] The larger Ed. had preferred the shorter reading in this place; but Ed. 2 and Germ. Vers. agree with the Gnomon.—E. B.

ABEe Vulg. Memph. Theb. omit from δεῖ με to εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα. Dd, with the Rec. Text, support the words.—E. and T.

And when he had landed at Caesarea, and gone up, and saluted the church, he went down to Antioch.
Acts 18:22. Ἀναβὰς, having gone up) to Jerusalem: Acts 18:21.—τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, the church) The primary church, from which the others were propagated.

And after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.
Acts 18:23. Διερχόμενος, going through) A new visitation of the churches.

And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, and mighty in the scriptures, came to Ephesus.
Acts 18:24. Ἀλεξανδρεὺς, an Alexandrian) That city was the seat of all branches of learning.—λόγιος) learned, eloquent. All accomplishments may be made useful in the kingdom of GOD, if pride do not accompany them: but especially there ought to be with them power in the Scriptures, and fervour of the Spirit, whereby even ordinary attainments are strengthened. And yet the fruit springs from grace, not from human attainments or accomplishments: Acts 18:27.

This man was instructed in the way of the Lord; and being fervent in the spirit, he spake and taught diligently the things of the Lord, knowing only the baptism of John.
Acts 18:25. Τῷ Πνεύματι) He had the Spirit, not in that special way which is treated of in ch. Acts 19:6, but in an ordinary way.—ἐλάλει, he spake) in private.—ἐδίδασκεν, taught) in public.—ἀκριβῶς, diligently) suffering no opportunity to pass. There follows in Acts 18:26, more diligently, ἀκριβέστερον.—μόνον, only) There is not excluded all knowledge of Christ whatever: but Apollos had not yet heard concerning the death and resurrection of Christ, and concerning the Paraclete: ch. Acts 19:2-3.

And he began to speak boldly in the synagogue: whom when Aquila and Priscilla had heard, they took him unto them, and expounded unto him the way of God more perfectly.
Acts 18:26. Ἤρξατο, he began) To him who hath it shall be given.—ἀκούσαντες, having heard) They thus distinguished what was wanting in him.—ἐξέθεντο, expounded) by private instruction. He who knows Jesus Christ, can teach those powerful in the Scripture; and the latter are readily taught by the former.

And when he was disposed to pass into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the disciples to receive him: who, when he was come, helped them much which had believed through grace:
Acts 18:27. Βουλομένου, when he was wishing) The good wishes of good men ought to be furthered.—διελθεῖν, to pass through) He had without doubt heard what Paul had done in those localities, especially at Corinth.—προτρεψάμενοι) having exhorted him [but Engl. Vers., “exhorting the disciples to receive him”], thus inciting forward One who was already running.—ἔγραψαν, the brethren wrote) The subjects of their recommendation may be gathered from Acts 18:24-25.—τοῖς μαθηταῖς, the disciples) who were at Corinth, or even on the way leading to it.—συνεβάλετο) contributed much help, by the command which he had of useful words. Join with this verb the διὰ, through grace [but Engl. Vers., those who had believed through grace]. To him who believes, through the grace wherein he is strong, every power of all is rendered a means of profit.—τοῖς πεπιστευκόσι, to those who had been brought to the faith) Apollos watered, he did not plant [1 Corinthians 3:6]; and was better able to convince (confute) the Jews, than to convert the Gentiles.

For he mightily convinced the Jews, and that publickly, shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was Christ.
Acts 18:28. Τὸν) The article is emphatic in the predicate: for the subject is sufficiently determined by the proper name itself; “that Jesus is the Christ.”

Gnomon of the New Testament by Johann Bengel

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