Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?Matthew 18:1. Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ, in that hour) when they had heard of the freedom of the children, declared in ch. Matthew 17:26 (which accounts for the use of ἄρα, then, in this passage); and when they had seen that Peter, James, and John (ch. John 17:1), had been all summoned to the Mount.—τίς ἄρα, κ.τ.λ., who then, etc.) They put the question indefinitely in words, but in their own hearts they think of themselves.—ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ τῶν οὐρανῶν, in the kingdom of heaven) See that thou enter there: do not enquire beforehand what are the several portions allotted to each therein.
 In Mark 9:33-34, and Luke 9:46-47, the fact is stated with some little change in the form in which the circumstances appear; namely, the disciples, after that they had disputed on the way, and were on that account set to rights by our loving Saviour, were at first silent: but then, all having been convened together by the Saviour, some finally proposed the question to Him. Harm., p. 381, 382. Comp. Michaelis in der Einleitung, etc., T. ii., p. m. 911, etc.—E. B.
And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them,Matthew 18:2. Παιδίον, a little child) A diminutive, to rebuke the disciples who sought great things. It is said to have been Ignatius—ὁ θεοφόρος. Without doubt it must have been a child of excellent disposition and sweetest appearance who was then present by Divine appointment.—ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν, in the midst of them) see Gnomon on Mark 9:36.
 Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the meaning of this word: some rendering it “one who was carried by GOD,” in allusion to the circumstance mentioned in the text; others explaining it to mean “one who carried GOD always about with him, sc. in his heart.”—(I. B.)
And said, Verily I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.Matthew 18:3. Καὶ εἶπεν, and said) By asking who is the greatest? each of the disciples might offend himself, his fellow-disciples, and the child in question. The Saviour’s words (Matthew 18:3-20) meet all these offences, and declare His own and His Father’s anxiety for the salvation of souls. We perceive hence the connection between the different portions of His speech.—ὡς τὰ παιδία, as little children) They must possess a wonderful degree of humility, simplicity, and faith to be proposed as an example to adults. Scripture exhibits everywhere favour towards little children.—οὐ μὴ εἰσέλθητε, ye shall not enter) So far from being the greatest, ye shall not even enter therein. He does not say, “ye shall not remain,” but, “ye shall not enter,” so as to repress their arrogance the more.
Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven.Matthew 18:4. Ὅστις, whosoever) No answer is given concerning the individual whom they inquired about.—οὗτος, this man) sc. he, I tell you.
And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name receiveth me.Matthew 18:5. Δέξηται, shall receive) sc. humbly, lovingly, to the profit of his soul, as appears from the contrast in the next verse.—τοιοῦτον, such) For little children also are sometimes corrupt.—The same termination occurs in Acts 21:25.—ἑν, one) God’s providence is exercised also on individuals; see the next verse. One is frequently mentioned in this chapter. ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματί Μου, in My name) Not from natural or political causes.—ὀνόματι, name) see Matthew 18:20.—Ἐμὲ, Me) sc. who am in the little ones which believe on Me, as the Father is in Me. In like manner it may be said that, in Justification, when God receives a believer, He receives Christ.
 Therefore He marks out one endued with humbleness of heart.—V. g.
 τοιοῦτος, τοιαῦτη, τοιοῦτο, Att. also τοιοῦτον, which however is also found in Od. vii. 309, and xiii. 330; and seems to prevail in Herodotus. Liddell and Scott.—(I. B.)
But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea.Matthew 18:6. Σκανδαλίση, shall offend) sc. by putting a stumbling block in the way of either his faith or practice, by provoking to pride or strife, by calling him away from the virtues of that early age. The greatest reverence is due to a child, if you are employed in anything which is wrong. Children are more easily impressible; therefore they are more easily injured.—ΤῶΝ ΠΙΣΤΕΥΌΝΤΩΝ, who believe) Jesus paid great attention to little children, and endued them with faith; see ch. Matthew 14:21, Matthew 19:13-14, and Matthew 21:15-16.—συμφέρει αὐτῷ, it is expedient for him) i.e., it is his interest—it were better for him; for drowning is far less horrible than the fire spoken of in Matthew 18:8, or the lake of fire mentioned in Revelation 19:20.—μύλος ὀνικὸς, a millstone) An appropriate phrase in a discourse concerning offence, for stumbling is produced by stones.—καταποντισθῇ, be drowned) A frequent and horrible punishment.—ΠΕΛΆΓΕΙ, the sea) sc. the deep; see Gnomon on Acts 27:5.—τῆς θαλάσσης, of the sea) which was near at hand; see ch. Matthew 17:27.
 See Juvenal xiv. 47, 48.—(I. B.)
 Literally, an ass millstone—i.e. the millstone of a mill worked by an ass, and therefore larger than a common hand-mill.—(I. B.)
 In opposition to the kingdom of heaven.—V. g.
“Maxima debetur puero reverentia, si quid
Woe unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but woe to that man by whom the offence cometh!Matthew 18:7. Τῷ κόσμῳ, to the world) offences spread far and wide,—τῶν σκανδάλων, of THE offences) τὰ σκάνδαλα, THE offences.—τὸ σκάνδαλον, THE offence) The article is emphatic.—ἀνάγκη γάρ ἐστιν ἐλθεῖν τὰ σκάνδαλα, for it must needs be that offences come) especially in the age blessed by the presence of the Messiah; just as insects abound in summer. The disciples were near offence: how much nearer must others have been!—πλὴν, but) used emphatically. Woe to the world which is injured by offences: but woe indeed to the man who injures it by offence.
 Ἀνάγκη, it is necessary) On account of the frequency of unbelief.—V. g.
 Πλὴν being added to the previous enunciation, forms an ‘Epitasis,’ or emphatic addition. See Append.—ED.
Wherefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into everlasting fire.Matthew 18:8. Εἰ δὲ, κ.τ.λ., but if, etc.) He who is not careful to avoid offence to himself, will cause offence to others, and vice versa.—χεὶρ, ποὺς, hand—foot) In the impulse of sinning, acting ill, going where we ought not, the hands or other members are urged on by the animal spirits rushing together into them: and there is great propriety in the expressions employed by our Lord: for the imperative ἔκκοψον (cut off), holds good with regard to the hand, in as far as it is thus affected, and so on with the rest.—ζωὴν, life) opposed to eternal fire.—κωλὸν, κ.τ.λ., lame, etc.) The godly, forsooth, in this world are lame, deaf, dumb, etc., both to themselves and others; see Psalm 38:14. This must be taken of the time of mortification, not that of glorification; for those members which have been most mortified will shine the most in glory; see Galatians 6:17.—ΑἸΏΝΙΟΝ, eternal) The word, eternal, signifies sometimes in the Old Testament a finite eternity more clearly than it does in the New.
 Comp. Revelation 3:17; 1 Corinthians 4:8-13.—ED.
And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell fire.Matthew 18:9. Ὀφθαλμὸς, eye) The eye offends by pride, as in this place; by envy, as in Mark 7:22; by wantonness [as in Matthew 5:28-29.] There is a gradation here; for the eye is dearer than the hand or foot. Frequently, when the offence of one member has been conquered, offence ensues from another.—μονόφθαλμον, with one eye) μονόφθαλμος, has the same force in Matthew and Mark as ἑτερόφθαλμος has in Ammonius.—τὴν Γέενναν, hell) eternal fire: see the preceding verses.
Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.Matthew 18:10. Μὴ καταφρονήσατε do not despise) They appear to have done so from Matthew 18:1-2. The adult frequently exhibit pride towards “little ones” by whose appearance they are reminded of their origin: whence it comes to pass, that they hold them of no account, and pay them no reverence. He despises them who corrupts or neglects to edify them.—οἱ ἄγγελοι, the angels) whom you ought not to offend, but imitate, in this very care for the “little ones.”—αὐτῶν, of them) The angels take care of the “little ones,” both in body and soul; and so much the more, the less that they are able to protect themselves. Grown-up men have also their guardian angels. but vet they are in some sort left more to themselves.—βλέπουσι, see) as attendants. And this concerns not only the dignity, but also the safety of the “little ones.” Their function is twofold; see Hebrews 1:14.—τὸ πρόσωπον, the face) See Exodus 33:14-20, and Numbers 6:25-26.
 See Gnomon on Matthew 18:6. voc. σκανδαλίσῃ, and footnote.—(I. B.)
For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.Matthew 18:11. Γὰρ, κ.τ.λ., for, etc.) Infants are objects of Divine care, not because they have not been under the curse like others, but because they have been rescued from it.—τὸ ἀπολωλὸς, that which was lost) The human race was one mass of perdition, in which infants, even those of better disposition, are also included, on account of original sin, but the whole of it has been redeemed. If a king were to say that he would rebuild a city which had been consumed by fire, he would not wish his words to be understood of a single street. The loss of a sinner is, in the sight of God, something as it were contingent. Therefore foreknowledge does not imply necessity.
How think ye? if a man have an hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?Matthew 18:12. Τί ὑμῖν δοκεῖ, κ.τ.λ., what think ye? etc.) A gracious instance of Communicatio.—ἑκατὸν, an hundred) Otherwise the loss of one out of so great a number would be easier.—ἕν, one) The roundness of the number would be broken, and the exact hundred diminished, by the loss even of one.—ἀφεὶς, leaving) It is the business of shepherds to give their first care to wandering sheep, as distinguished from those which are in the right way.—ἐπὶ τὰ ὄρη, into the mountains) even with great toil, into solitary places. The discourse appears to have been delivered on the shore of the lake of Gennesareth.
 “A figure in rhetoric, whereby the orator consults the audience what they would do in such a case.”—Ainsworth. It is used in this sense by Cicero. See also explanation of technical terms in Appendix.—(I. B.)
 i.e. If it were not a round number.—(I. B.)
 Which was surrounded by mountains—(I. B.)
And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray.Matthew 18:13. Ἐὰν γένηται εὑρεῖν, if it happen that he find it) The finding of the sinner, therefore, is, in the sight of God, a something as it were contingent—IF IT HAPPEN that he find it: cf. on the loss of a sinner, Matthew 18:11, and Gnomon in loc. Therefore grace is not irresistible; cf. Luke 15:6; Luke 15:9; Luke 15:24; Luke 17:18.—ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, verily I say unto you) This formula refers to the Apodosis, as in Luke 11:8, and John 12:24; cf. the Divine adjuration in Ezekiel 33:11.
 See explanation of technical terms in Appendix.—(I. B.)
Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish.Matthew 18:14. Οὐκ ἔστι θέλημα, it is not a wish) or anything to be desired (cf. Ezekiel 18:23). The article is not added in the present passage; cf. θεληματα, wishes, in Acts 13:22. We ought to subserve the Divine will in caring for the salvation of all.—ἔμπροσθεν, in the presence of) The Divine intellect is intimated as discerning what things please His will.—ἵνα, κ.τ.λ., that, etc.) i.e. He wishes most earnestly that all should be saved.—εἷς, one) The disciples had asked in the comparative; our Lord answers specially in the positive degree.
 E. V. “It is not the will.” Middleton renders it, “There is no wish.”—(I. B.)
 Rendered in E. V. by, “Which shall fulfil all My will.”—(I. B.)
 In his own German Version Bengel renders the passage thus:—“Also ist es kein Wille VOR eurem Vater, dass,” etc.—(I. B.)
 E. V. renders the passage, “It is not the will of your Father,” etc. Bengel would render it literally, “It is not a wish in the presence of your Father,” etc., and explain it as representing the Divine Intellect as surveying all possible contingencies (rendered by the Divine power visible to the Divine perception), and distinguishing between those which are, and those which are not, agreeable to His Will.—(I. B.)
 Bengel has used the word Voluntas four times in this paragraph, and that in two different senses. In the first instance, I have rendered the singular by Wish; in the second, the plural by Wishes; in the third and fourth, the singular by Will.—(I. B.)
 i.e. The disciples had asked, “Which is the greatest in the kingdom of Heaven?”—their question therefore referred to the comparative degrees of glory. Our Lord’s reply directs their attention to the simple notion, the positive degree of salvation; the universal requisites on man’s part to attain—the universal desire on God’s part to bestow it.—(I. B.)
Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.Matthew 18:15. Ἐὰν δὲ, κ.τ.λ., but if, etc.) The sum of this chapter is as follows: Every one is under an obligation, not to place obstacles before himself and others, but to aid both on the way of salvation Also: we ought to respond to the Divine will, expressed in Matthew 18:14. Also: do not offend thy brother; cure thy brother’s offence.—ἁμαρτήσῃ εἰς σὲ, sin against thee) sc. by giving offence; see 1 Corinthians 8:12.—ὕπαγε, go) (cf. πορευθεὶς, having gone, in Matthew 18:12). That will be derogatory to no one. Even Christ came to us and sought us.—ἔλεγξον αὐτὸν, reprove him) Afterwards our Lord speaks of witnesses. In the present instance, the matter takes place in the presence of only two [sc. the parties themselves]; in the latter, of more.—ΑὐΤῸΝ, him) sc. thy brother. He is reproved and forgiven because he is a brother.—μόνου, alone) Solitary reproof is gracious.—ἐκέρδησας, thou hast gained) Therefore thy brother had previously been lost through his sin. A gain, and a blessed one. The body of the sick man does not become the property of the physician who cured it; the burning house does not become the property of him who extinguished the fire: that is, they are not gained. But the man whom I have gained becomes in some sort my own, as amongst the Romans a conquered people became bound, by the ties of clientship, to the general who had conquered them; cf. Luke 19:24; Luke 19:17; Philemon 1:19, and Gnomon on 1 Corinthians 9:19.
 E. V. “Tell him his fault.”—(I. B.)
The margin of both Editions observes that this verb is brought into prominence by the absence of the copula between it and ὕπαγε, “Go, tell him his fault.” This has not been noticed in the Vers. Germ.—E. B.
Rec. Text has καὶ, with abc Vulg. Hilary, and Lucifer. But BD Orig. omit καὶ.—ED.
But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.Matthew 18:16. Ἕνα ἤ δύο, one or two) so that, reckoning thyself the complainant, there may be two or three witnesses. The evidence of the complainant is of greater weight.—ἵνα ἐπὶ στόματος, κ.τ.λ., that in the mouth, etc.) referring to Deuteronomy 19:15, the latter part of which the LXX. render: ἐπὶ στόματος δύο μαρτύρων καὶ ἐπὶ στοματος τριῶν μαρτύρων σταθήσεται πᾶν ῥῆμα—at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, every word shall be established.—σταθῇ πᾶν ῥῆμα, every word may be established) sc. both against the sinner and afterwards to the Church. This passage is one of those which prove that the principles and rules of the forensic law of Moses are not entirely excluded from the polity of the Church of Christ.
And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.Matthew 18:17. Παρακούση, do not obey) disregarding the reproof.—τῇ ἐκκλησια, the church) i.e., which is in that place where thou and thy brother dwell. The church is opposed to two or three in about the same proportion as two or three are to one. Amongst the Jews, ten men are considered to constitute עדה, a church, or public assembly for the decision of private disputes. See Rhenferd Opera philologica, p. 729; Buxtorf, Synagoga Judaica, ch. 25, where the same things are prescribed to the offender which our Lord prescribes here to the injured party.—ἔστω, κ.τ.λ., let him be, etc.) Cf. Romans 16:17; 1 Corinthians 5:11 2 Thessalonians 3:14; 2 Timothy 2:21; Titus 3:10; 2 John Matthew 18:10.—σοὶ, to thee) Although, perhaps, not to the witnesses and the church. Therefore no one should be considered as a stranger before he has been reproved, and disregarded the reproof.—ὁ ἐθνικὸς, THE heathen) (sing.) We take this opportunity of making some observations on the Greek Article. B. Stolberg rightly remarks, in his manuscript collection on the particles, that “there is scarcely an instance in the Scriptures where the article is redundant.” It is nowhere clearly useless: it is never added without an object, although philologists frequently attribute to it a wrong force and meaning. It is equivalent to the German der (the), and denotes less than he (this), more than quidam (some, a certain one, or thing). It has, therefore, a determinating value; and it determines either (1) the universality and totality of the subject, as in Matthew 6:22, Ὁ λύχνος, κ.τ.λ., THE light, etc., q.d. the body has no light except the eye; or (2) the whole species, as in Matthew 15:11, TO εἰσερχόμενον, that which entereth—TO ἐκπορευόμενον, that which cometh out—and in Romans 1:17, Ὁ δὲ δίκαιος, but THE just, i.e. he that is, or every one that is, just; or (3) the singularity and oneness [i.e. the definite and exclusive individuality] of the subject, as in Matthew 1:23, Ἡ παρθένος, THE virgin—in John 1:21, Ὁ Χριστός, THE Christ, Ὁ προφήτης, THE prophet—in John 13:13, Ὁ Διδάσκαλος, καὶ Ὁ Κύριος, THE Teacher, and THE Lord; or (4) the restriction of the whole genus to a particular species, as in Acts 19:17, ΤΟΙΣ καταικοῦσι, who dwelt at. In logic, however, universal and singular propositions are equivalent; whence (5) it has frequently a relative force, and that even in partition, as in Luke 18:10, Ὁ εἷς φαρισαῖος καὶ Ὁ ἕτερος τελώνης, THE one a Pharisee and THE other a publican—and in Revelation 17:10, Ὁ εἷς ἐστιν, Ὁ ἀλλος οὔπω ἠλθε, THE one is, THE other has not yet come; or (6) it expresses a certain peculiar degree of a thing (rei exquisitam quandam rationem), as in Matthew 8:12, Ὁ κλαυθμὸς, THE weeping, sc. weeping, compared with which earthly weeping is not weeping. It is, in fact, a subject which deserves to be more carefully examined by Philologists. In this passage, Ὁ ἐθνικὸς signifies the whole race of Heathens, and any one thereto belonging. Thus, in the S. V. of Deuteronomy 28:29, we have Ὁ τυφλὸς,, THE blind.—καὶ ὁ τελώνης, and the publican) It was easy for the Jews to consider any one in the light of a heathen, therefore this clause is added to increase the force of the language; for the publicans dwelt amongst the Jews, but were shunned by them.
 See Bloomfield and Kitto in loc., and Trench’s New Testament Synonyms in voc.—(I. B.)
 For RHENFERD, see p. 82, f.n. 2.—(I. B.)
 JOHN BUXTORF, the elder, one of the greatest Hebrew scholars of modern times. He was born at Camen in 1564, and died in 1629. He devoted himself to the study of Hebrew and Chaldee literature, and became Professor of those languages at Basle. The great Scaliger declared that he was the only person who understood Hebrew thoroughly. The work cited by Bengel is, “Synagoga Judaica, de Judaeorum fide, ritibus, ceremoniis, tam publicis et sacris quam privatis;” a third and enlarged edition of which was published by his no less celebrated son, at Basle, in 1661.—(I. B.)
 I have, in the disquisition which follows, inserted in extenso the passages referred to by Bengel. For a full consideration of this important subject, see that inestimably valuable work, Middleton on the Greek Article.—(I. B.)
 i.e. In distinguishing between divisions of a whole, classes of a mass, species of a genus, or individuals of a certain description. The two men mentioned in the example both answered to the description of those that “went up into the temple to pray;”—here their similarity or affinity, as parts of a whole, or members of a class, ceased;—the article separates them from, and contrasts them with, each other.—(I. B.)
 Cf. Gnomon in loc.—(I. B.)
 Bengel saw the want: it has since been supplied by Middleton.—(I. B.)
He is not here speaking of the Catholic or universal Church.—V. g.
Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.Matthew 18:18. Ὅσα ἐὰν, whatsoever) i.e. all things with regard to which the power of binding and loosing holds good, especially offences.—δήσητε, ye shall bind) see the end of Matthew 18:17.—λύσητε, ye shall loose) see the end of Matthew 18:15. There is an intimate connection between the retention of a private and that of a public offence, and so also in the case of remission. See Matthew 18:15-35. Our Lord teaches that His disciples can bind and loose the sins of their neighbours in His name; see Matthew 18:20. Neither is it totally void of effect when they, even for their own sake, through anger, bind and hold the offences of their brethren.
 Christ gave this power to His disciples then, and not till then, when, having had experience of the gracious will of our Heavenly Father (Matthew 18:14), they had recognised Himself, i.e. Jesus, as the Son of GOD (ch. Matthew 16:16), and had received the Holy Spirit, John 20:22.—V. g.
 Privatæ, private, i.e. not one privately committed, but one against the individual: communis public, i.e. not one committed in public, but one of a public character.—(I. B.)
Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven.Matthew 18:19. Πάλιν, again) The same thing is repeated in somewhat different language. The particle πάλιν is used epitatically, as in ch. Matthew 19:24, and Galatians 5:3. In this place, our Lord speaks of His disciples as acting together; in Matthew 18:18, in their individual. capacity. Cf. ch. Matthew 16:19.—δύο, two) sc. two, if not more, contrasted with all; cf. Matthew 18:18 : two, e.g. husband and wife. Great is the virtue of united faith. That which may hinder the prayers of one man, from his own weakness, is made up by the fellowship (societas) of even one brother.—ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς—ἐν οὐρανοῖς, on earth—in heaven) The same antithesis occurs in Matthew 18:18.—αἰτήσωνται shall ask) sc. with regard to binding or loosing.
 See explanation of technical terms in Appendix, on the figure Epitasis.—(I. B.)
For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.Matthew 18:20. Οὗ γὰρ, κ.τ.λ., for where, etc.) The name of Jesus gives power to prayer.—δύο ἤ τρεῖς, two or three) see Ecclesiastes 4:12 and the preceding verses. Three is a number which can be procured even in a barren age of the Church: a greater number is not so easily obtained, and is accompanied by the danger that a hypocrite may be present; yet where many sincere professors are together, how great will be the power of their prayers.—εἰς τὸ Ἐμον ὄνομα, in My name, lit. into My name) sc. with the object of worshipping it. All prayers that are offered in the name of Jesus Christ are accepted by the Father; see Matthew 18:19.—ἘΚΕῖ ΕἸΜῚ, there am I) and all grace with Me; see ch. Matthew 28:20; Acts 18:10; 2 Timothy 4:17. Where the Son is, there is the Father: what the Son wishes, the Father wishes.
 Εἰς—ὄνομα is not identical with ἐν—ὀνόματι, either here or in Matthew 28:19 (Baptizing them—not in the name, but into the name, etc., i.e. into the fellowship of the Father, etc.—so that they may be members of the church bearing the name of, etc.). The words probably mean “Gathered together unto my name;” the sense which Bengel seems to imply—εἰς, “Ut nomen meum colant.”—ED.
Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times?Matthew 18:21. Ποσάκις, how often?) in one day, or my whole life. Cf. Luke 17:4. [This question arose from some sense of super abounding Divine grace, which had been so much dwelt upon and magnified in the preceding discourses.—V. g.—ἁμαρτήσει, shall my brother sin?) These words are to be understood, not of some slight offence, which excites a sudden burst of indignation, though this also is indeed sinful, yet ready to forgive of its own accord, but of some more heavy offence or injury.—V. g.]
Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven.Matthew 18:22. Ἑβδομηκοντάκις ἑπτὰ, seventy-seven) The termination κις makes the whole number seventy-seven. Thus the LXX., in Genesis 4:24, use the same phrase regarding Lamech.
 E. V. “Seventy times seven.” Vulg., “Septuagies septies.”—(I. B.)
 One could hardly believe that so great dissension could arise even among those entertaining the worst feelings towards others. Therefore there is required a willingness to forgive, which cannot be wearied out by any provocations, however numerous.—V. g.
“If Cain be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold;” not “seventy times seven;” LXX. ἑπτακοντάκις ἕπτα.—ED.
Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king, which would take account of his servants.Matthew 18:23. Διὰ τουτο, therefore) understand, “I say.”—ἠθελησε, willed, determined) of His own free will, by His supreme authority.
And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him, which owed him ten thousand talents.Matthew 18:24. Ἀρξαμένου, when He had begun) Before the servant knew what was the condition of his fellow-servants.—εἶς προσηνέχθη Αὐτῷ, there was brought unto Him) though against his will.—εἶς, one) sc. a servant, who owed, etc. How great must be the debts of all, if that of one is so great! Every one ought to consider himself as that one; cf. Matthew 18:35; Matthew 18:12, ch. Matthew 20:13; for the condition of all is equal.—μυρίων ταλάντων, of ten thousand talents) The Greek language cannot express by two words, as a distinct and continuous quantity, a larger sum than this. If we ought to remit an hundred denarii to our brother, i.e. forgive him seventy-seven times, what a vast amount of sins does the Lord forgive us in remitting ten thousand talents! A talent contains about six thousand denarii; therefore a thousand talents contain sixty million denarii, of which how small a part are one hundred denarii! For six denarii make a florin, and nine denarii an imperial dollar, or not much more; one Hebrew talent, or two Attic ones, are two thousand two hundred and fifty florins.
 “Ratio,” lit. reckoning—i.e. what was the state of their balance or deficit in the debtor and creditor account with their Lord.—(I. B.)
 “Ratio.” See preceding footnote.—(I. B.)
 The Jewish talent was about £342, 3s. 9d. The talent of gold was worth about £5475.—(I. B.)
 There thus results a sum of 15,000,000 thalers, or 22,500,000 florins. If even one servant can become liable for such a debt—and Peter, as also the other Apostles, ought to have considered that servant as a type, each one of himself—what will not the load amount to, which is made up of the accumulated debts remitted by the Lord to the whole collective body of those who obtain grace? And still more of those sins which must be atoned for in the place of torture by those who are the vast majority, whose debt is not remitted in any measure.—V. g.
But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made.Matthew 18:25. Ἐκέλευσεν, κ.τ.λ., he commanded, etc.) The Lord shows His right, but does not use it: the servant, however, abuses whatever right he possesses.—ὅσα εἶχε, all that he had) The peculium, which, indeed, itself belonged to the Lord.
 Amongst the Romans, slaves had a certain allowance granted them for their sustenance, commonly four or five pecks of grain a month, and five denarii. They likewise had a daily allowance. Whatever they saved of these, or procured by any other means, with their masters’ consent, was called their PECULIUM. This money, with their masters’ permission, they put out at interest, or sometimes purchased with it a slave for themselves, from whose labours they might make profit. Such a slave was called servi vicarius, and formed part of the PECULIIM, with which also slaves sometimes purchased their own freedom. See Adams’s Roman Antiquities in voc.—(I. B.)
The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.Matthew 18:26. Μακροθύμησον, have patience) Do not act hastily towards me.—πάντα, all) The servant could not procure so large a sum in the whole period of the world’s existence; he merely exhibits, therefore, his contrition.
Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt.Matthew 18:27.  Ἀπέλυσεν, loosed) as the servant had besought him to do. ἀφῆκε, forgave) which the servant had not dared to ask. He had prayed for one kindness; and he obtained two.
 Σπλαγχνισθεὶς) To forgive and remit constitute the highest work of compassion.—V. g.
But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellowservants, which owed him an hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest.Matthew 18:28. Ἐξελθὼν, having gone forth) being now released from his difficulties. Before the accounts had been examined, he treated his fellow-servant more tenderly; the very joy of recovered liberty, or restored health, etc., is accompanied by a greater danger of sin: see John 5:14; 2 Kings 20:13.—ἑκατὸν δηνάρια, a hundred denarii) The names of coins are neuter in Greek. This was a sufficiently large debt for a fellow-servant: but nothing in comparison with even a single talent, and ten thousand is a hundred times a hundred.—ἈΠΌΔΟς, Κ.Τ.Λ., pay, etc.) An importunate demand.—εἰ, if) a particle of some force for since.
 So that it is even then in particular, that one becomes liable to anger.—V. g.
 See Jeremiah 34:8-16.—(I. B.)
 E. V. “An hundred pence.” The denarius was about sevenpence three farthings.—(I. B.)
 Bengel reads εἴ τι ὀφείλεις, which he interprets, IF, i.e. SINCE thou owest me something. E. M. has ὅ τι ὀφείλεις—that which, or whatsoever thou owest.—(I. B.)
BCD Orig. 3,622a read εἴ τι. But abc Vulg. Lucifer support the ὅ τι of Rec. Text.—ED.
Εὗρεν, he found) After you have experienced the divine free favour, soon the opportunity will present itself to thee of adopting either a similar, or else a different mode of action.—V. g.
Ἕνα, one) It sometimes happens that one wishes well to all (other) men, and yet remains inimical and hostile at least to one particular person.—V. g.
And his fellowservant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.Matthew 18:29. Παρεκάλει, besought) In Matthew 18:26, the word used is προσεκὑνει, worshipped.—λέγων, saying) sc. in the same words which are found in Matthew 18:26.
And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt.Matthew 18:30. Οὐκ ἤθελεν, would not) opposed to σπλαγχνισθεὶς, being moved with compassion, in Matthew 18:27.—ἀπελθὼν, having departed) sc. to the officer.—ἔβαλεν, κ.τ.λ., east, etc.) By which act he invaded the right of his Lord.
 Of how great consequence, frequently, is the presence or absence of willingness (Velle-Nolle) in cases which are not in themselves of the greatest weight.—V. g.
So when his fellowservants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done.Matthew 18:31. Ἐλυπήθησαν σφόδρα, καὶ ἐλθόντες διεσάφησαν, κ.τ.λ., they were very sorry, and came and told, etc.) Their sorrow and their information were righteous.—λύπη, sorrow, frequently includes the idea of indignation.
Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me:Matthew 18:32. Αὐτὸν, him) singly; for in Matthew 18:24, he had been cited in company with the rest.—δοῦλε πονηρὲ, thou wicked servant) He had not been called thus on account of his debt. Woe to him whom the Lord upbraids; see ch. Matthew 25:26. Mercilessness is peculiarly wickedness.—ἐκείνην, that [debt]) This word refers with peculiar emphasis to the former occurrence.
Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellowservant, even as I had pity on thee?Matthew 18:33. Οὐκ ἔδει; did it not behove?) It did, indeed, by the highest rule of equity.—ΤῸΝ ΣΎΝΔΟΥΛΌΝ ΣΟΥ, thy fellow-servant) whom thou oughtest to have pitied; My servant, by injuring whom thou hast injured Me.
 Πᾶσαν, all) Comp. the πᾶν in Matthew 18:34. O how royal is as well His lenity, as also His severity!—V. g.
And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him.Matthew 18:34. Ὀργισθεὶς, wroth) He had not been wroth before, cf. Luke 14:21. Those who have experienced the mercy of God, ought to be very careful of exciting His anger.—τοῖς βασανισταῖς, the tormentors) not merely jailors (custodibus).—ἓως οὗ, until) Such is the enduring character of guilt, founded on the inexhaustible claim of God over His servants.
 “Servos.” The word is used with special reference to the parable, and does not indicate “the servants of God,” in the usual meaning of that phrase, but all those who were formed for the service of God, i.e. all His creatures.—(I. B.)
So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.Matthew 18:35. Ἀπὸ τῶν καρδιῶν ὑμῶν, from your hearts) A wrong is recalled to the mind: it must be dismissed from the mind and from the heart. Things which are thus done, are done with unwearied frequency [But if not, whenever the debtor unexpectedly meets us, our indignation is liable to revive.—V. g.]; cf. σπλαγχνισθεὶς, (being moved with compassion) in Matthew 18:27.