Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;Revelation 2:1. Τῷ ἀγγέλῳ, to the angel) There is a most weighty reason for these seven epistles. When the people were about to receive the law at Sinai, they were first purified: the same people, when the kingdom of God was now at hand, were prepared for it through repentance, by the ministry of John the Baptist; and now the Christian Church is furnished with these epistles, in order that they may worthily receive so great a Revelation (just as the writer himself had previously been prepared to receive it by his banishment and alarm). For the object of the writing is, that the Church, putting away from the midst of itself evil men, after due admonition, and evil things, may be prepared rightly to embrace and preserve this most precious deposit, this Revelation of such great moment, which the heavenly beings themselves honour with such profound adorations, and also to behold great events, to receive the most abundant enjoyments, and to avoid woes; the epistles themselves being interspersed with glowing sparks from the remaining part of the Revelation, and those most fitted to arouse the attention and prepare the way for the understanding of what is revealed; and the renovation of the Church by repentance, as is befitting, is placed before the sight of the rainbow, ch. Revelation 4:3. Whosoever therefore wishes to be a suitable hearer of the Apocalypse, he ought to observe the admonitions of these seven epistles; for then he will learn, from the pattern which they afford, how the Apocalypse is to be applied to all men and all ages. Some have attempted to show that the seven epistles, comprised in ch. 2 and 3, refer to seven periods of the Church, their historical sense being either preserved, or (which is worse) set aside. The celebrated D. Lange, in Comm. Apoc. f. 34, seq., preserving the historical sense, extends the prophetical sense from the time of John as far as to the destruction of the whore and the beast. But we have shown that the applying of the seven epistles to seven periods is the work of human subtilty. See Erkl. Offenb. pp. 285–295. The epistles then plainly had reference to the seven churches in Asia, and especially to their angels: and whether at that time, when the book was sent from Patmos to Asia, other churches were to be compared with these seven, or not, the subordination of these churches under John is here considered; and from this all hearers, of all places and times, whether good, bad, or varying in character, ought to apply to themselves the things which equally concern them. Each address to the angel of the church is concluded with a promise, which is given to him that overcometh.—τῆς) The Cod. Alex. Τῷ, and that not through carelessness. For it has it three times, Τῷ ἘΝ ἘΦΈΣῼ ἘΚΚΛΗΣΊΑς· Τῷ ἘΝ ΠΕΡΓΆΜῼ ἘΚΚΛΗΣΊΑς (in Latin you might say, angelo ecclesiastico, qui est Ephesi, Pergami: to the angel of the church, who is at Ephesus, and at Pergamos); and, τῷ ἐν Θυατίροις. These are the very three angels who are partly praised and partly blamed: and the language is more directly aimed at these in the epistles, than at the other two pairs, who are without exception either praised or blamed.—ἘΝ ἘΦΈΣῼ, at Ephesus) In that city Timothy both flourished for a long time, and died shortly after the giving of the Apocalypse. Polycrates, a bishop of Ephesus, described the martyrdom of Timothy: but this writing, as many others, has been interpolated by the diligence of the later Greeks, in such a manner, however, that the principal facts remained, and were preserved from interpolation in the more simple copies. This Polycrates therefore, in Ussher de Anno Solari, f. 96, says, that the festival of the Catagogia celebrated by the unbelievers at Ephesus, took place on the 22d day of January; and that on the third day afterwards Timothy was put to death by them, while Nerva was Emperor, Nerva did not see the 22d and 24th of January, as Emperor, except in the year 97, when he reigned alone, and in the year 98, when he reigned together with Trajan; and died shortly afterwards, on the 27th of January. Therefore also the Apocalypse had been sent to Ephesus, a short time only before the death of Timothy. I do not, however, think that he is the person aimed at in the address of the Apocalypse. Timothy was an Evangelist, not an angel of one church; and he also, if at the close of his life he could have declined from his first love, he would assuredly have been admonished of his approaching death, as we may believe, no less than the angel of the church at Smyrna.
 I remember that, just at the last hours of his pilgrimage (upwards of twenty years ago), my sainted parent earnestly recommended to his family the frequent reading and study of the Epistles contained in the Apocalypse; adding, as the reason (of his advice):—es ist nicht leicht etwas, das einen so durchdringen und durchläutern könnte.—E. B.
 AC have τῷ: B, τῆς.—E.
 A festival in honour of Aphrodite. It was supposed that during the Anagogia the goddess went over to Africa. On her return, the feast of the Catagogia was kept with great rejoicing. See Athenæus, 394, f., also Abp Ussher’s Works, vol. vii. p. 360.—T.
I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:Revelation 2:2. Οἶδα τὰ ἔργά σου, I know thy works) This word οἶδα, I know, occurs seven times:
I know thy works: Revelation 3:1; Revelation 3:8; Revelation 3:15.
I know where thou dwellest: Revelation 2:13.
I know thy tribulation: Revelation 2:9.
I know thy love: Revelation 2:19.
—καὶ ὅτι) Καὶ was formerly omitted by some: but it is to be retained. For endurance and sternness against the evil are different virtues, [though they are united in this Man.—V. g.]—ἐπείρασας) Erasmus, without any MS. authority, edits ἐπειράσω: all the MSS. have ἘΠΕΊΡΑΣΑς. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. The Middle, ΠΕΙΡΆΟΜΑΙ, occurs only with an infinitive, and that but rarely, as ἘΠΕΙΡᾶΤΟ ΚΟΛΛᾶΣΘΑΙ, Acts 9:26. ΠΕΙΡῶΜΑΊ ΣΕ, with an accusative, is never used: ΠΕΙΡΆΖΩ is employed for all purposes. [There must have been a remarkable talent of discernment in this church-president.—V. g.]—ἀποστόλους, Apostles) In this passage false apostles are repulsed: false Jews, Revelation 2:9; those given up to Heathenism, Revelation 2:13-14.
 The margin of the greater Edition had preferred the omission, but both Ed. ii. and Vers. Germ. agree with the Gnomon.—E. B.
 So Rec. Text; but ABC, ἐπείρασας.—E.
A Memph. omit καί; but BCh Vulg. support it.—E.
And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name's sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted.Revelation 2:3. Οὐ κεκοπίακας) Thus the Alex. MS. reads. The others also, with great agreement, οὐκ ἐκοπίασας: there is only the change of Σ for Κ made by the latter, from the rhythm ἐβάστασας. See App. Ed. ii. on this passage.—ΚΟΠΙᾷΝ is used for ΚΆΜΝΕΙΝ, Matthew 11:28, 1 Corinthians 4:12; also John 4:6. Whence in the Septuagint it answers to the words חשׁל כאל לאה עיף חלה, and especially to יגע. Hesychius, ΚΕΚΜΗΚῺς, ΚΕΚΟΠΙΑΚΏς. The Antanaclasis [See Append. Technical Terms], praised by Wolf, is this: I know thy labour; and yet thou dost not labour, that is, thou art not wearied with labour.
 B has ἐκοπίασας: AC, κεκοπίακες (the Alexandr. form for—κας): so h Vulg. But Rec. Text, with little authority, adds καὶ οὐ κέκμηκας.—E.
Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love.
Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.Revelation 2:5.  Εἰ δὲ μὴ) This is spoken absolutely without a verb, Revelation 2:16; ἐὰν μὴ, with a verb, presently after in this verse, and Revelation 2:22, ch. Revelation 3:3; Revelation 3:20.—ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ κινήσω) The coming of the Lord was about to take place at one time; and the denunciation of His coming was made first at Ephesus, etc., lastly at Laodicea. [In these denunciations the idea of nearness of approach increases: Revelation 2:16; Revelation 2:25, ch. Revelation 3:3; Revelation 3:11; Revelation 3:20.—Not. Crit.] The verb ἔρχομαι is used so constantly in the present, that it remains so even when followed by a future: ἔρχομαι καὶ κινήσω· ἔρχομαι καὶ πολεμήσω, Revelation 2:16. See also John 14:3. The angel ought to effect much, on account of his close tie of connection with his own church.
 μνημόνευε, remember) A remembrance of this kind profits very much: ch. Revelation 3:3.—V. g.
But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.
He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.Revelation 2:7. Οὖς) The singular is the more to be remarked, because the plural is more usual. Πίστις, ὦτα ψυχῆς, says Clement of Alexandria, Stromb. v. at the beginning; although in the Hebrew the [singular] ear is often used.—ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις) The Ablative case: as ch. Revelation 22:16 [“saith to him by the churches:” not as Engl. “unto the churches”]. In like manner there is said, ταῖς προσευχαῖς, ch. Revelation 8:3-4. Compare the passages which Heupel has collected in his Notes on Mark 5:2.—τῷ νικῶντι) The seven promises have a variety of construction.
I. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ, κ.τ.λ.
II. Ὁ νικῶν οὐ μὴ ἀδιχηθῇ, κ.τ.λ.
III. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷ, κ.τ.λ.
IV. Καὶ ὁ νικῶν,—δώσω αὐτῷ, κ.τ.λ.
V. Ὁ νικῶν, οὗτος περιβαλεῖται, κ.τ.λ.
VI. Ὁ νικῶν, ποιήσω αὐτὸν, κ.τ.λ.
VII. Ὁ νικῶν, δώσω αὐτῷ, κ.τ.λ.
In the four latter, ὁ νικῶν is marked with greater emphasis, as though it had the distinctive Hebrew accent: in the three former, there is a closer connection between τῷ νικῶντι (to which ὁ νικῶν, without οὗτος, in the second is equivalent) and the following verb.—ἐκ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς, ὅ ἐστιν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ τοῦ Θεοῦ μου) The Septuagint, Genesis 2:9, has τὸ ξύλον τῆς ζωῆς ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ παραδείσου· where comp. Genesis 3:3. The ἐν μέσῳ is used with great propriety, because the rest of the trees were in the garden, but not in the midst of the garden. In this passage, according to the better copies, the tree of life is simply said to be in the paradise of God: nor is mention made of any other tree, except the tree of life. The tree of life, indeed, is in the midst of the street of Jerusalem: ch. Revelation 22:2. From that passage, or from Genesis, some have here written, ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ παραδείσου.
 ABCh Vulg. Syr. Cypr. read ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ: but Rec. Text, without good authority, ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ παραδείσου.—E.
And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive;
I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.
Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.Revelation 2:10.  Βαλεῖν, to cast) Understand, some one, or rather some persons.
 τὴν θλίψιν) Others, τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὴν θλίψιν. More recent writers have obliterated, from a parallelism, the elegant diversity of many passages. See presently ver. 13.—Not. Crit.
Rec. Text has τὰ ἔργα καὶ τὴν θλ. with B and Syr. But ACh Vulg. Memph. omit τὰ ἔργα καί.—E.
He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.Revelation 2:11. Τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ δευτέρου) The Chaldee Paraphrase has this phrase, מותא תנינא, Deuteronomy 33:6; Isaiah 22:14. [Comp. Revelation 20:6.—V. g.]
And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;
I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan's seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.Revelation 2:13. Πίστιν) To this the cognate word πιστὸς presently afterwards answers.—ἐν ταῖς ἠμέραις) See App. on this passage.—αἷς Ἀντίπας) that is, οὐκ ἠρνήσατο. The Menologia say, that Antipas was slain under Domitian: the Martyrologia, that he was cast into a heated brazen bull.
 AC Vulg. Memph. prefixes και before εν. B Syr. omit it.—E.
But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication.Revelation 2:14. Τῷ Βαλὰκ) This is the reading of the Alex. Cod., and indeed, as I have mentioned in the Apparatus, in the first edition of Mill. See App. Ed. ii.: The changes which the Edition of Kuster was the first to make for the worse, or even for the better, are everywhere ascribed by philologists on this side of the sea to Mill himself. I indeed corrected with great labour, from the first edition of Mill, the errors of the second, especially in the Apocalypse: therefore where my Apparatus differs from the second edition, I again and again assert, that the difference is not the result of carelessness. In this phrase, who taught τῷ Balak, the Dative of advantage [for Balak] is the sense which holds good, which Wolf does not deny, p. 463; nor is that case more to be met with anywhere than in the history of Balaam: κατάρασαί μοι τὸν λαὸν τοῦτου, κ.τ.λ., Numbers 22, 23. Josephus, l. 4, Ant. ch. vi. § 6, makes Balaam speak thus: ΒΆΛΑΚΕ ΚΑῚ ΤῶΝ ΜΑΔΙΑΝΙΤῶΝ ΟἹ ΠΑΡΌΝΤΕς· ΧΡῊ ΓΆΡ ΜΕ ΚΑῚ ΠΑΡᾺ ΒΟΎΛΗΣΙΝ ΤΟῦ ΘΕΟῦ ΧΑΡΊΣΑΘΑΙ ΥΜΙΝ, Κ.Τ.Λ With the same meaning the Apocalypse has, ἘΔΊΑΣΚΕΝ Τῷ ΒΑΛΆΚ: for Balaam did not teach Balak, but he taught the people of Balak, for the sake of Balak, by whom Balaam had been hired. See Numbers 24:14; Numbers 25:1-2; Numbers 31:8; Numbers 31:16.
 AC read τῷ: Rec. Text Elz. τόν; Steph. ἐν τῷ; both without good authority.—E.
So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.Revelation 2:15-16. Ὁμοίως μετανόησον οὖν) The angel at Pergamos is ordered to repent in like manner with the angel at Ephesus: καὶ, also, corresponds, Revelation 2:15. The reading ὁμοίως, for which others have written ὅ μισῶ from Revelation 2:6, is defended by almost all the authorities. Yet οὖν, therefore, remains with great emphasis. Comp. Revelation 2:5, ch. Revelation 3:3; Revelation 3:19.
 This reading therefore (ὁμοίως) is preferred in the margin of Ed. 2 and Vers. Germ., otherwise than is the case in the greater Edition.—E. B.
ABC Vulg. Memph. Syr. read ὁμοίως: Rec. Text, ὃ μισῶ, without good authority.—E.
Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.Revelation 2:16. Ἔρχομαί σοι καὶ πολεμήσω μετʼ αὐτῶν) Many, from parallel passages, have inserted ταχύ after σοί. But the Italian Version, which is nearest to the hand of John, did not contain the word quickly. To the writers who followed that reading, Ansbert is added with considerable regularity, and Bede and Ambrose, also, in Psalms 118. Serm. 19; nor has Apringius the word quickly in his paraphrase on this passage. It will be worth while to have turned over the Latin MSS. of the Apocalypse in this place. Sometimes the fuller reading is the genuine one, but generally the shorter. I will say under what circumstances each holds good. The fuller reading is sometimes to be preferred. For I. in the case of words having a similar ending, or in the recurrence of words or syllables, the copyists have easily passed over the intermediate text, which is to be restored from the more ancient authorities. II. Conjunctions, which are less frequent in other languages than in Greek, are often omitted in the Versions, which it is useless to follow too closely in this particular. III. The Greeks frequently removed something from the public reading, to which many copies were accommodated: and in such cases the fuller reading ought to be retained, if supported by the other authorities of greatest antiquity, and especially the Latin Version. Examples are of constant occurrence. If we except these three causes, brevity is an all but invariable characteristic of a genuine reading. For since the Greek copies, and the translators and fathers who have followed them, are to be divided into two classes, namely, into those of Asia and of Africa, as I have copiously explained in my Apparatus, you will seldom find that manuscripts of both classes endeavoured to fill up short passages by certain explanations of their own, though you will find in some places that many of the one class, and in some that many of the other, have done so. Hence the fuller reading, which now is too scrupulously defended by many, is almost always a counterfeit; whereas the shorter reading is genuine. In such passages the witnesses, however few they are, provided that they have sufficient antiquity, ought to have weight: in which particular the Latin witnesses are again conspicuous, as we have remarked, a little while ago, at ch. Revelation 1:11. Where such crumbs are treated of, it is indeed better in such an abundance of bread to pass over something genuine, than eagerly to catch at anything heterogeneous and infected by human feeling. That is undoubtedly to be preferred in every place, which is required by reasons peculiar to the passage under consideration. Here no critic can compel others to agree with him; but, on the other hand, others can have no control over him. We return to the particle quickly. The Lord repeatedly announces His coming in the Apocalypse, and chiefly so from ch. Revelation 2:5 to ch. Revelation 3:20 : and that in such a manner, that He may make His coming gradually nearer. The particle quickly is used at last, ch. Revelation 3:11; and therefore in the passage now before us, ch. Revelation 2:16, it has not yet a place.
 The only good authority for omitting ταχύ is the “Italian,” i.e. the Ante-Hieronymic Version, supposed to be of African origin. Vulg. and the weight of best MSS. support ταχύ.—E.
He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.Revelation 2:17. Ψῆφον λευκὴν, καὶ ἐπί τὴν ψῆφον ὄνομα καινὸν γεγραμμένον) The ancients used to write many things on stones (see Not. on Gregory of Neocæsarea, Paneg. p. 139), and especially votes. Sam. Petit, var. lect. c. 8, shows that the white stone was a ticket for receiving food (σιτήσεως), and he compares that with this passage. But in this place, the white stone and the new name is a reward by itself, and therefore it is placed after the hidden manna.
And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;Revelation 2:18. Τῆς ἐν Θυατείροις ἐκκλησίας) The Alex. cod., and also Tertullian, read τῷ ἐν Θυατίροις, without the addition of the word ἐκκλησίας. Where the angels of the seven churches are mentioned together, ch. Revelation 1:20, the name of the church at Thyatira is not excepted. Now, where the series comes separately to the angel in Thyatira, the omission of the word church (for some in ancient times said that there was no church there at that time) certainly agrees with the small number of Christians in that town. An address is made to them separately in Revelation 2:24. Among the Hebrews, ten persons at least were required to constitute a holy assembly: again, when there were seventeen Christians at Neocæsarea, Gregory was given to them as bishop. Therefore the flock at Thyatira might have been small and unknown, which could scarcely support the name of a church, and yet had an angel. St Carpus is reported to have been here.
 A omits ἐκκλησίας; but Ch Vulg. have it. A reads τῷ for τῆς; C omits it.—E.
I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.Revelation 2:19. Τὰ ἔσχατα πλείονα τῶν πρώτων) There is a similar expression, τὸ ἔσχατον ὑπὲρ τὸ πρῶτον, Ruth 3:10. On the other hand, τὰ ἔσχατα χείρονα τῶν πρώτων, Matthew 12:45.
Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.Revelation 2:20. Ἔχω κατὰ σοῦ) Not only some MSS., but by far the most witnesses, exhibit this reading, which the others, by supplying of themselves πολλὰ, or πολὺ, or by inserting ὀλίγα from Revelation 2:14, confirm by this very separation into the extremes. In such places the shorter reading is almost always genuine. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. on this passage. In the 19th verse the comparative πλείονα prefers the last works to the first, but it is not opposed to ὀλίγα. The Lord had neither many nor few things against the angel at Thyatira, but that one thing only which is expressly mentioned, as against the angel of the church at Ephesus, ch. Revelation 2:4, where Andreas writes that ἕν, one thing, only is blamed. Wherefore the denunciations against these two are more gentle than those against the angel of the church at Pergamos, against whom the Lord had a few things.—ὅτι ἀφεῖς τὴν γυναῖκα Ἰεζάβελ, ἡ λέγουσα ἑαυτὴν προφῆτιν, καὶ διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ τοὺς ἐμοὺς δούλους) Wolf says, that he does not understand how ἀφεῖς can be said in Greek. But ἀφεῖς is read Exodus 32:32, in the most approved editions: Chrys. hom. 3, ad Pox. Ant. in the notes of Ducæus, quotes ἀφεῖς, Exodus 32; and in the Apocalypse it is supported by the agreement of all the MSS., if you except the silence of one or two which are more carelessly collated. Comp. Marck. on Ap. ii. § 46, 53. From ἕω (Ion. ἕημι, in the common dialects ἵημι) is formed ἀφέω, ἀφέεις, ἀφέει, although ἀφεῖς only, and that contracted, is in use. However it is, there was no reason why John himself should not write ἀφεῖς, equally with the Greek copyists, the meaning being free from doubt. Arethas, who substitutes ἀφίης, in other places used Greek forms better than those employed by John, as they appeared to himself to be suitable. See below on ch. Revelation 16:13. The same reasoning applies to the following words, as far as relates to the MSS., καὶ διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ, the meaning of which also is obvious. For first the verb ἀφίημι is also put absolutely in Matthew 3:15 : next, the defining of its object is here subjoined: thou permittest that woman, namely, to teach, and she does actually teach, etc. So ch. Revelation 11:3, I will give to My two witnesses that they prophesy, and they shall prophesy. Comp. also Revelation 13:16. See App. Crit. Ed. ii. We have given ἡ λέγουσα for τὴν λέγουσαν, which is otherwise free from difficulty.—τὴν γυναῖκα) Many long ago read, τὴν γυναῖκά σου. Certainly she had a husband, for she had adulterers, Revelation 2:22. The word σοῦ appears to be a gloss, but it is suitable to the subject itself. But it is elegantly said, woman, for thy wife; either because such an ellipsis is of frequent occurrence, Acts 7:20, or because the person spoken of here was an adulteress: comp. John 4:18; Acts 24:24 : and, the woman Jezebel; though the very name of Jezebel would indicate a woman: for she usurped the office of teaching, contrary to that which is becoming to a woman.
 Cypr. 72 and h add “multa.” Rec. Text, with Amiat. MS. of Vulg., adds ὀλίγα. But ABC oppose the addition.—E.
 ABC support ἀφεῖς, an Alexandrine form: Rec. Text, without good authority, ἐᾶς.—E.
 ABC read καὶ διδάσκει καὶ πλανᾷ τούς. But Vulg. h Cypr. support Rec. Text, διδάσκειν καὶ πλανᾶσθαι.—E.
 Ἡ λέγουσα is the reading of AC. But Vulg. h. Cypr. 72, “quæ se dicit.” Rec. Text, τὴν λέγουσαν.—E.
 ABh Syr. Cypr. read σου; but C Vulg. and Rec. Text omit it.—E.
And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.
Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.Revelation 2:22. Βαλῶ) Thus Hunt. Æth. Arab. Lat. and many others, who read I will send, and Tertullian, who has I will give. The others read βάλλω. For the copyists frequently put ΛΛ for Λ in the use of this verb; and ἸΔΟῪ is usually construed with a present, though sometimes also with a future: Luke 1:20; Luke 1:31; Luke 1:48. And the future agrees with this passage, because the condition, unless they shall repent, gives an interval of time: and ἀποκτενῶ accords with ΒΑΛῶ: and lastly, in all these denunciations, the sense of the future prevails: ch. Revelation 2:5, ΚΙΝΉΣΩ; Revelation 2:16, ΠΟΛΕΜΉΣΩ; Revelation 2:24, ΒΑΛῶ, where also many read ΒΆΛΛΩ; ch. Revelation 3:4, ΠΕΡΙΠΑΤΗΣΟΥΣΙ; Revelation 2:9, ΠΟΙΉΣΩ, with ἸΔΟΎ; Revelation 2:20, ΕἸΣΕΛΕΎΣΟΜΑΙ, Κ.Τ.Λ.
 So B (βάλω) and Memph. But Vulg. and most authorities, βάλλω.—E.
And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.Revelation 2:23. Ἀποκτενῶ ἐν θανάτῳ) Ezekiel 33:27, בדבר ימותו. The Septuagint has θανάτῳ ἀποκτενῶ.
But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak; I will put upon you none other burden.Revelation 2:24.  Ὅσοι οὐκ ἔχουσι—οὐκ ἔγνωσαν) The third person for the second. See Vorst. de Hebraism, c. 26.—οὐκ ἔγνωσαν) they were not Gnostics.—τὰ βάθεα) In Daniel 2:22, it is used in a good sense, αὐτὸς ἀποκαλύπτει βαθέα καὶ ἀπόκρυφα.
 ὁ ἐρευνῶν—δώσω, He that searcheth—I will give) Both are joined together Proverbs 24:12; Jeremiah 17:10.—V. g.
But that which ye have already hold fast till I come.Revelation 2:25. Πλὴν) Amos 3:2, רק. Septuagint, πλὴν.—ἄχρις οὗ ἂν ἥξω) Ἤκω, derived from the preterite of the verb ἵημι, already in the present involves the preterite [I am come, I am present]. And so the future, ἥξω, I will be present, ch. Revelation 3:3, is nearer than the present ἔρχομαι itself, when taken alone. Thus, ἥκω, ἥκει, ἥκουσι, John 8:42; John 2:4; John 4:47; 1 John 5:20; Luke 15:27; Mark 8:3, note. Whence, Hebrews 10:7; Hebrews 10:9, ἥκω is used for the preterite באתי, Psalm 40:7; and thus the Septuagint everywhere: Numbers 23:1 (or Numbers 22:36); Deuteronomy 33:2; Joshua 23:14-15; Jdg 16:2; 1 Samuel 16:2; 1 Samuel 29:6; 1 Samuel 29:10; 2 Samuel 3:23. There is a remarkable instance in Ecclesiastes 5:14, ἐπιστρέψει, ὡς ἥκει.
And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations:Revelation 2:26. Ὁ νικῶι—δώσω αὐτῷ) The things which you may suppose not to sound so well in Greek, will sound well when cast in Hebrew mould of thought. See instances, ch. Revelation 6:8, Revelation 7:2, Revelation 9:12 (where the feminine is put for the neuter), 14, Revelation 20:8. There is a very similar construction, Κύριος, ἐν οὐρανῷ ὁ θρόνος αὐτοῦ, Psalm 11:4; and so Psalm 57:5 (4), Psalm 103:15.—ἐπὶ τῶν ἐθνῶν) Psalm 2:8-9, αἴτησαι παρʼ ἐμοῦ, καὶ δώσω σοὶ ἔθνη τὴν κληρονομίαν σου, καὶ τὴν κατάσχεσίν σου τὰ πέρατα τῆς γῆς· ποιμανεῖς αὐτοὺς ἐν ῥάβδῳ σιδηρᾷ, ὡς σκεύη κεραμέως συντρίψεις αὐτούς.
And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.Revelation 2:27. Ποιμανεῖ) In the Hebrew it is תרועם, Thou shalt break them in pieces, Psalm 2:9, from רעע he broke in pieces, the verb of cognate meaning following, תנפצם Thou shalt scatter them, συντρίψεις αὐτούς. The Septuagint, as though they had read in the former passage תרעם from רעה he fed, have rendered it ποιμανεῖς (Thou shalt feed). The Apocalypse, not through imitation of the Septuagint translators, but on its own authority, uses that word, which is peculiarly appropriate. And in other places, when it refers to ancient prophecy, it most befittingly preserves the peculiarity of the Hebrew text: ch. Revelation 6:16, Revelation 7:17, Revelation 11:4.
 παρὰ τοῦ Πατρός μον, from My Father) Jesus, when He was living on the earth, somewhat more frequently said, My Father which is in heaven; but now, simply, My Father; for He Himself is set in the heaven with His Father—V. g.
And I will give him the morning star.
He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.