Matthew 10:2
Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(2) A comparison of the four lists of the Apostles (Matthew 10:2-4, Mark 3:16-19, Luke 6:13-16, Acts 1:13) brings out some interesting facts. (1.) The name of Peter is always first, that of Judas always last. In the former case we recognise acknowledged preeminence. The position of the latter may have been the consequence of the infamy which attached to the name of the traitor; but it is possible (and this may have been one of the elements that entered into his guilt) that his place had always been one of inferiority.

(2.) All the lists divide themselves into three groups of four, the persons in each group being always the same (assuming that the three names, Judas the brother (?) of James, Thaddæus, and Lebbæus, belong to the same person), though the order in each group varies.

(3.) The first group includes the two sons of Jona and the two sons of Zebedee, whose twofold call is related in Matthew 4:18-21, John 1:40. In two lists (Mark and Acts) the name of Andrew stands last; in two (Matt. and Luke) that of John. In none of them are the names of Peter and John coupled together, as might have been expected from their close companionship (John 20:2; Acts 3:1). The four obviously occupied the innermost place in the company of the Twelve, and were chosen out of the chosen. The three, Peter, James, and John, were the only witnesses of the healing of Jairus’s daughter (Mark 5:37), of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1), and of the Agony in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:37). Something seems to have excluded Andrew, though he had been the first called of all (John 1:40), from this intimate companionship; but we find him joined with the other three as called to listen to the great prophetic discourse on the Mount of Olives (Mark 13:3). All the four appear to have come from Bethsaida, on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.

(4.) The name of Philip is always first in the second group, and he, too, came from Bethsaida. Next, in the three Gospel lists, comes that of Bartholomew. The name, like Barjona and Bartimæus, was obviously a patronymic, and it was at least probable that he had some other name. The absence of any mention of Bartholomew in St. John’s Gospel, or of Nathanael (John 1:45) in the other three, has led most modern commentators to the conclusion that they were two names for the same person; and the juxtaposition of the two names in their lists agrees with the fact that it was Philip who brought him to know Jesus as the Christ (John 1:45). On this assumption, Bartholomew was of Cana, the scene of our Lord’s first miracle (John 21:2). The name of Matthew stands before that of Thomas in Mark and Luke, after it in the Gospel which beare his own name. On the change of name from Levi, and his description as the son of Alphæus, see Notes on Matthew 9:9. As the name of Thomas, or Didymus, means “twin,” there seems some ground for believing, from the way in which the two names are grouped together, that here too we have another pair of brothers called to the service of their Master. Eusebius (H. E. i. 13), in his account of the conversion of Abgarus of Edessa, speaks of this Apostle as “Judas who is also Thomas.” and this suggests the reason why the cognomen of “the Twin” prevailed over the name which was already borne by two out of the company of the Twelve.

(5.) The third group always begins with “James the son of Alphæus;” and this description suggests some interesting inferences:—(1.) That he too was a brother of Matthew (there are no grounds for assuming two persons of the name of Alphæus), and probably, therefore, of Thomas also. (2.) That if the Clopas (not Cleopas) of John 19:25, was, as is generally believed, only the less Græcised form of the name Alphæus, then his mother Mary may have been the sister of Mary the mother of the Lord (see Notes on John 19:25). (3.) This Mary, in her turn, is identified, on comparing John 19:25 with Mark 15:40, with the mother of James the Less (literally, the Little) and of Joses. The term probably pointed, not to subordinate position, but, as in the case of Zacchæus, to short stature, and appears to have been an epithet (Luke 19:3) distinguishing him from the James of the first list. The Greek form in both cases was Jacôbus—the Jacob of the Old Testament—which has passed, like Joannes, through many changes, till it appears in its present clipped and curtailed shape. (4.) On the assumption that the James and Joses of Mark 15:40 are two of the brethren of the Lord” of Matthew 13:55, this James might, perhaps, be identified with the James “the brother of the Lord” of Galatians 1:19 and Acts 15:13, the writer of the Epistle. The balance of evidence is, however, decidedly against this view. (Comp. Note on Matthew 13:55.) The next name appears in three different forms: Judas the brother of James (it must be noted, however, that the collocation of the two names is that which is elsewhere rendered “the son of . . .” and that the insertion of the word “brother” is an inference from Jude 1:1) in Luke and Acts; Lebbæus in Matthew (with the addition, in later MSS. and the textus receptus, of “who is also surnamed Thaddæus”); Thaddæus in Mark; St. John names him simply as “Judas, not Iscariot” (Matthew 14:22). The explanation of the variations is natural enough. One who bore the name of Judas wanted something to distinguish him. This might be found either in the term which expressed his relation as son or brother to James the son of Alphæus, or in a personal epithet. Lebbæus suggests a derivation from the Hebrew leb (heart), and points to warmth and earnestness of character; thad, in later Hebrew, meant the female breast, and may have been the origin of Thaddæus, as indicating, even more than the other sobriquet, a feminine devotedness. Taking the three names together, they suggest the thought that he was one of the youngest of the Twelve, and was looked upon by the others with an affection which showed itself in the name thus given to him. Simon, too, needed a distinguishing epithet, and it was found in the two forms of Zelotes and Cananite (not Canaanite). The former may point to zeal as his chief characteristic, but it was more probably used in the sense in which the followers of Judas of Galilee bore the name, and under which they were prominent in the later struggle with the Romans, as in a special sense “zealots for the law” (Jos. Wars, iv. 3, § 9). (Comp. a like use of the word in Acts 21:20.) On this assumption we get a glimpse, full of interest, into the earlier life of the Apostle so named. The other term, Cananite—which is not a local term, but connected with a Hebrew verb, kanà, to be hot, to glow, to be zealous—expresses the same idea. Lastly, we have “Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him,” described by St. John as the “son of Simon” (John 6:71; John 12:4; John 13:2; John 13:26), the term “Iscariot” being applied in the first and last of these passages to the father. These facts seem to leave little doubt that the name is local, and is the Græcised form of Ish-Kerioth (a man of Kerioth), a town in Judah mentioned in the list of Joshua 15:25. Assuming this inference, we have in him the only one among the Twelve of whom it is probable that he was of Judah, and not of Galilee. This also may not have been without its influence on his character, separating him, as it might well tend to do, from the devoted loyalty of the others.

Matthew 10:2-4. The first, Simon — The first who was called to a constant attendance on Christ: although Andrew had seen him before Simon, John 1:41. James the son of Zebedee — The fisherman, and John his brother — The beloved disciple; who were also called at the same time with the two former, as they were fishing at the sea of Galilee, Mark 1:19. The word Ιακωβος, which we translate James, is the same name with that of the patriarch; but immemorial custom has appropriated, in our language, the name James to the two apostles, and Jacob to the patriarch. Lebbeus, who was also called Judas, or Jude, the brother of James. Simon the Canaanite — So called, it seems, because he was a native of Cana. And Judas, named Iscariot, from Iscarioth, the place of his birth, a town of the tribe of Ephraim, near the city of Samaria.10:1-4 The word apostle signifies messenger; they were Christ's messengers, sent forth to proclaim his kingdom. Christ gave them power to heal all manner of sickness. In the grace of the gospel there is a slave for every sore, a remedy for every malady. There is no spiritual disease, but there is power in Christ for the cure of it. There names are recorded, and it is their honour; yet they had more reason to rejoice that their names were written in heaven, while the high and mighty names of the great ones of the earth are buried in the dust.Now the names of the twelve apostles - The account of their being called is more fully given in Mark 3:13-18, and Luke 6:12-19. Each of those evangelists has recorded the circumstances of their appointment. They agree in saying it was done on a mountain; and, according to Luke, it was done before the sermon on the mount was delivered, perhaps on the same mountain, near Capernaum. Luke adds that the night previous had been spent "in prayer" to God. See the notes at Luke 6:12.

Simon, who is called Peter - The word "Peter" means a rock. He was also called Cephas, John 1:42; 1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 15:5; Galatians 2:9. This was a Syro-Chaldaic word signifying the same as Peter. This name was given probably in reference to the "resoluteness and firmness" which he was to exhibit in preaching the gospel. Before the Saviour's death he was rash, impetuous, and unstable. Afterward, as all history affirms, he was firm, zealous, steadfast, and immovable. The tradition is that he was at last crucified at Rome with his head downward, thinking it too great an honor to die as his Master did. See the notes at John 21:18. There is no certain proof, however, that this occurred at Rome, and no absolute knowledge as to the place where he died.

James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother - This James was killed by Herod in a persecution, Acts 12:2. The other James, the son of Alpheus, was stationed at Jerusalem, and was the author of the epistle that bears his name. See Galatians 1:19; Galatians 2:9; Acts 15:13. A James is mentioned Galatians 1:19 as "the Lord's brother." It has not been easy to ascertain why he was thus called. He is here called the son of "Alpheus," that is, of Cleophas, John 19:25. Alpheus and Cleophas were but different ways of writing and pronouncing the same name. This Mary, called the mother of James and Joses, is called the wife of Cleophas, John 19:25.

2. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these—The other Evangelists enumerate the twelve in immediate connection with their appointment (Mr 3:13-19; Lu 6:13-16). But our Evangelist, not intending to record the appointment, but only the Mission of the Twelve, gives their names here. And as in the Acts (Ac 1:13) we have a list of the Eleven who met daily in the upper room with the other disciples after their Master's ascension until the day of Pentecost, we have four catalogues in all for comparison.

The first, Simon, who is called Peter—(See on [1252]Joh 1:42).

and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother—named after James, as the younger of the two.

See Poole on "Matthew 10:4". Now the names of the twelve apostles are these,.... This is the first time these disciples are called "apostles", they were learners before; now being instructed, they are sent forth to preach publicly, and therefore are called apostles, or messengers, persons that were sent: so the elders of the priesthood are called , "the apostles", or messengers "of the sanhedrim" (n), to whom the high priest were delivered, before the day of atonement. So six months in the year, "apostles", or messengers, were sent by the (o) sanhedrim, throughout all the land of Israel, and to the captive Jews in other parts, to give notice of the new moon; in allusion to which, the disciples might be so called. It was proper to give the names of them, for the truth of the history, and confirmation of it; for the sake of the persons themselves, and the honour done them; and for the exclusion and detection of false apostles.

The first, Simon, who is called Peter; his pure Hebrew name was Simeon, as he is called, Acts 15:14 but in the then Jerusalem dialect, and in Rabbinical language, this name is frequently read and pronounced "Simon", as here: we often read of R. Simon, and of R. Juda bar Simon, in both Talmuds (p). This apostle is also called Peter, to distinguish him from Simon the Canaanite, and which signifies a stone, or rock, in allusion to the object of his faith, and the steadiness of it. He is said to be the "first"; not that he was the head of the rest of the apostles, or had any primacy, dominion, and authority over them; but because he was first called, and was the first that was to open the door of faith to the Gentiles: but chiefly he is said to be so for order's sake; for, some one in the account must be named first, and he as proper as any:

and Andrew his brother; who was called at the same time with him, and therefore are put together. This name is also to be met with in the Talmudic writings; see Gill on Matthew 4:18.

James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; these two were called next and together, and therefore are placed in this order: the former is so called, to distinguish him from another James, the son of Alphaeus, after mentioned; and the latter is the beloved disciple; these were surnamed "Boanerges", that is, "sons of thunder".

(n) Misn. Yoma, c. 1. sect. 5. (o) Misn. Roshhashana, c. 1. sect. 3. & Maimon. & Bartenora in ib. (p) T. Hieros. Shekalim, fol. 46. 4. Bab. Sabbath, fol. 55. 1. & Bava Kama, fol. 47. 2.

Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The {a} first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;

(a) Theophylact says that Peter and Andrew are called the first, because they were first called.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Matthew 10:2. Δώδεκα] Theophylact: κατὰ τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν δώδεκα φυλῶν; comp. Matthew 19:28. On this occasion, when the mission is understood to take place, it is precisely the designation ἀποστόλων (not occurring elsewhere in Matthew, while in Mark it is found only in Matthew 6:30) that is made choice of, though doubtless also used by Jesus Himself (John 13:16; Luke 6:13), and from that circumstance it gradually came to be employed as the distinguishing official title.

πρῶτος Σίμων] The first is Simon. The further numbering of them ceases, for Matthew mentions them in pairs. The placing of Peter first in all the catalogues of the apostles (Mark 3:16 ff.; Luke 6:14 ff.; Acts 1:13) is not accidental (Fritzsche), but is due to the fact that he and his brother were looked upon as the πρωτόκλητοι (see, however, John 1:41). This accords with the pre-eminence which he had among the apostles as primus inter pares (Matthew 16:16 ff., Matthew 17:1. Matthew 24:19, Matthew 27:26; Matthew 27:37; Matthew 27:40; Luke 8:45; Luke 9:32; Luke 22:31 f.; John 21:15; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14; Acts 5:3 f., Matthew 8:14, Matthew 10:5, Matthew 15:7; Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:7), and which was recognised by Jesus Himself. For that they were arranged in the order of their rank is perfectly obvious, not only from the betrayer being uniformly put last, but also from the fact that in all the catalogues James and John, who along with Peter were the Lord’s most intimate friends, are mentioned immediately after that apostle (and Andrew). Moreover, a conjoint view of the four catalogues of the apostles (Ewald, Gesch. Chr. p. 395 ff., Bleek, Keim) will confirm Bengel’s observation, that “universi ordines habent tres quaterniones, quorum nullus cum alio quicquam permutat; turn in primo semper primus est Petrus, in secundo Philippus … in tertio Jacobus Alphaei; in singulis ceteri apostoli loca permutant; proditor semper extremus.”

ὁ λεγόμ. Πέτρος] who is called Peter (Schaeffer, Melet. p. 14); that was his usual apostolic name.

Ἀνδρέας] Greek name (found even in Herod. vi. 126), like Philippus below. Doubtless both originally had Hebrew names which are not recorded.Matthew 10:2. τῶν δὲ δώδ. ἀποστόλων: etc., the evangelist finds here a convenient place for giving the names of the Twelve, called here for the first and last time ἀπόστολοι, with reference at once to the immediate minor mission (from ἀποστέλ. λειν, vide Matthew 10:5) and to the later great one. One half of them are for us mere names, and of one or two even the names are doubtful, utterly obscure, yet, doubtless, in their time and sphere faithful witnesses. They are arranged in pairs, as if following the hint of Mark that they were sent out by two and two, each pair connected with a καὶ (so in Luke, not in Mark).—πρῶτος: at the head of the list stands Peter, first not only numerically (Meyer) but in importance, a sure matter of fact, though priestly pretensions based on it are to be disregarded. He is first in all the lists.—ὁ λεγ. Πέτρος: a fact already stated (Matthew 4:18), here repeated probably because the evangelist had his eye on Mark’s list (Matthew 3:16) or possibly to distinguish this Simon from another in the list (No. 11). 2. apostles] the only passage in this Gospel where the word occurs. The Greek word lit. = “sent forth,” “envoys.” This sense, though scarcely recognised by classical authors, was not new. It seems to have been a “title borne by those who were despatched from the mother city by the rulers of the race on any foreign mission, especially such as were charged with collecting the tribute paid to the temple service.” (Lightfoot, Gal. p. 90). The title of “apostles” was given in a special sense to the Twelve, but was not confined to them. Matthias was added to the number of the twelve, Paul was “called to be an apostle,” James the Lord’s brother, and Barnabas, are designated by the same title. It had even a wider signification: cp. among other passages Romans 16:7. The name is applied to Jesus Christ, Hebrews 3:1, “The Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus.” He came to do the will of Him that sent Him.

There are four lists of the Apostles recorded, one by each of the Synoptic Evangelists, one in the Acts of the Apostles. No two of these lists perfectly coincide. This will be seen from the tabular view below.

      

Matthew 10:3.

  Mark 3:16.  Luke 6:14.  Act 1:13.

1.  Simon Peter.

  Simon Peter.

  Simon Peter.

  Peter.

      

2.  Andrew.

  James the son of Zebedee.

  Andrew.

  James.

      

3.  James the son of Zebedee.

  John the brother of James.

  James.

  John.

      

4.  John his brother.

  Andrew.

  John.

  Andrew.

      

5.  Philip.

  Philip.

  Philip.

  Philip.

      

6.  Bartholomew.

  Bartholomew.

  Bartholomew.

  Thomas.

      

7.  Thomas.

  Matthew.

  Matthew.

  Bartholomew.

      

8.  Matthew the Publican.

  Thomas.

  Thomas.

  Matthew.

      

9.  James the son of Alphæus.

  James son of Alphæus.

  James the son of Alphæus.

  James son of Alphæus.

      

10.  Lebbæus sur-named Thaddæus.

  Thaddæus.

  Simon Zelotes.

  Simon Zelotes.

      

11.  Simon the Cananite.

  Simon the Cananite.

  Judas (son) of James.

  Judas (son) of James.

      

12.  Judas Iscariot.

  Judas Iscariot.

  Judas Iscariot.

  

      

It will be observed from a comparison of these lists that the twelve names fall into three divisions, each containing four names which remain in their respective divisions in all the lists. Within these divisions however, the order varies. But Simon Peter is placed first, and Judas Iscariot last, in all. Again, Philip invariably heads the second, and James the son of Alphæus the third division.

Andrew, a Greek name; see John 12:21-22, where the Greeks in the temple address themselves to Philip, “Philip cometh and telleth Andrew and Andrew and Philip tell Jesus.” An incident that points to some Greek connection besides the mere name.Matthew 10:2. Τὰ ὀνόματά, the names) Scripture, in enumerations of this kind, preserves an accurate order. See Genesis 48:20; Numbers 12:1; and, “Noah, Daniel, and Job,” in Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20. Therefore the plan which is observed in the list of the apostles, princes of the kingdom of Christ, is of far graver import than any precedence of the kings of the world (as, for example, Peter is named first, not without an indication of rank):[444] nor is there anything fortuitous in it. It is not said, “Bartholomew, Peter, Jude, John, Andrew, Matthew,” etc.: and the four, as it were, locations of them, are deserving of observation:—

[444] In the original, “non sine indicio ordinis.” In the notes to his German Version he says, on the words “Der erste,” “the first,” In der That war SIMON den andern überlegen: wiewol das der Stuhl zu ROM nichts angehet.” “SIMON was in reality superior to the other [apostles], though that [fact] does not in any way concern the See of ROME”—See Gnomon below on πρῶτος.—(I. B.)

(I.) Matthew 10:2.

(II.) Mark 3:16.

(III.) Luke 6:14.

(IV.) Acts 1:13; Acts 1:26.

1. Simon,

1. Simon,

1. Simon,

1. Peter,

2. And Andrew,

2. And James,

2. And Andrew,

2. And James,

3. James,

3. And John,

3. James,

3. And John,

4. And John,

4. And Andrew,

4. And John,

4. And Andrew,

(See also Ib. Matthew 13:3.)

5. Philip,

5. And Philip,

5. Philip,

5. Philip,

6. And Bartholomew,

6. And Bartholomew,

6. And Bartholomew,

6. And Thomas,

7. Thomas,

7. And Matthew,

7. Matthew,

7. Bartholomew,

8. And Matthew,

8. And Thomas,

8. And Thomas,

8. And Matthew

9. James the son of Alphaeus,

9. And James the son of Alphaeus,

9. James the son of Alphaeus,

9. James the son of Alphaeus,

10. And Lebbaeus,

10. And Thaddaeus,

10. And Simon Zelotes

10. And Simon Zelotes,

11. Simon the Canaanite,

11. And Simon the Canaanite,

11. Judas the brother of James,

11. And Judas the brother of James:

12. And Judas Iscariot.

12. And Judas Iscariot.

12. And Judas Iscariot.

12. Matthias.

The first and the third arrangements enumerate them by pairs, the second singly, the fourth mixedly. The first and third arrangements correspond generally to the time of their vocation, and the conjunction of the apostles in twos; the second, to their dignity before our Lord’s passion; the fourth, to their dignity after His ascension. All the arrangements may be divided into three quaternions, none of which interchanges any name with either of the others.[445] Again, Peter stands always first in the first quaternion, Philip in the second (cf. John 1:42; John 1:44; John 12:22), James the son of Alphaeus in the third; though, within their several quaternions, the other apostles exchange their relative position [in the different lists]. The traitor stands always last. The plan of the first and third quaternions is contained in what I have just said: in the second, Matthew places himself modestly after his[446] Thomas, thus proving himself to be the writer of the book; for both Mark and Luke put Thomas after Matthew, although St Luke, after the confirmation of Thomas’s faith (John 20:27-28), puts him, in the Acts, even above Bartholomew, and associates him with Philip. From the first quaternion we have the writings of Peter and John; from the second, that of Matthew; from the third, those of James and Jude, or Thaddeus. St John has not enumerated the apostles in his Gospel, but he has done so by implication in the Apocalypse; see Revelation 21:19-20, and my German, Exposition of it.—πρῶτος, first) on the primacy of Peter, see Luke 8:45; Luke 9:32; John 1:42; Matthew 16:16; John 21:15; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14; Acts 8:14; Acts 10:5; Acts 15:7. He was, however, first among the apostles, not placed over the apostles: in the apostolate, not above it. What is this to the Pope of Rome? Not more than to any other bishop; nay, even less.—ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος, who is called Peter) A surname which became afterwards better known.[447]

[445] i.e. No one of the three quaternions allows a name found in it to be exchanged for a name found in one of the other two quaternions; though the names are varied as to their order in the same quaternion by the different writers.—ED.Verses 2-4. - THE NAMES OF THE AGENTS. Parallel passages: Mark 3:14-19; Luke 6:13-16 (cf. Acts 1:13). This Commentary upon St. Luke deals so fully both with the list as a whole and with the separate names that it will not be necessary to say much here. Observe that the general agreement in arrangement points to some common basis underlying all four accounts; also that of these the one found in the Acts is the briefest, giving little more than the bare names; and that that found in our Gospel, on the contrary, is the fullest, containing, with two exceptions (vide infra), the details mentioned in one or other of the parallels, and adding two of its own. It mentions, in one instance or more, the parentage (Zebedee, Alphaeus), the relationship ("his brother... his brother"), the birthplace (Kerioth), the earlier occupation and religious standpoint ("publican... Zealot"), and, with a bare hint at the beginning (vide infra), but a clear statement at the end, the after-history ("first... who also betrayed him") of the apostles. The two omissions are the fact that our Lord added the names of Peter (parallels, but really given earlier, John 1:42) and Boanerges (Mark). Verse 2. - Now the names, In the parallels part of the word "names" is found as a verb, "whom also he named apostles;" i.e. the naming there refers, not to the individuals, but to their office. Is the form found in our Gospel an "accidental" rearrangement due to a reminiscence that the word "name" occurred in the earliest source, or is it possible that the two facts are connected, and that the individuals received a new name when they definitely entered on a new office? That they should have received a new name seems a priori not improbable, but the evidence is very slight. "Peter" is a clear case, for though the name was given earlier, it would receive a new application now, and perhaps was now again expressly given (cf. parallel passages); and other cases may be St. Matthew (vide Introduction, p. 21.) and possibly St. Bartholomew and St. Thaddaeus. Mark expressly says that the term "Boanerges" was given to the sons of Zebedee; but as there is no evidence that either St. James or St. John was afterwards known by this name, it need not have been a name in the same sense in which the others were. Observe the formal order of the first words of this verse (τῶν δὲ δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τὰ ὀνόματα ἐστιν ταῦτα). Did the author of the Gospel take them from the heading of a section that already contained the names in order? If so the δέ would probably not have existed there, and it is worth noting that the original hand of D, the manuscript that is of special value for Palestinian tradition, omits it. Of the twelve (ver. 1, note) apostles (ver. 5, note) are these: The first. This, perhaps, refers to the order of call, Luke 5:1 (Nosgen), but more probably to the leading position that St. Peter held among the twelve. On this leadership, cf. the fragmentary excursus by Bishop Lightfoot, printed in 'Clement of Rome,' 2. 487 (1890). Simon. His Hebrew name was Simeon (שמעון, Acts 15:14, and 2 Peter 1:1, in the Received Text and Westcott and Herr margin), but his Gentile name (Matthew 3:1, note) was Simon, this good Greek name being chosen as almost identical in sound. It occurs frequently in the Palestinian Talmud (סימון). Who is called Peter. In common Christian parlance (Matthew 4:18; cf. Matthew 16:18). Apostles (ἀποστόλων)

Compare disciples, Matthew 10:1. Apostles is the official term, used here for the first time. They were merely learners (disciples, μαθηταὶ) until Christ gave them authority. From ἀποστέλλω, to send away. An apostle is one sent forth. Compare John 13:16 and Rev., one that is sent. Cremer ("Biblico-Theological Lexicon") suggests that it was the rare occurrence of the word in profane Greek that made it all the more appropriate as the distinctive appellation of the twelve. Compare Luke 6:13; Acts 1:2. Also, John 17:18, I have sent. The word is once used of Christ (Hebrews 3:1), and in a very general sense to denote an:), one sent (2 Corinthians 8:23; Philippians 2:25).

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