Revelation 14:4
These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. These are they which follow the Lamb wherever he goes. These were redeemed from among men, being the first fruits to God and to the Lamb.
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(4, 5) These are they . . .—The characteristics of the servants of the Lamb are given in this verse and the following. The first is purity: they are virgins. The expression can hardly be limited to the unmarried, as the 144,000 represent the wide society of the choice ones of God. They are those whose hearts have been made as the hearts of little children (Matthew 18:1-4), who have that purity of heart which Christ declared to be blessed, and which St. James declared to be the first mark of heavenly wisdom (Matthew 5:8, and James 3:17). The next is implicit obedience: they follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth. Some, indeed, take this to be a kind of heavenly reward: they shall be the nearer companions of the Lamb. But it is better to take it as describing their complete consecration to Christ. They are those who are with Christ, who have tasted the cup that their Lord tasted, and have taken up their cross and followed Him (Matthew 20:22; Luke 14:27; John 12:24-26). It is well to weigh these words; it is in the “wheresoever” that we may test the reality of our Christian life. Here lies the cross that Christ bids us take up. Here is the echo of Christ’s words, “Whosoever forsaketh not all he hath cannot be My disciple.” The third mark is separation, or unworldliness: they were purchased from among men, as a firstfruit to God and to the Lamb. They were a chosen generation, a peculiar people (Titus 2:14; 1Peter 2:9), as the Israel of God (Deuteronomy 7:6). The fourth feature is utter truthfulness: in their mouth no guile or no falsehood. (Comp. Psalms 14 and Deuteronomy 32:1-2.) The verse emphatically ends with “They are blameless.” The words “before the throne of God” must be omitted. (Comp. Revelation 7:14-15; Ephesians 5:27; and Colossians 1:22.)

We have seen the servants of God; we have marked their character; we are now to see the weapon which is to be employed in the conflict against the enemies of Christ.

14:1-5 Mount Sion is the gospel church. Christ is with his church, and in the midst of her in all her troubles, therefore she is not consumed. His presence secures perseverance. His people appear honourably. They have the name of God written in their foreheads; they make a bold and open profession of their faith in God and Christ, and this is followed by suitable actings. There were persons in the darkest times, who ventured and laid down their lives for the worship and truth of the gospel of Christ. They kept themselves clean from the wicked abominations of the followers of antichrist. Their hearts were right with God; and they were freely pardoned in Christ; he is glorified in them, and they in him. May it be our prayer, our endeavour, our ambition, to be found in this honourable company. Those who are really sanctified and justified are meant here, for no hypocrite, however plausible, can be accounted to be without fault before God.These are they - In this verse, and in the following verse, the writer states the leading characteristics of those who are saved. The general idea is, that they are chaste; that they are the followers of the Lamb; that they are redeemed from among people; and that they are without guile.

Which were not defiled with women - Who were chaste. The word "defiled" here determines the meaning of the passage, as denoting that they were not guilty of illicit sexual intercourse with women. It is unnecessary to show that this is a virtue everywhere required in the Bible, and everywhere stated as among the characteristics of the redeemed. On no point are there more frequent exhortations in the Scriptures than on this; on no point is there more solicitude manifested that the professed friends of the Saviour should be without blame. Compare the Acts 15:20 note; Romans 1:24-32 notes; 1 Corinthians 6:18 note; Hebrews 13:4 note. See also 1 Corinthians 5:1; 1 Corinthians 6:13; Galatians 5:19; Ephesians 5:3; Colossians 3:5; 1 Thessalonians 4:3. This passage cannot be adduced in favor of celibacy, whether among the clergy or laity, or in favor of monastic principles in any form; for the thing that is specified is, that they were not "defiled with women," and a lawful connection of the sexes, such as marriage, is not defilement. See the notes on Hebrews 13:4. The word rendered here "defiled" - ἐμολύνθησαν emolunthēsan, from μολύνω molunō - is a word that cannot be applied to the marriage relation. It means properly to "soil, to stain, to defile." 1 Corinthians 8:7; "their conscience being weak, is defiled." Revelation 3:4; "which have not defiled their garments." The word does not elsewhere occur in the New Testament, except in the passage before us, and it will be seen at once that it cannot be applied to that which is lawful and proper, and consequently that it cannot be construed as an expression against marriage and in favor of celibacy. It is a word that is properly expressive of illicit sexual intercourse - of impurity and unchastity of life - and the statement is, that they who are saved are not impure and unchaste.

For they are virgins - παρθένοι parthenoi. This is the masculine form, but this form is found in the later Greek and in the Christian fathers. See Suidas and Suicer, Thes. The meaning of the word, when found in the feminine form, is well understood. It denotes a virgin, a maiden, and thence it is used to denote what is chaste and pure: virgin modesty; virgin gold; virgin soil; virgin blush; virgin shame. The word in the masculine form must have a similar meaning as applied to men, and may denote:

(a) those who are unmarried;

(b) those who are chaste and pure in general.

The word is applied by Suidas to Abel and Melchizedek. "The sense," says DeWette, in loco, "cannot be that all these 144,000 had lived an unmarried life; for how could the apostle Peter, and others who were married, have been excluded? But the reference must be to those who held themselves from all impurity - "unkeuschheit und hurerei" - which, in the view of the apostles, was closely connected with idolatry." Compare Bleek, Beitr. i. 185. Prof. Stuart supposes that the main reference here is to those who had kept themselves from idolatry, and who were thus pure. It seems to me, however, that the most obvious meaning is the correct one, that it refers to the redeemed as chaste, and thus brings into view one of the prominent things in which Christians are distinguished from the devotees of nearly every other form of religion, and, indeed, exclusively from the world at large. This passage, also, cannot be adduced in favor of the monastic system, because:

(a) whatever may be said anywhere of the purity of virgins, there is no such commendation of it as to imply that the married life is impure;

(b) it cannot be supposed that God meant in any way to reflect on the married life as in itself impure or dishonorable;

(c) the language does not demand such an interpretation; and,

(d) the facts in regard to the monastic life have shown that it has had very little pretensions to a claim of virgin purity.

These are they which follow the Lamb - This is another characteristic of those who are redeemed - that they are followers of the Lamb of God. That is, they are his disciples; they imitate his example; they obey his instructions; they yield to his laws; they receive him as their counselor and their guide. See the notes on John 10:3, John 10:27.

Whithersoever he goeth - As sheep follow the shepherd. Compare Psalm 23:1-2. It is one characteristic of true Christians that they follow the Saviour wherever he leads them. Be it into trouble, into danger, into difficult duty; be it in Christian or pagan lands; be it in pleasant paths, or in roads rough and difficult, they commit themselves wholly to his guidance, and submit themselves wholly to his will.

These were redeemed from among men - This is another characteristic of those who are seen on Mount Zion. They are there because they are redeemed, and they have the character of the redeemed. They are not there in virtue of rank or blood John 1:13; not on the ground of their own works Titus 3:5; but because they are redeemed unto God by the blood of his Son. See the notes on Revelation 5:9-10. None will be there of whom it cannot be said that they are "redeemed"; none will be absent who have been truly redeemed from sin.

Being the first-fruits unto God - On the meaning of the word "first-fruits," see the notes on 1 Corinthians 15:20. The meaning here would seem to be, that the hundred and forty-four thousand were not to be regarded as the whole of the number that was saved, but that they were representatives of the redeemed. They had the same characteristics which all the redeemed must have; they were a pledge that all the redeemed would be there. Prof. Stuart supposes that the sense is, that they were, as it were, "an offering especially acceptable to God." The former explanation, however, meets all the circumstances of the case, and is more in accordance with the usual meaning of the word.


4. virgins—spiritually (Mt 25:1); in contrast to the apostate Church, Babylon (Re 14:8), spiritually "a harlot" (Re 17:1-5; Isa 1:21; contrast 2Co 11:2; Eph 5:25-27). Their not being defiled with women means they were not led astray from Christian faithfulness by the tempters who jointly constitute the spiritual "harlot."

follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth—in glory, being especially near His person; the fitting reward of their following Him so fully on earth.


being the—rather, "as a first-fruit." Not merely a "first-fruit" in the sense in which all believers are so, but Israel's 144,000 elect are the first-fruit, the Jewish and Gentile elect Church is the harvest; in a further sense, the whole of the transfigured and translated Church which reigns with Christ at His coming, is the first-fruit, and the consequent general ingathering of Israel and the nations, ending in the last judgment, is the full and final harvest.

These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins; that is, that would not comply with antichristian idolatry and superstition; for idolatry is all along in holy writ compared to whoredom and fornication.

Which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth; that follow the Lord Christ fully, in all things keeping close to the rules of worship and life which he hath given.

These were redeemed from among men; these show themselves to be redeemed by the blood of Christ from the vain conversation of men, whether towards God, in matters of worship, or towards men.

Being the first-fruits unto God and to the Lamb; that are consecrated to, and accepted of God, as the first-fruits were, being the only part of the world that are not profane. These are they which were not defiled with women,.... With the whore of Rome, and her harlots, she is the mother of; while the kings and inhabitants of the earth were drunk with the wine of their fornication, or committed idolatry with them, which is spiritual fornication, and is here meant by being defiled with them, these were free from such pollutions, or idolatrous practices:

for they are virgins; for their beauty and comeliness in Christ, chastity, sincerity of their love, uncorruptness in doctrine and worship, and for the uprightness of conversation; See Gill on Matthew 25:1;

these are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth; as the sheep follow the shepherd of the flock, and which is a character of Christ's sheep, John 10:4. These follow Christ in the exercise of the graces of humility, patience, and love; and in the performance of the several duties of religion, and subjection to ordinances, and in the path of sufferings; and in every way in which Christ the Lamb has gone before them, or in his word and providence leads and directs them to, whether it be grateful to the flesh or not; particularly they follow where he is preached, and his Word and ordinances are faithfully administered; and they follow him to heaven, where he is: it was part of the oath taken by the Roman soldiers, ' , "to follow the generals wherever they should lead" (n), to which it is thought there is an allusion here; see 2 Samuel 15:21;

these were redeemed from among men; "by Jesus", as the Syriac and Arabic versions add, and so the Complutensian edition; by the blood of Christ, for all men are not redeemed by it; and in consequence of this they were called, and delivered from this present evil world, and the men of it, and from a vain, wicked, and idolatrous conversation with it:

being the firstfruits unto God, and to the Lamb; in allusion to the firstfruits under the law, which represented and sanctified the lump, and showed that harvest was coming; so these persons are called the firstfruits to God, and to the Lamb, being called by grace, and consecrated to their worship and service, with reference to the harvest of souls, or that large number of them which will be gathered in during the spiritual reign of Christ, which these persons will be at the beginning of; and as those who are first called and converted in a country or nation are said to be the firstfruits of it, Romans 16:5; so these being the first, in the period of time to which respect is had, bear this name; and as the converted Jews received the firstfruits of the Spirit, on the day of Pentecost, and at other times, so these will receive the firstfruits of the far greater pouring forth of the Spirit in the latter day, which will begin, and usher in the kingdom of Christ; see Romans 8:23.

(n) Vid. Lydii Dissert. de Jurament. c. 2. p. 258.

And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb {1} stood on the mount Sion, and with him {2} an hundred forty and four thousand, having his Father's {3} name written in their foreheads.

(1) The history of the Church of Christ being finished for more than a 1300 years at which time Boniface the eighth lived as has been said: there remains the rest of the history of the conflicting or militant church, from there to the time of the last victory in three chapters. For first of all, as the foundation of the whole history, is described the standing of the Lamb with his army and retinue in five verses, after his worthy acts which he has done and yet does in most mighty manner, while he overthrows Antichrist with the spirit of his mouth, in the rest of this chapter and in the two following. To the description of the Lamb, are propounded three things: his situation, place and attendance: for the rest are expounded in the former visions, especially in the fifth chapter.

(2) Prepared to do his office see Ac 7:56, in the midst of the church, which mount Zion pictured before.

(3) This retinue of the Lamb is described first by divine mark

(as before in) Re 7:2 in this verse. Then by divine occupation, in that every one in his retinue most earnestly and sweetly Re 14:2 glorify the Lamb with a special song before God and his elect angels. Flesh and blood cannot hear this song, nor understand, Re 14:3. Lastly by their deeds done before, and their sanctification in that they were virgins, pure from spiritual and bodily fornication, that is, from impiety and unrighteousness. They followed the Lamb as a guide to all goodness, cleaved to him and are holy to him, as by grace redeemed by him. In truth and simplicity of Christ they have exercised all these things, sanctimony of life, the guidance of the Lamb, a thankful remembrance of redemption by him and finally (to conclude in a word) they are blameless before the Lord, Re 14:4,5.

Revelation 14:4-5. John describes the one hundred and forty-four thousand as a select number surpassing all other believers in moral perfection. The understanding of this description depends principally upon the proper arrangement and framing of the individual expressions. At the beginning and at the close two special points stand (Revelation 14:4 : οὑτοι εἰσιν οῖ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν; Revelation 14:5 : καὶ ἐν τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν οὐχ εὑρέθη ψεῦδος); here, where the subject pertains to the past earthly life of those who have died, the aor. necessarily stands. In both cases the conclusion is by formulæ framed precisely in like manner (Revelation 14:4 : παρθένοι γάρ εἰσιν; Revelation 14:5 : ἄμωμοι γάρ εἰσιν); but here, where an advance is made from the definite actual preservation of the deceased, to their proper nature and permanent condition, the present necessarily occurs. Between the two double-membered sentences, in the beginning and at the close, there are besides two sentences, which are thereby exhibited as independent of one another and the beginning and closing sentences, in that they both commence with the special designation of the subject (οὖτοι), and that the first expresses something present (οὖτ. εἰσιν οἱ ἀκολ.), but the second something past, completed in the earthly life (οὖτ. ἠγοράσθησαν, cf. Revelation 14:3). Hofmann[3445] is the first expositor who keeps in view the disposition of Revelation 14:4-5; but he misjudges it by regarding the παρθένοι γάρ εἰσιν as immediately attracted to the succeeding words. The disposition attempted now also by Ew. ii., whereby three members appear (1. οὐτοί εἰσ., κ.τ.λ.; 2. οὖτ. εἰσ., κ.τ.λ.; 3. καὶ ἐν τ. στόμ., κ.τ.λ.), is in violation of the context.

οἱ μετὰ γυναικῶν οὑκ ἐμολύνθησαν. According to Leviticus 15:18, the sexual union in itself, even that in wedlock, was regarded as defiling.[3446]

ΠΑΡΘΈΝΟΙ. This predicate was not seldom ascribed also to men.[3447] In order to avoid the thoughts forced from the word, and not seldom made the best of by Catholic interpreters in the sense of monastic asceticism,[3448] it is regarded either directly as figurative,[3449] and referring to spiritual purity, especially to abstaining from the worship of idols,[3450] or, if we abide by the proper sense of the words, to sexual purity, as an example of all virtues.[3451] Hofm. attempts to remove the difficulty by saying that the declaration is concerning believers of the last time,[3452] to whom celibacy will become a moral necessity, because of the special circumstances of those times. But nothing is said here concerning Christians of that time. The expedient of Bleek[3453] and De Wette, who regard it as referring to abstinence from all lewdness, as it was ordinarily combined with the worship of idols, is forbidden by the expression μετὰ τ. γυναικῶν, which is altogether general.

Nothing else seems to remain than with Augustine,[3454] Jerome,[3455] Beda, Andr., to explain it in the proper sense, and to acknowledge the idea, to which also other points in the text lead,[3456] that entire abstinence from all sexual intercourse belongs to the distinguished holiness of that one hundred and forty-four thousand,[3457] because of which they enjoy also distinguished blessedness. [See Note LXXV., p. 404.] This is declared by the words immediately following: οὖτοι εἰσιν οἱ ἀκολουθοῦντες τῷ ἀρνίῳ ὅπου ἂν ὑπάγει. There is generally found here a description of the obedience of believers who follow the Lamb even to the cross and to death;[3458] but because of the present tense, which here expresses the present condition,—while the holy manifestation in the earthly life is designated by the aor.,—there can be meant only a description of the blessed reward which those who have died are enjoying[3459] with the Lamb.[3460] It is meant that everywhere whither the Lamb goes, there that chosen one hundred and forty-four thousand accompany him; whether it be that a certain space in heaven remain inaccessible to other saints, or that the latter do not form the constant retinue of the Lamb, at least not in the same way as the former.

ΟὙΤΟΙ ἨΓΟΡΆΣΘΗΣΑΝ Ἀ̓ΠῸ ΤῶΝ ἈΝΘΡΏΠΩΝ ἈΠΑΡΧῊ Τῷ Θ., Κ.Τ.Λ. What applies to all the redeemed, viz., that they have been bought unto God by the blood of the Lamb, from among men, of the earth (Revelation 14:3), or from all nations and kindreds (Revelation 5:9), applies in an eminent sense to the one hundred and forty-four thousand: they are bought as an ἈΠΑΡΧΉ. They appear, therefore, not as the select first fruits from the entire world,[3461] but from believers, or, at any rate, from the blessed. The correlate to the ἀπαρχή is afforded by the context: τῶν ἠγορασμένων. As such select first fruits the one hundred and forty-four thousand appear, with respect both to their peculiar holiness (παρθένοι), and also their peculiar blessedness (ἀκολ. τ. ἀρν., κ.τ.λ.).

Besides distinguished virginity, in Revelation 14:5 another peculiar perfection is mentioned, which that multitude had manifested in their earthly life (εὑρέθη, aor.); viz., perfect truthfulness never clouded by a lie. The expression ψεῦδος[3462] is to be taken in its general sense, and not to be limited to the lies of idolatry,[3463] heresy, or denial of Christ.[3464] A contrast is easily conceivable to the sphere of falsehood in which the seducing false prophet[3465] moves, with the worshippers of the beast accepting his lies.[3466] Cf. also, in Revelation 9:21, in an enumeration of the characteristic sins of the inhabitants of the earth, the juxtaposition of πορνεία and κλέμματα.[3467]

ἄμωμοι γάρ εἰσιν. The conclusion which stands especially in analogous relation to the immediately preceding special point, as the παρθ. γ. εἰσ., Revelation 14:4, to the immediately preceding clause,[3468] is, nevertheless, because of the comprehensive meaning of the predicate ἄμωμοι,[3469] especially suitable for rounding the entire description (Revelation 14:4-5).

[3445] Schriftbew, II. 2, p. 392.

[3446] On the expression ἐμολυνθ., cf. Isaiah 59:3; 1 Corinthians 8:7; 2 Corinthians 7:1.

[3447] Cf. Fabricius, Cod. apocr. Vet. Test., II., pp. 92, 98 (where Joseph is called an ἀνήρ παρθένος); Kypke, Observ. sacr. ad h. l. (παρθένοννἰα from Nonnus, on John 19:26); Suidas, see on Αβελ.

[3448] N. de Lyra, Stern.

[3449] Cf. 2 Corinthians 11:2.

[3450] Victorin., Zeger, Coccejus, Grot., Vitr., Wolf; cf. also Züll.

[3451] Eichh., Beng., Hengstenb., who says that sexual intercourse, as legally defiling, is a figurative designation of sinful defilement in general.

[3452] Cf. also C. a Lap.

[3453] Beitr., p. 185.

[3454] De s. virg., c. 27. Opp. Antw., 1701, T. VI., p. 258.

[3455] Adv. Jovin., I. c. 40. Opp. Franeof, 1684, T. II., p. 34.

[3456] See above.

[3457] So also Neander, p. 543, who, from this mode of contemplation, properly recognizes a mark that the writer of the Apoc. is not identical with the Evangelist John.—If the exposition above given be acknowledged, it must also be maintained (against Ew. ii.) that the view, which, to the writer of the Apoc., is fundamental, of the impurity of all sexual intercourse, is significantly distinguished from what is said in Matthew 19:11 sqq., 1 Corinthians 7:32; 1 Corinthians 7:34, since here, under the express presumption that sexual intercourse in marriage is an ordinance which is divine, and by no means in itself impure, it is asserted that certain circumstances can make a complete abstinence from marriage possible and necessary. Possibly the too far-reaching statement of the writer of the Apocalypse is occasioned by the fact that he wishes to emphasize in the highest degree the contrast with the worshippers of the beast, i.e., the Gentiles, with their sexual abominations.

[3458] Cf. Matthew 10:38. Coccej., Grot., Vitr., Wolf, who recall the fact that the soldiers were accustomed to swear: ἀκολουθεῖν τοῖς στρατηγοῖς ὅποι ποτʼ ἅν ἅγωσιν [“to follow the generals whithersoever they would go”]. Beng., De Wette, Hengstenb., Ebrard, Ew. ii.

[3459] Cf. Revelation 7:17.

[3460] Augustine, l. c., but he is not consistent; Andr., Züll., Stern.

[3461] Against De Wette, Hengstenb., who improperly appeal to Jam 1:18, where the express designation ἀπαρχ. τῶν αὐτοῦ κτισμάτων is given; cf. also Jeremiah 2:3.

[3462] Cf. Revelation 21:27.

[3463] Grot.: “They did not invoke the gods, which are not gods;” Beng.

[3464] Cf. Hengstenb.

[3465] Revelation 13:14.

[3466] Cf. Ewald, Ebrard.

[3467] Cf., besides, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 sq., and Revelation 14:6.

[3468] See above.

[3469] Cf. Ephesians 1:4; 4. for they are virgins] The first instance of the use of the word as a masculine. It was adopted in ecclesiastical language, and applied e.g. to St John himself. It is best to understand the word literally. St Matthew 19:12; 1 Corinthians 7 prove, on any fair interpretation, that a devout and unselfish celibacy gives special means for serving God, and so we need not be surprised to learn here that it has a special reward from Him. No disparagement of holy matrimony is implied. Marriage is lowered by the Fall from what God meant it to be (Genesis 3:16), and so, like other things which God made very good, has its own evils and dangers; but it does not follow that it is here conceived as in any sense defilement—they who are virgins à fortiori are “not defiled with women.” It is noticeable that we owe to the two celibate apostles the highest consecration of marriage, see Ephesians 5:23-33, and the last two chapters of this Book.

being the firstfruits] This seems to imply, as is required by the view that “virgins” strictly speaking are meant, that the 144,000 do not represent the whole number of the Elect, but a specially sanctified number from among them. See on Revelation 7:4.Verse 4. - These are they which were not defiled with women; for they are virgins. There is little doubt that these words are intended in a spiritual sense. In the Old Testament the employment of the figure of adultery and fornication to denote spiritual unfaithfulness is common (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:11; Jeremiah 3:9, etc.). St. John elsewhere in the Apocalypse makes use of the same symbolism (cf. Revelation 2:20," That woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols;" also Revelation 17:5, 6). Similarly, also, St. John pictures the faithful Church as the bride adorned for her Husband the Lamb (Revelation 19:7, 8). So also St. Paul (2 Corinthians 11:2), "I espoused you as a chaste virgin to one Husband, Christ." Παρθένοι, "virgins," is a word equally applicable to men or women. This verse, therefore, seems to describe those who are free from spiritual impurity and unfaithfulness; those who have not worshipped the beast and his image. Alford, however, thinks the words should be understood literally. These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth. These words describe the great source of the bliss of the redeemed, viz. that they are continually in the presence of Christ. This is their reward for following him on earth; but the words must not be taken as referring to the earthly course of the saints (as Bengel, De Wette, Hengstenberg, and others). These were redeemed from among men, being the firstfruits unto God and to the Lamb; these were purchased from among men, the firstfruits unto God and unto the Lamb. Some have erroneously concluded that a reference is made to a portion of the redeemed to whom special honour is conceded; or to some who attain to glory before the rest. The firstfruits were the best of their kind (Numbers 18:12), selected from the rest, and consecrated to the service of God. So the redeemed are the best of their kind; they who have proved themselves faithful to God, who voluntarily separated themselves from the world, and consecrated themselves to the service of God while in the world, and who are thus afterwards separated by him and consecrated to his service forever. Were not defiled (οὐκ ἐμολύνθησαν)

The verb means properly to besmear or besmirch, and is never used in a good sense, as μιαίνειν (John 18:28; Jde 1:8), which in classical Greek is sometimes applied to staining with color. See on 1 Peter 1:4.

Virgins (παρθένοι)

Either celibate or living in chastity whether in married or single life. See 1 Corinthians 7:1-7, 1 Corinthians 7:29; 2 Corinthians 11:2.

First-fruits (ἀπαρχὴ)

See on James 1:18.

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