Esther 3:13
New International Version
Dispatches were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces with the order to destroy, kill and annihilate all the Jews—young and old, women and children—on a single day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

New Living Translation
Dispatches were sent by swift messengers into all the provinces of the empire, giving the order that all Jews—young and old, including women and children—must be killed, slaughtered, and annihilated on a single day. This was scheduled to happen on March 7 of the next year. The property of the Jews would be given to those who killed them.

English Standard Version
Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces with instruction to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all Jews, young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, and to plunder their goods.

Berean Study Bible
And the letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces with the order to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jews—young and old, women and children—and to plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month.

King James Bible
And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

New King James Version
And the letters were sent by couriers into all the king’s provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar, and to plunder their possessions.

New American Standard Bible
Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces to annihilate, kill, and destroy all the Jews, both young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to seize their possessions as plunder.

NASB 1995
Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces to destroy, to kill and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to seize their possessions as plunder.

NASB 1977
And letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces to destroy, to kill, and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to seize their possessions as plunder.

Amplified Bible
Letters were sent by couriers to all the king’s provinces to destroy, to kill and to annihilate all the Jews, both young and old, women and children, in one day, the thirteenth [day] of the twelfth month, which is the month of Adar (March 7, 473 B.C.), and to seize their belongings as plunder.

Christian Standard Bible
Letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces telling the officials to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jewish people—young and old, women and children—and plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
Letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces telling the officials to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jewish people—young and old, women and children—and plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month.

American Standard Version
And letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
And the letters were sent by runners to all the cities of the King to destroy and to kill and to destroy all Jews, from the young men and unto the old, and children and the women in one day on the thirteenth of the month Adar, and to loot their riches in one day in the month of Adar; on the thirteenth day it was written.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And the message was sent by posts throughout the kingdom of Artaxerxes, to destroy utterly the race of the Jews on the first day of the twelfth month, which is Adar, and to plunder their goods.

Contemporary English Version
The letters were taken by messengers to every part of the kingdom, and this is what was said in the letters: On the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month, all Jewish men, women, and children are to be killed. And their property is to be taken.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Were sent by the king's messengers to all provinces, to kill and destroy all the Jews, both young and old, little children, and women, in one day, that is, on the thirteenth of the twelfth month, which is called Adar, and to make a spoil of their goods.

English Revised Version
And letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

Good News Translation
Runners took this proclamation to every province of the empire. It contained the instructions that on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, all Jews--young and old, women and children--were to be killed. They were to be slaughtered without mercy and their belongings were to be taken.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
Messengers were sent with official documents to all the king's provinces. [The people were ordered] to wipe out, kill, and destroy all the Jews-young and old, women and children-on a single day, the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar. Their possessions were also to be seized.

International Standard Version
Letters were sent by couriers to all of the king's provinces to annihilate, to kill, and to destroy all the Jewish people, both young and old, women and children, and to confiscate their goods on a single day—the thirteenth day of the twelfth month of Adar.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

Literal Standard Version
and letters to be sent by the hand of the runners to all provinces of the king, to cut off, to slay, and to destroy all the Jews, from young even to old, infant and women, on one day, on the thirteenth of the twelfth month—it [is] the month of Adar—and to seize their spoil,

NET Bible
Letters were sent by the runners to all the king's provinces stating that they should destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jews, from youth to elderly, both women and children, on a particular day, namely the thirteenth day of the twelfth month (that is, the month of Adar), and to loot and plunder their possessions.

New Heart English Bible
Letters were sent by couriers into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to plunder their possessions.

World English Bible
Letters were sent by couriers into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to plunder their possessions.

Young's Literal Translation
and letters to be sent by the hand of the runners unto all provinces of the king, to cut off, to slay, and to destroy all the Jews, from young even unto old, infant and women, on one day, on the thirteenth of the twelfth month -- it is the month of Adar -- and their spoil to seize,

Additional Translations ...
Context
Haman Plots Against the Jews
12On the thirteenth day of the first month, the royal scribes were summoned and the order was written exactly as Haman commanded the royal satraps, the governors of each province, and the officials of each people, in the script of each province and the language of every people. It was written in the name of King Xerxes and sealed with the royal signet ring. 13And the letters were sent by couriers to each of the royal provinces with the order to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the Jews— young and old, women and children— and to plunder their possessions on a single day, the thirteenth day of Adar, the twelfth month. 14A copy of the text of the edict was to be issued in every province and published to all the people, so that they would be ready on that day.…

Cross References
2 Chronicles 30:6
So the couriers went throughout Israel and Judah with letters from the king and his officials, which read: "Children of Israel, return to the LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, so that He may return to those of you who remain, who have escaped the grasp of the kings of Assyria.

Esther 7:4
For my people and I have been sold out to destruction, death, and annihilation. If we had merely been sold as menservants and maidservants, I would have remained silent, because no such distress would justify burdening the king."

Esther 8:5
"If it pleases the king," she said, "and if I have found favor in his sight, and the matter seems proper to the king, and I am pleasing in his sight, may an order be written to revoke the letters that the scheming Haman son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, wrote to destroy the Jews in all the king's provinces.

Esther 8:10
Mordecai wrote in the name of King Xerxes and sealed it with the royal signet ring. He sent the documents by mounted couriers riding on swift horses bred from the royal mares.

Esther 8:11
By these letters the king permitted the Jews in each and every city the right to assemble and defend themselves, to destroy, kill, and annihilate all the forces of any people or province hostile to them, including women and children, and to plunder their possessions.

Esther 8:12
The single day appointed throughout all the provinces of King Xerxes was the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, the month of Adar.

Esther 8:14
The couriers rode out in haste on their royal horses, pressed on by the command of the king. And the edict was also issued in the citadel of Susa.


Treasury of Scripture

And the letters were sent by posts into all the king's provinces, to destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish, all Jews, both young and old, little children and women, in one day, even on the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar, and to take the spoil of them for a prey.

by posts.

Esther 8:10,14
And he wrote in the king Ahasuerus' name, and sealed it with the king's ring, and sent letters by posts on horseback, and riders on mules, camels, and young dromedaries: …

2 Chronicles 30:6
So the posts went with the letters from the king and his princes throughout all Israel and Judah, and according to the commandment of the king, saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and he will return to the remnant of you, that are escaped out of the hand of the kings of Assyria.

Job 9:25
Now my days are swifter than a post: they flee away, they see no good.

both young.

1 Samuel 15:3
Now go and smite Amalek, and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and ass.

1 Samuel 22:19
And Nob, the city of the priests, smote he with the edge of the sword, both men and women, children and sucklings, and oxen, and asses, and sheep, with the edge of the sword.

in one day.

Esther 8:12-14
Upon one day in all the provinces of king Ahasuerus, namely, upon the thirteenth day of the twelfth month, which is the month Adar…

James 2:13
For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath shewed no mercy; and mercy rejoiceth against judgment.

the spoil.

Esther 8:11
Wherein the king granted the Jews which were in every city to gather themselves together, and to stand for their life, to destroy, to slay, and to cause to perish, all the power of the people and province that would assault them, both little ones and women, and to take the spoil of them for a prey,

Esther 9:10
The ten sons of Haman the son of Hammedatha, the enemy of the Jews, slew they; but on the spoil laid they not their hand.

Isaiah 10:6
I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets.









(13) Posts.--Literally, the runners. (See Note on Esther 1:22.)

Verse 13. - And the letters were sent by posts. The Persian system of posts is thus described by Xenophon, who attributes its introduction to Cyrus: - "Stables for horses are erected along the various lines of route, at such a distance one from another as a horse can accomplish in a day. All the stables are provided with a number of horses and grooms. There is a post-master to preside over each, who receives the despatches along with the tired men and horses, and sends them on by fresh horses and fresh riders. Sometimes there is no stoppage in the conveyance even at night; since a night courier takes up the work of the day courier, and continues it. It has been said that these posts outstrip the flight of birds, which is not altogether true; but beyond a doubt it is the most rapid of all methods of conveyance by land" ('Cyrop.,' 8:6, § 17). To destroy, to kill, and to cause to perish. The writer quotes from the edict, which appears to have had as many surplus words as a modern English law paper. Young and old, little children and women. "To take the father's life and spare the child's" was thought to be an act of folly in ancient times. Wives and children of criminals were, as a matter of course, put to death with them. This was anciently even the Jewish practice (Joshua 7:24, 25; 2 Kings 9:26; 2 Kings 14:6), and was quite an established usage in Persia (Herod., 3:119). The thirteenth day. The Septuagint has "the fourteenth day" in its professed copy of the decree, but confirms the Hebrew text here by making the thirteenth the actual day of the struggle (Esther 9:1). The fourteenth and fifteenth are the days now kept by the Jews; but it is suspected that an alteration has been made in order to assimilate the Purim to the passover feast, which began on the 14th of Nisan.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
And the letters
סְפָרִ֜ים (sə·p̄ā·rîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's 5612: A missive, document, writing, book

were sent
וְנִשְׁל֨וֹחַ (wə·niš·lō·w·aḥ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Nifal - Infinitive absolute
Strong's 7971: To send away, for, out

by
בְּיַ֣ד (bə·yaḏ)
Preposition-b | Noun - feminine singular construct
Strong's 3027: A hand

couriers
הָרָצִים֮ (hā·rā·ṣîm)
Article | Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's 7323: To run

to
אֶל־ (’el-)
Preposition
Strong's 413: Near, with, among, to

each
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

of the royal
הַמֶּלֶךְ֒ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4428: A king

provinces
מְדִינ֣וֹת (mə·ḏî·nō·wṯ)
Noun - feminine plural construct
Strong's 4082: A judgeship, jurisdiction, a district, a region

with the order to destroy,
לְהַשְׁמִ֡יד (lə·haš·mîḏ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Hifil - Infinitive construct
Strong's 8045: To be exterminated or destroyed

kill,
לַהֲרֹ֣ג (la·hă·rōḡ)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's 2026: To smite with deadly intent

and annihilate
וּלְאַבֵּ֣ד (ū·lə·’ab·bêḏ)
Conjunctive waw, Preposition-l | Verb - Piel - Infinitive construct
Strong's 6: To wander away, lose oneself, to perish

all
כָּל־ (kāl-)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the Jews—
הַ֠יְּהוּדִים (hay·yə·hū·ḏîm)
Article | Noun - proper - masculine plural
Strong's 3064: Jews -- Jewish

young
מִנַּ֨עַר (min·na·‘ar)
Preposition-m | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 5288: A boy, lad, youth, retainer

and
וְעַד־ (wə·‘aḏ-)
Conjunctive waw | Preposition
Strong's 5704: As far as, even to, up to, until, while

old,
זָקֵ֜ן (zā·qên)
Adjective - masculine singular
Strong's 2205: Old

women
וְנָשִׁים֙ (wə·nā·šîm)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - feminine plural
Strong's 802: Woman, wife, female

and children—
טַ֤ף (ṭap̄)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 2945: A family

and to plunder
לָבֽוֹז׃ (lā·ḇō·wz)
Preposition-l | Verb - Qal - Infinitive construct
Strong's 962: To spoil, plunder

their possessions
וּשְׁלָלָ֖ם (ū·šə·lā·lām)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine plural
Strong's 7998: A prey, spoil, plunder, booty

on a single
אֶחָ֔ד (’e·ḥāḏ)
Number - masculine singular
Strong's 259: United, one, first

day,
בְּי֣וֹם (bə·yō·wm)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 3117: A day

the thirteenth
בִּשְׁלוֹשָׁ֥ה (biš·lō·wō·šāh)
Preposition-b | Number - masculine singular
Strong's 7969: Three, third, thrice

day of Adar,
אֲדָ֑ר (’ă·ḏār)
Noun - proper - feminine singular
Strong's 143: The twelfth month in the Jewish calendar

the twelfth
שְׁנֵים־ (šə·nêm-)
Number - md
Strong's 8147: Two (a cardinal number)

month.
לְחֹ֥דֶשׁ (lə·ḥō·ḏeš)
Preposition-l | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 2320: The new moon, a month


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OT History: Esther 3:13 Letters were sent by couriers into all (Est Esth. Es)
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