1 Kings 10:22
New International Version
The king had a fleet of trading ships at sea along with the ships of Hiram. Once every three years it returned, carrying gold, silver and ivory, and apes and baboons.

New Living Translation
The king had a fleet of trading ships of Tarshish that sailed with Hiram’s fleet. Once every three years the ships returned, loaded with gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

English Standard Version
For the king had a fleet of ships of Tarshish at sea with the fleet of Hiram. Once every three years the fleet of ships of Tarshish used to come bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Berean Study Bible
For the king had the ships of Tarshish at sea with Hiram’s fleet, and once every three years the ships of Tarshish would arrive bearing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

New American Standard Bible
For the king had at sea the ships of Tarshish with the ships of Hiram; once every three years the ships of Tarshish came bringing gold and silver, ivory and apes and peacocks.

New King James Version
For the king had merchant ships at sea with the fleet of Hiram. Once every three years the merchant ships came bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and monkeys.

King James Bible
For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Christian Standard Bible
for the king had ships of Tarshish at sea with Hiram's fleet, and once every three years the ships of Tarshish would arrive bearing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Contemporary English Version
Solomon had a lot of seagoing ships. Every three years he sent them out with Hiram's ships to bring back gold, silver, and ivory, as well as monkeys and peacocks.

Good News Translation
He had a fleet of ocean-going ships sailing with Hiram's fleet. Every three years his fleet would return, bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and monkeys.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
for the king had ships of Tarshish at sea with Hiram's fleet, and once every three years the ships of Tarshish would arrive bearing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

International Standard Version
because the king had ships that sailed to Tarshish accompanied by Hiram's ships. Once every three years ships from Tarshish returned, bringing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

NET Bible
Along with Hiram's fleet, the king had a fleet of large merchant ships that sailed the sea. Once every three years the fleet came into port with cargoes of gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

New Heart English Bible
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
The king had a fleet headed for Tarshish with Hiram's fleet. Once every three years the Tarshish fleet would bring gold, silver, ivory, apes, and monkeys.

JPS Tanakh 1917
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram; once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

New American Standard 1977
For the king had at sea the ships of Tarshish with the ships of Hiram; once every three years the ships of Tarshish came bringing gold and silver, ivory and apes and peacocks.

Jubilee Bible 2000
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram; once every three years the navy of Tarshish came, bringing gold, silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

King James 2000 Bible
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

American King James Version
For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

American Standard Version
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
For Solomon had a ship of Tharsis in the sea with the ships of Chiram: one ship came to the king every three years out of Tharsis, laden with gold and silver, and wrought stones, and hewn stones. This was the arrangement of the provision which king Solomon fetched to build the house of the Lord, and the house of the king, and the wall of Jerusalem, and the citadel; to fortify the city of David, and Assur, and Magdal, and Gazer, and Baethoron the upper, and Jethermath, and all the cities of the chariots, and all the cities of the horsemen, and the fortification of Solomon which he purposed to build in Jerusalem and in all the land, so that none of the people should rule over him that was left of the Chettite and the Amorite, and the Pherezite, and the Chananite, and the Evite, and the Jebusite, and the Gergesite, who were not of the children of Israel, their descendants who had been left with him in the land, whom the children of Israel could not utterly destroy; and Solomon made them tributaries until this day. But of the children of Israel Solomon made nothing; for they were the warriors, and his servants and rulers, and captains of the third order, and the captains of his chariots, and his horsemen.

Douay-Rheims Bible
For the king's navy, once in three years, went with the navy of Hiram by sea to Tharsis, and brought from thence gold, and silver, and elephants' teeth, and apes, and peacocks.

Darby Bible Translation
For the king had on the sea a Tarshish-fleet, with the fleet of Hiram: once in three years came the Tarshish-fleet, bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

English Revised Version
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Webster's Bible Translation
For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

World English Bible
For the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish with the navy of Hiram: once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Young's Literal Translation
for a navy of Tarshish hath the king at sea with a navy of Hiram; once in three years cometh the navy of Tarshish, bearing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.
Study Bible
Solomon's Wealth and Splendor
21All King Solomon’s drinking cups were gold, and all the utensils of the House of the Forest of Lebanon were pure gold. There was no silver, because it was accounted as nothing in the days of Solomon. 22For the king had the ships of Tarshish at sea with Hiram’s fleet, and once every three years the ships of Tarshish would arrive bearing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks. 23So King Solomon surpassed all the kings of the earth in riches and in wisdom.…
Cross References
1 Kings 9:26
King Solomon also assembled a fleet of ships at Ezion-geber, which is near Eloth in Edom, on the shore of the Red Sea.

1 Kings 10:18
Additionally, the king made a great throne of ivory and overlaid it with pure gold.

1 Kings 10:21
All of King Solomon's drinking cups were gold, and all the utensils of the House of the Forest of Lebanon were pure gold. There was no silver, because it was accounted as nothing in the days of Solomon.

1 Kings 22:48
Jehoshaphat built ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir for gold, but they never set sail, because they were wrecked at Ezion-geber.

2 Chronicles 9:21
For the king had the ships of Tarshish that went with Hiram' s servants, and once every three years the ships of Tarshish would arrive bearing gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

2 Chronicles 20:36
They agreed to make ships to go to Tarshish, and these were built in Ezion-geber.

Psalm 48:7
With a wind from the east You wrecked the ships of Tarshish.

Isaiah 2:16
against every ship of Tarshish, and every stately vessel.

Isaiah 23:1
This is an oracle concerning Tyre: Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, without house or harbor. Word has reached them from the land of Cyprus.

Ezekiel 27:15
The men of Dedan were your clients; many coastlands were your market; they paid you with ivory tusks and ebony.

Treasury of Scripture

For the king had at sea a navy of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram: once in three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Tharshish

1 Kings 22:48
Jehoshaphat made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold: but they went not; for the ships were broken at Eziongeber.

Genesis 10:4
And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

2 Chronicles 9:21
For the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Huram: every three years once came the ships of Tarshish bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks.

Tarshish

2 Samuel 10:18
And the Syrians fled before Israel; and David slew the men of seven hundred chariots of the Syrians, and forty thousand horsemen, and smote Shobach the captain of their host, who died there.

Amos 3:15
And I will smite the winter house with the summer house; and the houses of ivory shall perish, and the great houses shall have an end, saith the LORD.

peacocks

Job 39:13
Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?







Lexicon
For
כִּי֩ (kî)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: A relative conjunction

the king had
לַמֶּ֙לֶךְ֙ (lam·me·leḵ)
Preposition-l, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

the ships
אֳנִ֨י (’o·nî)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 590: Ships, a fleet

of Tarshish
תַרְשִׁ֤ישׁ (ṯar·šîš)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8659: Tarshish -- a son of Javan, also a port on the Mediterranean, also a Benjamite

at sea
בַּיָּ֔ם (bay·yām)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3220: A sea, the Mediterranean Sea, large river, an artifical basin

with
עִ֖ם (‘im)
Preposition
Strong's Hebrew 5973: With, equally with

Hiram’s
חִירָ֑ם (ḥî·rām)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2438: Hiram -- a Benjamite, also two Arameans (Syrians)

fleet,
אֳנִ֣י (’o·nî)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 590: Ships, a fleet

and once
אַחַת֩ (’a·ḥaṯ)
Number - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 259: United, one, first

every three years
לְשָׁלֹ֨שׁ (lə·šā·lōš)
Preposition-l | Number - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7969: Three, third, thrice

the ships
אֳנִ֣י (’o·nî)
Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 590: Ships, a fleet

of Tarshish
תַרְשִׁ֗ישׁ (ṯar·šîš)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8659: Tarshish -- a son of Javan, also a port on the Mediterranean, also a Benjamite

would arrive
תָּב֣וֹא ׀ (tā·ḇō·w)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 935: To come in, come, go in, go

bearing
נֹֽשְׂאֵת֙ (nō·śə·’êṯ)
Verb - Qal - Participle - feminine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 5375: To lift, carry, take

gold,
זָהָ֣ב (zā·hāḇ)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2091: Gold, something gold-colored, as oil, a clear sky

silver,
וָכֶ֔סֶף (wā·ḵe·sep̄)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3701: Silver, money

ivory,
שֶׁנְהַבִּ֥ים (šen·hab·bîm)
Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8143: Probably, tooth of elephants, ivory tusk

apes,
וְקֹפִ֖ים (wə·qō·p̄îm)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 6971: A monkey

and peacocks.
וְתֻכִּיִּֽים׃ (wə·ṯuk·kî·yîm)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 8500: Of foreign derivation, some imported creature, a peacock
(22) A navy of Tharshish.--There seems little doubt that the Tarshish of Scripture is properly Tartessus in Spain, which name, indeed, is drawn from an Aramaic form of Tarshish. For (a) Tarshish is first noted in Genesis 10:4 as among the descendants of Javan, the son of Japhet, which probably points to a European position; (b) in some other places (Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:6; Isaiah 23:10; Isaiah 23:14; Ezekiel 27:12-13) as here, and in 23:48, it is closely connected with Tyre, of which Tartessus is expressly said by Arrian to have been a colony: (c) from Jonah 1:3; Jonah 4:2, we gather that it was on the Mediterranean Sea; (d) the silver, which was evidently the chief import by this navy of Tarshish, was in ancient times found in large quantities in Spain, as also "the iron, lead, and tin," mentioned with the silver in Ezekiel 27:12. But the phrase "ships of Tarshish" appears to have become a technical phrase for ships of large size (see Isaiah 2:17; Jeremiah 10:9; Psalm 48:8); hence a "navy of Tarshish" would not necessarily mean a navy going to Tarshish.

Now, the fleet of Solomon here named is not in the text identified with the navy of Ophir, starting from Ezion-geber. Its imports (except gold, which is not distinctive) are not the same, and the separate mention of it seems rather to argue its distinctness. "The sea," moreover, unless otherwise determined by the context, would most likely mean the Great, or Mediterranean Sea; and in 2Chronicles 9:21 (as also afterwards, in 2Chronicles 20:36) it is expressly said that the fleet "went to Tarshish." But the difficulty of this view lies in this--that the imports of the fleet, except the silver (which, indeed, is chiefly dwelt upon), point to an Eastern, and probably an Indian origin. Not only do the "peacocks" expressly indicate India, which may be called their native country; but of the names used, koph, for "ape," is not a Hebrew word, but closely resembles the Sanscrit kapi; and tukki, for "peacock," is similarly a foreign word, closely resembling the Tamil toka. (If the ordinary reading, shen habbim, for "ivory," stands, this, which is an unusual word for ivory (generally simply shen, "a tooth"), bears resemblance again in its second member to ibha, the Sanscrit name for "elephant." But it is generally thought that the correction, shen habnim, "ivory [and] ebony," should be accepted, especially as we find those two words used together in Ezekiel 28:15.) The only solution of this serious difficulty seems to be the supposition of a circumnavigation of Africa by fleets from Tyre to Ezion-geber, touching in Africa and India. This view also accounts for the emphatic mention of the "three years" voyage, which could not be necessary for going only to Tartessus and its neighbourhood. There is, indeed, something startling in the idea of so daring an enterprise in this early age. But there is a well-known passage in Herodotus (Book iv. 42) which records exactly such a voyage in the days of Pharaoh-Necho, not apparently as a new thing--to say nothing of the celebrated record of the Periplus of Hanno; and it seems clear that the Tyrian seamanship and maritime enterprise were at their height in the days of Solomon.

Verse 22. - For [Reason why silver was so lightly esteemed. It was because of the prodigious quantity both of gold and silver brought in by the fleet] the king had at sea a navy of Tarshish [It has been much disputed

(1) whether this was a second fleet, or the same as that mentioned 1 Kings 9:26-28, as trading to Ophir, and

(2) whether this fleet, if it were not the same, went to Ophir or to Tartessus in Spain. Keil and Bahr contend that there was Out one fleet, first, because there is no mention of a second fleet at 1 Kings 9:28, and, secondly, because the cargoes were practically the same. I incline (with Rawlinson, al.) to think there were two separate navies, for the following reasons:

(1) The expression "navy of Tarshish" (in 2 Chronicles 9:21 expanded into "ships going to Tarshish," which Keil and Bahr are compelled to set aside as a mistake on the part of the writer), taken in connexion with the following words, "with (עִם, together with, as well as) the navy of Hiram" (i.e., as we conclude from ver. 11, the navy manned, or, it may be, owned, by Hiram) points to a separate fleet;

(2) the cargoes, so far from being the same, strike me as being altogether diverse. The Ophir fleet brought in "gold, almug trees, and precious stones." The navy of Tarshish "gold and silver ivory, apes, and peacocks." See below.

(3) Even if we understand here by the "navy of Hiram" a Phoenician fleet, still a second fleet is indicated. But this leads us to consider the destination of these ships. The term, "fleet of Tarshish," does not in itself prove anything, for the expression, "ships of Tarshish," is almost a synonym for "merchant vessels." In 1 Kings 22:48 we read, "Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir," and they "were broken at Ezion-geber" (cf. Psalm 48:7; Jonah 1:3). It is probable that in Jewish lips the words were a nomen generale for all vessels going long voyages (Isaiah 2:16; Psalm 48:7; compare our "East Indiaman," "Greenlander"). But the words "in the sea," בַּיָּם, are most naturally understood of that ocean which the Jews called par excellence "the sea," or "the great sea" (Numbers 34:6, 7), i.e., the Mediterranean, though the term הַיָּם is undoubtedly used of the Red Sea, the Sea of Galilee, and the Dead Sea. And the more so as we know that the Tyrians had an extensive commerce with Tartessus, which was a great emporium of trade from the earliest times. Bahr objects that "no gold is found in Spain, but few peacocks, and little ivory;" but Rawlinson, on the other hand, affirms that "Spain had the richest silver mines known in the ancient world, and had a good deal of gold also" (Plin., Nat. Hist. 3:4), while "apes and ivory were produced by the opposite coast of Africa" (Herod. 4:191. As to peacocks see below). And it is a powerful argument in favour of Tartessus that it is the plentifulness of silver in Solomon's days has suggested this reference to the fleet. For though silver "was found in the land of the Nabataeans, according to Strabo, 16:784" (Keil), yet it was to Tartessus that the ancient world was chiefly indebted for its supplies of that metal. On the whole, therefore, it seems probable that second fleet, trading with the Mediterranean seaports, is here described. And Psalm 72:10 is distinctly in favour of this conclusion. When Ewald says ("Hist. Israel," 3:263) that the Phoenicians would hardly tolerate a rival in the Mediterranean, he surely forgets that they had been admitted by the Jews to share the trade of Ophir] with the navy of Hiram; once in three years [This period agrees better with a voyage to Spain than to Southern Arabia. And if we understand it of Spanish voyages, it removes one difficulty in the way of placing Ophir in Arabia. It has also been urged that "the Hebrews reckoned parts of years and days as whole ones" (Kitte); but this hardly would apply to the expression "once in three years"] came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver ivory [Heb. tooth of elephants, LXX. ὀδόντες ἐλεφάντινοι. It is noteworthy that the name for elephant used here is derived from the Sanskrit (Gesen.), and an argument has been drawn hence in favour of placing Ophir in India, and of identifying the Tarshish fleet with the navy of Ophir. But such conclusions are extremely precarious. The name may have first come to the Jews from India, in which case it would be retained, from whatever quarter the commodity was subsequently derived. See Rawlinson, p. 546], and apes [קופis in like manner identified by Gesenius, al., with the Sanskrit kapi. Sir J. Emerson Tennant ("Ceylon," 2 p 102) says "the terms by which these articles (ivory, apes, and peacocks) are designated in the Hebrew Scriptures are identical with the Tamil names by which some of them are called in Ceylon to the present day"], and peacocks. [So the the ancients interpret the original word, though some of the moderns would understand "parrots." But the root תכי appears in several Aryan tongues (cf. ταῶς, from ταρως, and pavo) as indicating the peacock (Gesen., Max Muller, al.) which originally came from India. Whether it was also found in Africa is uncertain. Aristophanes (Birds, 485) says, καλεῖται Περσικὸς ὄρνις. Wordsworth very justly sees in the mention of these curious beasts and birds a symptom of declension in simplicity and piety, a token that "wealth had brought with it luxury and effeminacy, and a frivolous, vainglorious love for novel and outlandish objects.' 10:14-29 Solomon increased his wealth. Silver was nothing accounted of. Such is the nature of worldly wealth, plenty of it makes it the less valuable; much more should the enjoyment of spiritual riches lessen our esteem of all earthly possessions. If gold in abundance makes silver to be despised, shall not wisdom, and grace, and the foretastes of heaven, which are far better than gold, make gold to be lightly esteemed? See in Solomon's greatness the performance of God's promise, and let it encourage us to seek first the righteousness of God's kingdom. This was he, who, having tasted all earthly enjoyments, wrote a book, to show the vanity of all worldly things, the vexation of spirit that attends them, and the folly of setting our hearts upon them: and to recommend serious godliness, as that which will do unspeakably more to make us happy, that all the wealth and power he was master of; and, through the grace of God, it is within our reach.
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Alphabetical: a along and apes at baboons bringing came carrying every fleet For gold had Hiram it ivory king of Once peacocks returned sea ships silver Tarshish The three trading with years

OT History: 1 Kings 10:22 For the king had at sea (1Ki iKi i Ki 1 Kg 1kg) Christian Bible Study Resources, Dictionary, Concordance and Search Tools
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