Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament
Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,Matthew 23:1. Τότε, then) Having left His adversaries to themselves.
Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:Matthew 23:2. Ἐκάθισαν, κ.τ.λ., sit, etc.) Representing Moses, reading and interpreting his law, and even urging more than he enjoined.—οἱ Γραμματεῖς καὶ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, the Scribes and the Pharisees) The sins which are here enumerated, did not belong all equally to both of these classes; but they had many in common, and participated in many; see Luke 11:45.
 2 And of those sins of the Scribes and Pharisees specified in the discourses of Christ, which are described more fully by Matthew, Mark and Luke, have selected those sins which would most clearly show to the untutored populace why they should beware of the Scribes—viz., their haughtiness, their avarice, and their hypocrisy.—Harm., p. 472.
All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do; but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.Matthew 23:3. Οὖν, therefore) This particle limits the expression “whatsoever they bid you observe,” so that the people should not think that they were bound to observe the traditions of the Pharisees equally with the law of Moses; see Matthew 23:4.—τηρεῖτε, observe) sc. mentally.—ΠΟΙΕῖΤΕ, do) sc. actually. An imperative corresponded with by the other which follows.—λέγουσι, they say) Mosaic commands, which ought to be “observed” and “done.”
 i.e., because it implies that their claim to obedience rested on their sitting in Moses’ seat.—(I. B.)—i.e. so far, and only so far, as they really sat in Moses’ seat—viz., taught only what Moses in the written law commands.—ED.
 τὰ ἔργα αὐτῶν) Verse 5–7.μὴ ποιεῖτε) Verse 8–12.
For they bind heavy burdens and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.Matthew 23:4. Δεσμεύουσι γὰρ, for they bind) This explains the words, They say and do not.—βαρέα καὶ δυσβάστακτα, heavy and grievous to be borne) epithets suitable to the doctrines of men.—ὬΜΟΥς—ΔΑΚΤΎΛῼ, shoulders—with the finger) There is an evident contrast intended between these words.—κινῆσαι, to move) much less to bear. Scripture has an incomparable felicity in describing the inner characters of minds, of which the whole of this chapter affords a striking instance; see also Luke 12:16-17.
 Which both are not contained in the law, and are contrary to the law.—V. g.
But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,Matthew 23:5. Δὲ, but) sc. although they appear to do many good things.—φυλακτήρια, phylacteries) see Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16; Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18.—κράσπεδα, fringes) see Numbers 15:38.
And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,Matthew 23:6. Φιλοῦσι, κ.τ.λ., they love, etc.) Both individually and for their order.
Matthew 23:6-7. Ἐν τοῖς δείτνοις—συναγωγαῖς—ἀγοραῖς, in banquets—synaogues—market-places) public places.
And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.
But be not ye called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.Matthew 23:8. Μὴ κληθῆτε, be ye not called) i.e. do not ye be thus treated, nor seek to be thus treated.—εἷς γάρ ἐστιν ὑμῶν ὁ Διδάσκαλος, for one is your Teacher) Others read, ΕἿς ΓΆΡ ἘΣΤΙΝ ὙΜῶΝ Ὁ ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤῊς, Ὁ ΧΡΙΣΤΌς, for one is your Guide, even Christ. And this is indeed found in Matthew 23:10; in the present instance, however, it is our Heavenly Father who is spoken of; cf. ch. Matthew 16:17; John 6:45; Acts 10:28; Galatians 1:1; Galatians 1:15; Ephesians 1:9; Psalm 25:12; Psalm 32:8. Therefore our Lord adds, but all ye are brethren, which principle applies also to the ninth verse, that we should neither ourselves be called masters, nor call any one on earth father. Christ is treated of in verse 10, and verse 11 is appropriately subjoined. Cf. concerning the Father as Teacher, and Christ as Guide, ch. Matthew 11:25; Matthew 11:27.—ἐστέ, ye are) The indicative mood.
 E. V. “one is your Master.”—(I. B.)
 Such is the reading of E. M.
 i.e. not the imperative, “Be ye,” as it might be rendered.—(I. B.)
In his App. Crit. Bengel writes thus:—“καθηγητῆς) edd. Bas. α. β. γ. etc. Exodus 5:10 (διδάσκαλος), Aug. 1. 4, in duabus pericopis, Bodl. 7, Colb 3, Gal. Go. Lin. Mont. N. 1, Par. 1. 4, Roe. Seld. 1, Steph. ε, Vsser. 2, Wheel. 1, et alii apud Erasmum et Bezam; Orig. Chrysost. ad h. 1. et Homil. 77 in Ioh., Arab. Syr. Probat Beza, Grotius, Seldenus, nec non L. de Dieu, Rus.
“¶ ὁ Χριστὸς) edd. etc. Exodus 5:10 (\) [i.e. for the omission], Bas. unus, γ. opinor. Eph. Med. Vss. 1, duo apud Bezam, Aeth. Arab. Armen. Copt. Lat. (et inde Cant. quem tamen Beza videtur innuere, Colb. 8), Pers. Syr. Orig. Chrysostomus clare. Theophyl. in comm. Vid. Gnom.”
Tishendorf, Lachmann, and Wordsworth read διδάσκαλος, but they do not omit ὁ Χριστός.—(I. B.)
Ὑμῶν ὁ διδάσκαλος is the reading of B; “vester doctor,” d; “vobis magister,” Cypr.; “magister vester,” abc and Vulg. But ὑμῶν ὁ καθηγήτης, D; to which Rec. Text adds ὁ Χριστός.—ED.
Some one of the learned has supposed it more probable that the term καθηγήτης, as being one of less common occurrence, has been changed by transcribers into διδάσκαλος, rather than that διδάσκαλος has been substituted instead of καθηγητής. But the arguments drawn from solid criticism have more weight than such mere conjectures; not to mention that the other conjecture, by which καθηγητὴς is supposed to be transferred from Matthew 23:10 (as to which there is no dispute), has at least as much show of probability. Cf. App. Grit. Ed. ii., p. 133.—E. B.
And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.Matthew 23:9. πατέρα, father) This also was the grand title given by the Jews to their teachers, especially in old age.—μὴ καλέσητε, κ.τ.λ., do not call, etc.) Let not either your tongue or your mind ascribe infallibility to any man.
Neither be ye called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.Matthew 23:10. Καθηγηταὶ, guides) i.e leaders, authorities. There is a gradation in these phrases: Rabbi, Father, Guide. They were titles of spiritual eminence amongst the Jews. The same principle is enforced in 1 Corinthians 3:5-6.
 E. V. “Masters.”—(I. B.)
 In the original, “quae destruitur etiam 1 Corinthians 3:5, s.:” lit., “which [sc. spiritual eminence] is demolished also in 1 Corinthians 3:5-6.”—(I. B.)
But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.Matthew 23:11. Ὁ δὲ μείζων, but he that is greatest) i.e. he who wishes to be the greatest (corresponding with the Hebrew רב); cf. ch. Matthew 20:26.
 “רַכ … 2. great … specially (a) i.q. powerful, Psalm 48:3; Isaiah 63:1. Pl. רַבִּים the mighty, Job 35:9; Isaiah 53:12.—(b) elder, Genesis 25:23. Pl. רַבִּים the old, Job 32:9.—(c) subst. a great man, leader, i.q. שַׂר, especially in the later Hebrew …—(d) a master, one who is skilled in any art, skilful, Proverbs 26:10. Compare Talmud. רַב doctor, excellent teacher.”—Gesenius. Bengel evidently intends to refer the reader to Rabbi in verse 7, on which Wordsworth says:—“ῥαββί] רַבִּי, My Master. Rabbi, from root רַב, rab = great; as Magister from magnus, μέγας.—(I. B.)
And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted.Matthew 23:12. Ὅστις δὲ ὑψώσει ἑαυτὸν, κ.τ.λ., but whosoever shall exalt himself, etc.) In the S. V. of Ezekiel 21:26, we read ἐταπείνωσας τὸ ὑψηλὸν, καὶ ὕψωσας τὸ ταπεινόν, Thou hast humbled that which is exalted, and exalted that which is humble.—ὑψώσει ἑαυτὸν, shall exalt himself) As the Scribes and Pharisees did.
But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in.Matthew 23:13-14. Οὐαὶ, woe) Woe is uttered eight times in this passage: blessed is uttered eight times and more in Matthew 5. from Matthew 23:3, where see Gnomon.—οὐαὶ ὑμῖν—κλείετε τὴν βασιλεὶαν—κατεσθίετε τὰς οἰκίας τῶν χηρῶν, κ.τ.λ., woe unto you—ye shut up the kingdom—ye devour widows’ houses, etc.) In many MSS. these words are transposed; but that must come first in which the kingdom of heaven is mentioned; cf. ch. Matthew 4:17, Matthew 5:3, etc.—ὑποκριταὶ, hypocrites) The characteristics of hypocrites may be ascertained from this indictment, as Thomasius has done in his Cautions. Woes were denounced against them, not because they were Scribes and Pharisees, but because they were hypocrites.—κλείετε, ye shut up) i.e. with a key: ye shut up as being ignorant and blind.—ἔμπροσθεν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, before men) sc. before their eyes, when they were just close.—οὐκ εἰσέρχεσθε, ye do not enter) a great woe, and the first; cf. Matthew 5:3, on the first degree of blessedness.—τοὺς εἰσερχομένους, them that are entering) sc. either in will or in deed.
 Our Saviour had used various degrees of argument against His opponents all along from ch. Matthew 9:4; but now, at the last, moved by a holy fervour, He brings forth most plainly the whole fact as it really was.—Harm., p. 472.
 Such is the reading of E. M.; but E. V. supports the order approved by Bengel. In his Apparatus Criticus, Bengel says of the reading:—“κλείετε—κατεσθίετε”—“Sic Erasmus, Beza, Bodl. 1. 2, Cypr. Laud. 1. 2, Roe et sex et octo alii, vel etiam Cam. Item Hilar. Euthym. Copt. Lat., etiam apud Hieron.” Of the order “κατεσθίετε—κλείετε,” he says:—“Comp. Stap. Steph. edd. Aug. 1, 2, 4, Byz. Gehl. Mosc Wo. 1, 2, etc., Chrysost. Theophyl., opus imperf. Arab. Lat. pauculi, Syr. Quinque Colbertinos pro illâ lectione citat Millius, a silentio amicorum, qui Bezam adhibuerant argumentatus; pro hâc Simonius in notis ad h. l. Vide Gnomon: quanquam is prior videtur esse versus, quem scorsum referunt Marcus et Lucas.”—(I. B.)
 Although that verse seems likely to come first, which Mark and Luke represent as spoken separately.—App. Crit. Ed. ii. p. 134.
 E. V. “against men.”—(I. B.)
BDLZ a Vulg. (Amiat. MS.) omit all the words of Matthew 23:14, oval—οὐαὶ—κατεσθίετε τ. οἰκίας τ. χηρῶν (Rec. Text adding καὶ) προφασει—προσευχόμενοι διὰ τοῦτο—κρίμα. The Canons of Euseb. seem to omit the words: also Origen, who speaks of “the second woe in Matthew” being οὐαὶ—ὅτι περιάγετε τὴν θάλασσαν, etc. 4, 352a. Therefore Lachm. and Tischend. rightly omit them. The words seem to me to have crept in from Mark 12:40 and Luke 20:47. However bc and Hilary 725d and 89 supports the words here.—ED. The margin of Bengel’s Ed. ii. holds the omission of Matthew 23:14 as all but equal to the Rec. Text.—E. B.
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.Matthew 23:14. Κατεσθὶετε, κ.τ.λ., ye devour, etc.) The extreme of avarice. To devour widows’ houses is the most atrocious species, which is put for the whole class of rapacious actions.—καὶ, even)—μακρἀ, long) The word has here the force of an adverb. Some MSS. also read suitably enough, μακρᾷ, in which case it must be construed with ΠΡΟΦΆΣΕΙ, sc. with a long, or great pretence—i.e. they made of their prayers a great pretence, pretext, or plea for devouring widows’ houses. Herodian uses the expressions, πρόφασις ὀλίγη, εὐτελὴς, μικρά, sc. a small, useful, little pretext or plea.—λήψεσθε, κ.τ.λ., ye shall receive, etc.) sc. as the reward of such prayers.—περισσύτερον κρίμα, more abundant damnation) He who acts ill is condemned; he who abuses that which is good, to adorn that which is bad, is condemned to sorer punishment.
 Who of all persons ought especially to be spared, but who, as being liable to be easily acted on by persuasion, are most open to oppression.—V. g.
 According to this reading, which is that of EM, it must be construed with προσευχόμενοι, praying; and the words must be rendered, “who pray long”—i.e. “who spend a long time in prayer”—(I. B.)
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell than yourselves.Matthew 23:15. Περιάγετε, κ.τ.λ., ye compass, etc.) A proverbial expression. Ye compass, or go about, as Rabbis; see Matthew 23:7.—ἕνα προσήλυτον, one proselyte) with great zeal, but little efficacy; so that you hardly obtain one.—υἱὸν Γεέννης, a child of hell) i.e. worthy of hell. Thus in Deuteronomy 25:2, בן הבות is rendered by the LXX. ἌΞΙΟς ΠΛΗΓῶΝ, worthy of stripes.—διπλότερον, twofold more) on account of his greater hypocrisy, though he might have attained to a high rank among the people of God.
 Literally, “a son to be beaten.”—(I. B.)
 E. V. “Worthy to be beaten.”—(I. B.)
 Which he adopts from his teachers, independently of and exceeding his heathen corruptions, which he has not laid aside.—V. g.
Woe unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor!Matthew 23:16. Ὁδηγοὶ τυφλοὶ, blind guides) Previously they were styled hypocrites, and that again and again; now the appellation is changed according to the subject in hand. The two appellations are combined in Matthew 23:23-24, and Matthew 23:25-26. The denunciation reaches its climax in Matthew 23:33.—οὐδέν ἐστιν, he is nothing) sc. ὠφείλων, owing, i.e. he owes nothing.—ἐν τῷ χρυσῷ, by the gold) with which the temple was adorned.
 E. V. “It is nothing.”—(I. B.)
Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold?Matthew 23:17. Μωροὶ καὶ τυφλοὶ, fools and blind) They sinned even against common sense; according to the judgment of which that thing, on account of which another thing is of a certain character, must be much more so, than that which merely derives its character inferentially therefrom.
And, Whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.Matthew 23:18. Ἐν τῷ δώρῳ, by the gift) The error originated in the mistaken views entertained by the offerers with regard to their own righteousness. They esteemed their own gifts more highly than the Divine institution.—ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ, upon it) sc. the altar.
Ye fools and blind: for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?
Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.Matthew 23:20. Ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ, by all things thereon) As in Matthew 23:21 the gold of the temple is not again mentioned, but He is mentioned who dwelleth therein; so in this verse the expression, all things which are upon the altar, signifies something much greater than the gift on the altar, nay, something in contrast with that gift, sc. the sacred fire and the whole divinely appointed ministry of the priests, who stood and walked, not only beside, but upon the altar.
And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.
And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.Matthew 23:23. Ἀποδεκατοῦτε, κ.τ.λ., ye tythe, etc.) And command others to tythe; cf. in Matthew 23:24 the expression “guides.”—ἡδύοσμον, mint) not only grain but herbs.—κύμινον, cummin) which is proverbially a small thing.—ἈΦΉΚΑΤΕ, Κ.Τ.Λ., have omitted, etc.) sc. long since; or also, ye have remitted to others, by your silence.—βαρύτερα, weightier) These questions belong to comparative theology. Three weightier matters are enumerated in contrast with three smaller matters. Concerning these weightier matters, see Sirach 4. He, and he alone, who does not neglect these, may judge rightly in smaller matters.—ΤῊΝ ΚΡΊΣΙΝ, judgment) by which men distinguish between good and evil, and in either of them between weightier and smaller matters; see the Gnomon on ch. Matthew 12:18, and Matthew 16:3; Luke 12:57; 1 Corinthians 11:31; Micah 6:8.—τὸν ἔλεον, mercy) See ch. Matthew 9:13.—ΤῊΝ ΠΊΣΤΙΝ, faith) sc. sincerity, which is opposed to hypocrisy: for those who, in ch. Matthew 24:51, are called hypocrites, are called unbelievers (infideles) in Luke 12:46. Cf. 1 Timothy 4:2-3. There are clearly these three principal heads, Judgment, Mercy, Faith: and divisions of theological topics ought to have been arranged under such heads as those which Scripture itself lays down, as in John 16:8; Romans 3:27; 1 Corinthians 13:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:1; Hebrews 6:1-2.—ΜῊ ἈΦΙΈΝΑΙ, not to omit) corresponding with ἀφήκατε, ye have omitted; and therefore ταῦτα, these, refers to mint, etc.—ἐκεῖνα, those, to judgment, etc.; and the words, ταῦτα ἔδει ποιῆσαι, these ought ye to have done, express approbation of their conduct in this matter; whilst the words ΚἈΚΕῖΝΑ ΜῊ ἈΦΊΕΝΑΙ, and not to leave the other undone, belong to the indictment. In Greek οὗτος and ἘΚΕῖΝΟς, in Latin hic and ille (this and that), are frequently employed with reference, not to the order of the words, but to the nature of the things. See my note to Chrysostom on the Priesthood, pp. 509, 510.
 On this word Bengel, in his Apparatus Criticus, has the remark:—“מנתא Hebr. ex Lat.,” sc. mentha; from which also our English word, mint.—(I. B.)
 There is evidently some mistake in the references to Romans and Thessalonians—a mistake which I have bestowed much labour to correct, but in vain. For the reference to 1 Thessalonians 5:1, I would suggest 1 Thessalonians 5:8.—(I. B.)
 Truly, even in the smallest things remarkable and pre-eminent grace may exhibit itself, Mark 12:42.—V. g.
Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.Matthew 23:24. Τὸν κώνωπα, the gnat) They who object to swallowing a camel should not be found fault with for merely straining a gnat, such being far from our Lord’s intention: for no one can safely swallow a gnat, which may choke him. A beam is the worse of the two, and yet a chip is not disregarded, even in the hand, much more in the eye. See ch. Matthew 7:5. The noun κώνωψ is a word of common gender, and signifies a gnat, properly one belonging to wine, which easily falls into a strainer.
 The clause rendered by E. V., “who strain at a gnat,” is interpreted more correctly by Bengel, “who strain a gnat,” on which Alford observes in loc., “The straining the gnat is not a mere proverbial saying. The Jews (as do now the Buddists in Ceylon and Hindostan) strained their wine, etc., carefully, that they might not violate Leviticus 11:20; Leviticus 11:23; Leviticus 11:41-42 (and it might be added, Leviticus 17:10-14). The camel is not only opposed as of immense size, but is also unclean.”—(I. B.)
 In the original, “Festuca,” corresponding to the English word, Mote; the meaning of which, in Matthew 7:3 (which is here referred to), is not a mote such as we see in sunbeams, but a small particle of straw. I know of no English word that now corresponds to this idea: it is something between a chip and a speck.—(I. B.)
 The wine-gnat, according to Rosenmüller, is found in wine when turning acid. The Jews used to strain out their wines through a napkin or strainer, to prevent this wine-gnat being swallowed unawares. See Buxtorf on the root סַנֵן. Beng. wishes to guard us against the abuse of this passage, whereby it is often said to those who are careful in the greater duties, when particular also on minor points, “Oh! you are straining at a gnat.” They forget that Jesus does not object to tenderness of conscience as to moral gnats, but to those who, whilst scrupulous as to gnats, are unscrupulous as to moral camels, Ecclesiastes 10:1.—ED.
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.Matthew 23:25. Τὸ ἔξωθεν, that which is without) sc. the external surface.—ἔσωθεν δἑ, but within) where the meat and drink are.—Υέμουσιν, they are full) sc. the cup and dish.—ἁρπργῆς, of rapacity, extortion) see Matthew 23:14.—καἰ ἀκρασίας, and excess) Excess,ἀκρασία, is opposed to abstinence, not only in meat and drink, but also in money and gain. With this idea, Aristotle (Eth. Nicom. vii. 6) says that the particular thing should be mentioned in regard to which any one is remarkable for excess or the opposite; as gain, honour, anger, etc. And this is evident in the present passage, from the use of the synonymous term, ἁρπαγη. Gregory Nazianzen says, ἀκρασία ἐμοι πᾶν τὸ περιττὺν καὶ ὑπὲρ τὴν χρείαν, everything which is superfluous and more than necessary, is, in my opinion, ἀκρασία.
Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.Matthew 23:26. Καθάρισον, cleanse) sc. by removing rapacity by almsgiving. See Luke 11:41.—πρῶτον, κ.τ.λ., first, etc.) This may also be applied to the matter of decorum.—ἵνα, κ.τ.λ., in order that, etc.) for otherwise that outward cleanliness is not cleanliness.
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.Matthew 23:27. Ὅτι, κ.τ.λ., for, etc.) In this verse the especially distinctive characteristic of hypocrites is described: for hypocrisy is named in Matthew 23:28. Cf. Luke 11:44 with the context.—κεκονιαμένοις, whited) The Jews used to whiten their sepulchres with chalk.
Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.Matthew 23:28. Ἀνομίας, unrighteousness) This is strictly opposed to righteousness.
Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,Matthew 23:29. Ὅτι οἰκοδομεῖτε—τῶν προφητῶν—κοσμεῖτε—τῶν δικαίων, because ye build—of the prophets—and garnish—of the righteous) (see ver 35). This was all that they did in memorial of the ancient prophets and righteous men, without observing their words or imitating their deeds; with a resemblance to their fathers in their dispositions; with a contempt of the Messiah, to whom those prophets had borne witness. Understand, therefore, only, as in ch. Matthew 24:38. Scripture is wont to call those who have died in the Lord righteous, rather than saints; see Luke 14:14, and Hebrews 12:23.
 ὅτι οἰκοδομεῖτε) A hypocrite brings guilt on himself, even in respect to those things which are not unrighteous or wrong in themselves.—V. g.
 In Latin, “saint” and “holy” are both expressed by the same word, “sanctus.”—(I. B.)
And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.Matthew 23:30. Λέγετε, ye say) By your public protestation.—οὐκ ἂν ἦμεν, κ.τ.λ., we would not have been, etc.) Such was their self-confidence.
Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.Matthew 23:31. Μαρτυρεῖτε, ye bear witness) sc. by your deeds, Matthew 23:29, by your words, Matthew 23:30.
Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.Matthew 23:32. Καὶ ὑμεῖς πληρώσατε, fill ye up then) The pronoun ὑμεῖς, you, is not only introduced in contrast to your fathers, but also shows that there is an indicative force in the imperative πληρώσατε, fill ye up; q.d. ye will fill up, fill ye up therefore: cf. John 13:27. Fill ye up whenever ye will, be ye no longer hindered; be ye left to yourselves: perform then with the hand that which you cherish in the heart.—τὸ μέτρον, the measure) As there is a measure of life and of suffering, so is there also of sin, when, for example, to three transgressions is added a fourth; see Amos 1:3, etc.
Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?Matthew 23:33. Ἐχιδνῶν, of vipers) Which are mentioned in Matthew 23:30-32.—πῶς φύγητε, how can ye escape) The subjunctive.
Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city:Matthew 23:34. Διὰ τοῦτο, κ.τ.λ., wherefore, etc.) A corollary of the eighth woe.—Ἐγὼ, I) In the parallel passage of St Luke, Luke 11:49, we read, διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ἡ σοφία τοῦ Θεοῦ εἶπεν, Ἀποστελῶ, κ.τ.λ., wherefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send, etc. The first chapter of the second book of Esdras and this passage have a wonderful resemblance. In 2Es 1:30, we read, “I gathered you together as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings:” in Matthew 23:32, “I sent unto you My servants the prophets, whom ye have taken and slain, and torn their bodies in pieces, whose blood I will require of your hands, saith the Lord:” in Matthew 23:33, “Thus saith the Almighty Lord, your house is desolate.” That book of Esdras is greatly esteemed by many, amongst whom of ourselves are found Schickardus on Tarich, p. 135, and Hainlin, in his Sol Temporum; and this quotation in the Gospel gives very great weight to it. J. C. Scaliger says (Exerc. 308), “I possess an admirable and divine compendium of the books of Esdras, composed in the Syrian language; they contain far more valuable sentiments than the harangues of their base calumniator.” That Syrian composition, which Scaliger calls a compendium, may have been a translation of the original Hebrew work, the longer Latin paraphrase of which may have many apocryphal additions. Such appears to be the case of the books of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, which at one time show evident signs of a Hebrew origin, and at another have a purely Greek character.—ἀποστέλλω, I send) The present tense. God’s messengers were sent when wickedness was most widely prevalent among His people.—προφήτας, prophets) Who are taught by special revelation, as David. These alone are mentioned with reference to the past; see Matthew 23:30. Now wise men and scribes are added.—σοφοὺς, wise men) who have an habitual sense of the true and the good, corresponding with the Hebrew חבם, wise, derived from חך, the palate, or sense of taste; such as was Solomon. These are midway between prophets and scribes.—ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕῖς, scribes) who edit and illustrate the remains of the prophets and wise men, as Ezra did. In these last the character is for the most part acquired; in wise men, innate; in prophets, inspired. Therefore the world hates and despises prophets most, wise men much, scribes less, yet not little.—ἀποκτενεῖτε, ye shall kill) as James [the son of Zebedee].—σταυρώσετε, ye shall crucify) as Peter and Andrew, although Peter suffered martyrdom elsewhere.
 In the original, “Liber iv. Esrae, cap.i.”—(I. B.)
 The title of the work in full, as edited by Schickardus, is,” TARICH; h. e. series regum Persiae ab Ardschir—Babekan usque ad Jasdigerdem a chaliphis expulsam, ex fide MS. vol. authentici; vestita comm., etc., authore W. S. 4°. Tubingen, 1632.”—(I. B.)
 A chronological work, the full title of which is, “Sol Temporum seu chronologia mystica et elenchus chronologicus per totam S. Scripturam deductus.” It was published in folio at Tubingen, A. D. 1646. The author is described as “Ecclesiæ Derendingensis Pastor, et Vicinarum Superintendens.”—(I. B.)
 The word used by Bengel is gustum, the original and literal sense of which is, taste.—(I. B.)
 In the original, infusus; literally, infused.—(I. B.)
That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.Matthew 23:35. Ἔλθῃ, may come) This is repeated in Matthew 23:36, sc. ἥξει, shall come. Cf. Luke 11:50, etc.—πᾶν, all) especially that of the Messiah Himself. Cf. Luke 13:33.—αἷμα, blood) This word occurs thrice in this one verse with great force.—ἐκχυνόμενον, which is being shed) The present tense is used to show that the blood-shedding was not yet concluded.—ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, on the whole earth) Cf. Genesis 4:11.—Ζαχαρίου υἱοῦ Βαραχίου, Zacharias the son of Barachias) whose prophecy and death are mentioned in 2 Chronicles 24:20-22. The Jews say a great deal about him. See Lightfoot.—τοῦ Ναοῦ, the Temple) Jesus spake these words in the Temple: in the Temple especial vengeance was to be executed hereafter.
 And who, as Michaelis, in der Einl., etc., T. ii., p. m. 1078,1079, shows at large, is called in the Gospel of the Nazarenes. according to Jerome’s statement, not the Son of Barachias (as it is found in our Greek copies), but the Son of Jehoiada. Indeed it would not be amiss to compare this with what S. R. D. Crusius, Hypomn., p. i. p. 301, suggests, viz., that Jehoiada [= the knowledge of the Lord] received the surname from the Blessed Jehovah, because that he had preserved the house of David, by having stealthily saved Joash from being murdered, and by having subsequently placed him on his father’s throne, after having slain Athaliah, owing to which meritorious deed he was ever after commonly called by this honourable title.—E. B.
 To understand these words of a certain Zacharias, the Song of Solomon of Baruch, a person of proved excellence, who was killed in the midst of the temple (as Josephus records) a short while before its destruction, as Kornmann and others think, we are not bound to the end that the glory of Christ’s Omniscience may be maintained inviolate: for, in fact, this prophecy concerning vengeance impending over that generation, as well as many other prophecies, was proved by its fulfilment. Luke, in the passage in question, is speaking only of Prophets: but the Zacharias of Josephus was not a prophet. Indeed Christ had many reasons for making mention of the former Zacharias above others. It is such personages in this passage (as in Ezekiel 14:14) that are especially referred to and quoted, who have their names recorded in Scripture: and that ancient Zacharias, as in the similar instance of Abel, was accounted by the Jews without dispute as a Saint and Prophet; nay, indeed the guilt incurred in his case was not altogether obliterated from the memory of the Jews.—Harm., p. 472.
Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.Matthew 23:36. Λέγω, I say) sc. again. Cf. Genesis 41:32.—ἥξει, shall come) i.e. as far as the beginnings of vengeance are concerned; for its consummation extends far further; see Matthew 23:39.—πάντα, κ.τ.λ., all, etc.) He who commits a sin becomes a partner in crime with all who have committed the same sin.—γενεὰν, generation) see Gnomon on ch. Matthew 24:34.
O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!Matthew 23:37. Ἱερουσαλὴμ, Ἱερουσαλὴμ, Jerusalem, Jerusalem!) A most solemn repetition.—ἡ ἀποκτένουσα, thou that killest) The participle has the force of a noun.—λιθοβαλοῦσα, that stonest) Such was the fate of Christ’s protomartyr, Stephen, recorded in Acts 7:58-59.—τοὺς ἀπεσταλμένους, them that are sent) Although ambassadors are considered inviolable by the law of nations.—πρὸς αὐτὴν, to her) i.e. πρός σε, to thee. Cf. Luke 1:45; Isaiah 47:10.—ποσάκις, κ.τ.λ., how often, etc.) As often especially as Jesus entered Judea, Jerusalem, or the Temple. See my Harmony of the Four Evangelists, and Gnomon on ch. Matthew 21:1.—καὶ οὐκ ἠθελήσατε, and ye would not) although I was willing. Cf. Isaiah 30:15.
 “Epizeuxis.” See Appendix.—ED.
 i.e. “Thou that art the Murderess of.”—(I. B.)
Full of compassion and horror alike.—V. g.
Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.Matthew 23:38. Ἰδοὺ, ἀφίεται, Behold [your house] is left) The present tense twice expressed. He uttered these words as He was going out of the Temple. See ch. Matthew 24:1, and cf. John 12:36.—Ὁ ΟἾΚΟς ὙΜῶΝ, your house) which is otherwise called the house of the Lord. Thus, in Exodus 32:7, God says to Moses, thy people.—ἔρημος, desolate, or desert) sc. as being left by the Messiah. Even after His ascension, Christ employed the Temple in a remarkable manner with His disciples. But with regard to Judaism, the Temple now ceased to be what it had been, and for this reason was at length destroyed; see Matthew 23:36. The word ἜΡΗΜΟς is often employed with a particular reference. Thus the Forum is said to be ἜΡΗΜΟΝ, when no judicial proceedings are being carried on in it.
 This refers to ἀποστέλλω in Matthew 23:34.—(I. B.)
 Though on other occasions God said of them, “My people.”—ED.
 For when the Messiah is absent, there is nothing that is not desolate and deserted.—V. g.
 i.e. To denote the absence of that which constituted the characteristic or excellence of the object under consideration.—(I. B.)
For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.Matthew 23:39. Λέγω, I say) See Gnomon on Luke 13:35.—ἴδητε, ye shall see) sc. you, inhabitants of Jerusalem. Cf. Luke 13:35.—ἀπʼ ἄρτι, from the present time) The short interval preceding our Lord’s death (and that spent without the Temple) is included in the present time [the ἌΡΤΙ of the text].—ἛΩς, until) sc. after a long interval.—εἴπητε, κ.τ.λ., ye shall say, etc.) They would say so when reciting the Hallel at the Passover, but without applying the words to Jesus. That which is here foretold will actually come to pass at the appointed time, as in ch. Matthew 21:9 was performed that which had been predicted in Luke 13:35. Our Lord, however, does not add “again,” although the people had shouted those words on the occasion recorded in Matthew 21:9. For neither had all joined in this acclamation to Him, nor had they who did so understood what they were saying, as Israel shall understand hereafter: and soon after they, as it were, retracted their acclamation. The first utterance of these words was less complete, the second will be worthy of the name. Cf. Gnomon on the omission of “again,” in Acts 1:11.—εὐλογημένος, κ.τ.λ., Blessed, etc.) With this verse concludes our Lord’s public discourse to the Jews: with this verse will begin their repentance.
 E. V. Henceforth.—(I. B.)
 Within which, and in reference to which, these words, Matthew 23:38, were spoken.—ED.
 “Lastly,” says Hartwell Horne, in describing the Jewish Passover, “a fourth cup of wine was filled, called the cup of the Hallel: over it they completed, either by singing or recitation, the great Hallel, or hymn of praise, consisting of Psalms 115-118 inclusive, with a prayer, and so concluded.”—(I. B.)
 Sc. of an utterance or saying, dictio, referring to the words, “Ye shall say.” Cf. in 1 Corinthians 14:15, “I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also.”—(I. B.)