Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers
This chapter is very closely connected with the last verses of Hebrews 10. Those verses have taught the necessity of faith for the attainment of the promise. Here we read of men to whom, through their faith, the promise has been made sure.
Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.(1) We have seen how the writer approached the subject which is the chief theme of this last division of this Epistle. The coming of the Lord, for judgment upon His adversaries, for salvation to His people, draws nigh. In the midst of dangers and judgments God’s righteous servant shall live, and the ground, of his life is his steadfast faith—if he shrink back, destruction will overtake him. “Our principle of action” (the writer says to his Hebrew readers) “is not shrinking back, but faith. And faith is this. . . .” It has been debated whether that which follows is a definition of what faith is, or in reality a description of what faith does. It is not a complete definition, in the sense of including all the moments of thought which are present in the word as used in the last chapter (Hebrews 11:38) or in this. The “things hoped for” are not mere figments of the imagination; their basis is the word of God. If we keep this in mind, the words, still remaining general in their form, agree with all that has led up to them and with all that follows; and whether they be called definition or description will be of little consequence.
The exact meaning of the special terms here used it is not easy to ascertain. The word rendered “substance” has already occurred twice in the Epistle. In Hebrews 1:3 this was its true meaning—the essence which, so to speak, underlies, “stands under,” the qualities possessed. In Hebrews 3:14 the same metaphor of standing under is applied to steadfastness, confidence (see the Note). The former of these renderings the Authorised version.—in this instance deserting the earlier translations (which for the most part have “sure confidence” or “ground”) to follow the Rhemish in its rendering of the Latin. substantia—has made familiar in the present passage. The sense which it presents, however, is not very clean; and the symmetry of the verse almost compels us here to make choice of some word which denotes an act, or at all events an attitude, of the mind. Most commentators of our own day accept the second meaning explained above, “confidence” or “assurance in regard to things hoped for.” To adopt Dr. Vaughan’s clear explanation, “Faith is that principle, that exercise of mind and soul, which has for its object things not seen but hoped for, and which, instead of sinking under them as too ponderous, whether from their difficulty or from their uncertainty, stands firm under them—supports and sustains their pressure—in other words, is assured of, confides in and relies on them.” This interpretation yields an excellent sense, and has the advantage of assigning to the Greek word a meaning which it certainly bears in an earlier chapter, and in two places of St. Paul’s Epistles. On the other hand, the analogy of the second member of the verse, and a peculiarity in the Greek construction which we cannot here discuss, seem to be in favour of a third rendering of the words: “Faith is the giving substance to things hoped for.” It has indeed been said that by such a translation the things hoped for are represented as being without substance. But this difficulty is only apparent; for in regard to ourselves these objects of our hope do not yet exist, since they still belong to the future (Romans 8:24-25). In the second clause the word “evidence” is likely to mislead; very probably, indeed, it now fails to convey the sense intended by our translators, who hero followed the rendering of the Genevan Bible (suggested by Calvin’s “evidentia”). The Greek word denotes putting to the test, examining for the purpose of proof, bringing to conviction. Under this aspect faith appears as neither blindly rejecting nor blindly accepting whatever may be said about things unseen, but boldly dealing with them as if with things seen, and then unflinchingly accepting that which has stood the proof. One peculiarity of the Greek yet remains to be noticed. In the second clause the word “things” is expressed in the Greek (as in Hebrews 6:18), but not in the first; we are by this means reminded of the reality of that which is thus spoken of as unseen. The whole verse, then, may be rendered “Now faith is the giving substance to what is hoped for, the testing of things not seen.” And now passing away from the general aspect of the words to that in which they are presented by the context, we have as the meaning: Faith, holding to God’s word, gives substance to what that word promises, investing the future blessings with a present existence, treating them as if already objects of sight rather than of hope. Through faith, guided by the same word, the things unseen are brought to the proof; what that word teaches, though future, or though belonging to a world beyond human sight, is received with full conviction. Thus “every genuine act of faith is the act of the whole man, not of his understanding alone, not of his affections alone, not of his will alone, but of all three in their central, aboriginal unity.” And thus faith becomes “the faculty in man through which the spiritual world exercises its sway over him, and thereby enables him to overcome the world of sin and death.” (Hare, Victory of Faith.)
For by it the elders obtained a good report.(2) For by it.—Better, For therein the elders had witness borne to them. The connection seems to be this: Faith truly accomplishes all this; for it was in the exercise of such a faith that the elders gained the witness which the Scripture bears (see Hebrews 11:4-5; Hebrews 11:39) to them and to their noble deeds. This verse, then, is added to confirm the first.
Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear.(3) Through faith.—Rather, By faith, as in the following verses. The first place is not given to “the elders,” for the writer’s object is to set forth the achievements of faith. With these, he would say, the Scripture record is filled. Even where there is no mention of this principle we must trace it in the lives of God’s servants; even where there is no history of men, there is a necessity for the exercise of faith by ourselves, and the first words of Scripture teach this lesson.
That the worlds were framed.—Literally, that the ages have been prepared. The remarkable expression which was used in Hebrews 1:2 is here repeated. The complete preparation of all that the successive periods of time contain is the idea which the words present. The narrative of the first chapter of Genesis ascribes the whole creation of “the heaven and the earth” to God; and associates with “a word of God” every stage in the preparation and furnishing of the earth. (See Note on Hebrews 1:2.) This is the first lesson of that record. But it does not stand alone, as is taught more plainly still by the next clause.
So that things which are seen.—A slight alteration in the Greek is necessary here—“the thing seen” (or “what is seen”) being the true reading. A more important point is a change in the aspect of the whole clause, which the Greek seems to require. As the English words stand, they point out the significance of the statement of Scripture respecting the creative act: we believe the writer intended rather to state the divine purpose in relation to that first creation and all subsequent acts that are included in the “preparing of the ages.” “In order that what is seen should not have come into being out of things which appear.” This is probably the true meaning of the clause. In the narrative of the first chapter of Genesis God would have us learn a lesson for the whole course of human history and development. As the visible universe did not take its being out of what was apparent, so what from time to time is seen does not arise of itself out of what is manifest to man’s natural perceptions. Not only is the eternity of matter denied, but from the beginning a warning has been given against a materialistic philosophy. The first page of Scripture is designed to teach the constant presence and work of the Creator. This lesson we learn and apply by faith; and the result of its application is seen in many points of the history which follows. In that history the operation of faith is twofold. The writer’s most obvious design is to call attention to the faith possessed by “the elders,” and its wonderful triumphs; but it is in many cases by the same faith that we interpret the Scripture record so as to discover this to have been their guiding principle. But seldom does the Old Testament directly speak of faith, and hence the importance of this verse (which some have thought incongruous, since it retards the exhibition of the elders’ faith) as throwing light on our interpretation of the teaching of God’s word.
By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.(4) A more excellent.—The Greek literally means that Abel’s sacrifice was “more than” Cain’s (comp. Hebrews 3:3, “more glory”; Matthew 6:25; Luke 11:32, et al.). The word “sacrifice” (which, as is the case with very many words in this chapter, is taken directly from the LXX.) has not its special sense (see Note on Hebrews 10:5) in the narrative of Genesis 4; for the offerings of the two brothers are there designated by the same name, both in the Hebrew (“offering”) and in the Greek (“sacrifice”). Hence, apart from the first words, “by faith,” there is nothing here said to explain the superiority of Abel’s offering; though one who believes sacrifice to have been of Divine institution, and who notes the close connection between God’s word and the actions of the men whose faith is here recorded, may hold it probable that Abel’s obedience was manifested in his mode of approaching God.
By which he obtained witness.—Probably, “through which faith,” but the Greek may also mean through which sacrifice. The witness (Hebrews 11:2) is that borne by God in His acceptance of the offering (shown by some visible sign); we might also add that such a testimony to Abel is implied in the reproof of Cain (Genesis 4:7), but the following words, “God bearing witness over” (or in regard to) “his gifts,” show what was chiefly in the writer’s thought. Such acceptance implied Abel’s righteousness and thus testified to his “faith.” It is remarkable that in three out of the four places in which Abel is mentioned in the New Testament this epithet is used (Matthew 23:35; 1John 3:12). In the later Jewish tradition (contained in the Targum of Jerusalem) the brothers are represented as types of faith and unbelief; and in Hebrews 11:10, “thy brother’s blood” (Hebrew, “bloods”) is expanded into “the blood of the multitude of the righteous who were to arise from thy brother.” In this clause the authorities for the Greek text are much divided. One reading, “he testifying over his gifts to God,” has the support of the three oldest MSS., but can hardly be correct.
And by it.—Better, and through it (his faith). The reference is to Genesis 4:10, “the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto me from the ground” (see Hebrews 12:24); hence, as Calvin remarks, “he was plainly numbered among God’s saints, whose death is precious in His sight.”
By faith Enoch was translated that he should not see death; and was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had this testimony, that he pleased God.(5) See death.—See Luke 2:26; Psalm 89:48 (John 8:51).
And was not found . . . translated him.—An exact quotation from the LXX. (Genesis 5:24). The word rendered “translated” is a very simple one, denoting merely change of place; but nothing can equal the simplicity of the Hebrew, “he was not. for God took him.”
He had this testimony.—Better, he hath had witness borne to him (Hebrews 11:2; Hebrews 11:4) that he hath been well pleasing to God. The form of the expression shows that the writer is again speaking of the ever present word of Scripture (Hebrews 4:9, &c.) That word does not record the translation of Enoch until it “hath” borne witness to him that he pleased God. The words “walked with God” are rendered in the LXX. “was well pleasing to God,” and it is this rendering that is quoted here and in the next verse. The writer himself supplies the comment in the next verse, which has a very close connection with this.
But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.(6) But without faith.—Better, and apart from faith it is impossible to be “well pleasing” (unto Him); for he that draweth near (Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 10:1; Hebrews 10:22) to God must believe . . . Thus the very statement that Enoch pleased God is an assertion that in him faith was found. No one can be the habitual worshipper of God (this is what the phrase implies) if his faith does not grasp these two truths. “Is a rewarder”—literally, becometh a recompenser (Hebrews 2:2; Hebrews 10:35); the future recompense is present to the eye of faith.
By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.(7) Being warned of God.—(See Hebrews 8:5.)
Moved with fear.—The marginal rendering “being wary” (or better, taking forethought) is preferred by some, and agrees very well with the proper meaning of the word; but it is more probable that the writer-has in view that devout godly fear which the words akin to this regularly denote in the New Testament. (See the Notes on Hebrews 5:7; Hebrews 12:28.) Noah’s obedience to the divine warning was an evidence at once of his fear of God and of the faith which gave substance and present reality to “the things not seen as yet.”
By the which.—As before (Hebrews 11:4), the words “through which” are slightly ambiguous, for they may relate either to the ark or to the faith. The latter reference is more probable. His faith, shown in the building of the ark, exposed the unbelief of “the world,” which would not listen to his warnings, and thereby incurred the divine condemnation. Our Lord uses “condemn” in the same sense in Matthew 12:41-42. By the same faith Noah “became an heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.” Noah is the first to receive in Scripture the name “righteous” (Genesis 6:9). See also Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20; and 2Peter 2:5, “Noah, a preacher of righteousness.” This righteousness is looked on as an inheritance, received by all who manifest the faith. In this place the righteousness is connected with faith, as in the writings of St. Paul, but with a change of figure. It is not looked on as arising out of faith (Romans 10:6), or as resting on the condition of faith (Philippians 3:9), or as obtained by means of faith (Romans 3:22), but as corresponding with faith, or answering to it. There is no important difference of thought, but the idea of a continuous inheritance answering to continuous faith is very strikingly presented here.
By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.(8) When he was called to go out.—Our older versions are here better than the Authorised, bringing in the word “obeyed” after “called”—“obeyed to go out into,” &c.
Which he should after receive.—The English rendering may seem to imply that when “called” Abraham received the promise that the land to which he would be directed should in the future be his inheritance. It is not so (Acts 7:5); for this promise is not found in Genesis 12:1-3, but was bestowed when he had obeyed (Genesis 12:7). The meaning here is, “unto a place which he was to receive.”
By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise:(9) The land of promise—More correctly, according to the true reading, a land of the promise: into a land which the promise (Genesis 12:7) made his own he came as a sojourner, and sojourned in it as in a land belonging to others, making his settled abode there in tents. The words of which this is a paraphrase are very expressive, especially those of the last clause. Abraham there “made his home once for all, well aware that it was to be his home—expecting no change in this respect all his life long—in tents,” movable, shifting abodes—here to-day, there to-morrow—with (as did also in their turn) “Isaac and Jacob,” the “heirs with him of the same promise.” (Dr. Vaughan.)
For he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God.(10) A city which hath foundations.—Rather, the city which hath the foundations. The general thought is that which we find expressed in Hebrews 11:14-16. There, the strangers and pilgrims are seeking for a country of their own; here, the dweller in tents is waiting for the city that hath the foundations. All these verses clearly teach that the promise as apprehended by the patriarchs was not bounded by the gift of Canaan. Of what nature their expectations of the future life may have been we cannot tell; but this they knew, that their fellowship with God and their interest in His promises would not cease with this transient life. What they saw of earthly blessing was but the earnest of some greater gift still future, and yet present through the power of their faith. The shifting tent might be Abraham’s home now, but he waited for that city which should never know change—of which alone it could be said that it hath “the foundations,” and whose Architect and Maker is God. (Comp. Psalm 87:1; Revelation 21)
Through faith also Sara herself received strength to conceive seed, and was delivered of a child when she was past age, because she judged him faithful who had promised.(11) Through faith also Sara herself.—Rather, By faith Sarah herself also, or, even Sarah herself. This emphatic introduction of the name of Sarah may point to the unbelief which for a brief while she displayed (Genesis 18:12); but the words may simply mean, “Sarah also, on her part”—the joint recipient with Abraham of the divine promise, a promise in which it might at first seem that she had no part. (Comp. Genesis 16:1-2.) The words “was delivered of a child” are absent from the best authorities; so that we must read, “even when she was past age.” With the last words of the verse compare Hebrews 10:23.
Therefore sprang there even of one, and him as good as dead, so many as the stars of the sky in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable.(12) The stars of the sky.—Better, the stars of the heaven. (See Genesis 15:5; Genesis 22:17.)
These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.(13) These all died in faith.—We must not change the order of the original. Seven verses up to this point have begun with the emphatic words “by faith.” There is a change here, but not in the emphasis of this thought. We should not expect to read “By faith these died;” what is said is, “In accordance with faith all these died;” faith had been the support and guide of their life, and their death was in accordance with the same principle. That is, they (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah) did not die in possession of what had been promised (Hebrews 11:39), but saw at a distance the blessings of which God had spoken (Hebrews 11:1).
And were persuaded of them.—These words do not belong to the true text; and the word “embraced” should be rendered “greeted,” or “saluted.” We read, therefore: “Not having received the promises, but having seen and greeted them from far” (Genesis 49:18), “and having confessed that they were strangers and sojourners upon the earth” (Genesis 47:9; Genesis 23:4). (Comp. 1Chronicles 29:15; Psalm 39:12; Psalm 119:19; Psalm 119:54; also 1Peter 1:1; 1Peter 2:11. The verses which follow are a comment on this. For the last words, “on the earth.” see Hebrews 11:16.
For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country.(14) Such things.—“I am a stranger and a sojourner with you” (Genesis 23:4). “The days of the years of my pilgrimage. . . . the life of my fathers in the days of their pilgrimage” (Genesis 47:9).
Declare plainly that they seek a country.—Rather, make it plain that they are seeking a home, or fatherland.
And truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned.(15) They might have had.—Rather, they would have had opportunity to return. All their life long they would have been able to claim again their earlier fatherland, by returning whence they came.
But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.(16) They confess themselves but sojourners (Hebrews 11:13), and thus make it plain that they are still seeking their true home (14); and yet, if. they had sought nothing more than an earthly home, there is one already, which was once theirs, and to which they might return (15); hence it is no earthly but a heavenly-country that they desire. This is the general current of thought in these verses, presenting a very close analogy to the argument of Hebrews 3:7 to Hebrews 4:11; here, as there, words which otherwise might appear to have but an earthly reference are seen to have a higher and a spiritual import. In Hebrews 11:8-9 we have before us only the land of inheritance, but in Hebrews 11:10 the heavenly rest; and in Hebrews 11:13 words which as read in Genesis might seem to refer to a wandering life in the land of Canaan are taken as a confession of sojourning upon earth. It is not necessary to suppose that the desires and yearnings of “the fathers” expressed themselves in the definite forms which later revelation has made familiar; in all that is essential the hope existed, whilst the mode of the fulfilment was unknown. Through faith the patriarchs were willing to connect their whole life and that of their children with waiting at God’s bidding for the fulfilment of a promise—wandering and sojourning until God’s own time should come when He would grant a home in a country of their own. And yet each of these servants of God recognised that relation to God in which lay the foundation of the promise to him to be personal and abiding. If these two thoughts be united, it will be easy to see how each one for himself would be led to regard the state of wandering in which he spent his life as an emblem of a state of earthly waiting for an enduring home; the sojourning in the land was a constant symbol of the sojourning upon earth. Hence (see the passages quoted in Hebrews 11:13) the same language is used from age to age after Canaan is received as an inheritance. (Comp. Hebrews 4:9; and see Exodus 3:15, and Matthew 22:31-32.)
But now.—See Hebrews 8:6; the meaning is not “at this present time,” but “as the case stands in truth.”
Wherefore God is not ashamed.—Rather, Wherefore God is not ashamed of them (compare Hebrews 2:11). Because of this lofty desire, or rather, because of the faith and love towards Him in which the desire was founded, and of which therefore the longing for a heavenly country was the expression, God is not ashamed of them, to be called (literally surnamed) their God (Genesis 17:7; Genesis 26:24; Genesis 28:13; Exodus 3:6; et al.). That He is not ashamed of them He has shown, “for He prepared for them a city.” Before the desire existed the home had been provided. (Comp. Matthew 25:34.)
By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son,(17) The patriarchs displayed their faith in the attitude of their whole life, and in their death. This has been the thought of the preceding verses; the writer now passes to the lessons taught by particular actions and events.
Tried.—Genesis 22:1 : “God did tempt Abraham.” The following word is in the Greek “hath offered up Isaac,” and several other examples of a similar peculiarity will present themselves in this chapter. As in former cases (Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 7:11; Hebrews 10:9) the reference is to the permanent record of Scripture, in which the fact related is ever present. Abraham stands before us there as having offered his son. It will be seen that the offering is spoken of as if consummated. As regards faith the sacrifice was indeed complete; the perfect surrender of will had been made, and the hand was stretched out for the deed.
And he that had received the promises offered up.—Rather, and he that had welcomed (gladly accepted) the promises was offering up. From the figurative accomplishment of the deed the writer passes to the historical narrative; hence we read, “he . . . was (in the act of) offering.” This clause and Hebrews 11:18 set forth the greatness of the sacrifice (compare Genesis 22:2, in the literal rendering, “Take now thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, Isaac”); Hebrews 11:19 explains the operation of his faith.
Of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall thy seed be called:(18) Of whom.—That is, Isaac. But the Greek words should perhaps be rendered to whom (Abraham): “Even he to whom it was said.” On this quotation from Genesis 21:12 see the Note on Romans 9:7.
Accounting that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from whence also he received him in a figure.(19) That God was able.—These words are better taken as the expression of a general truth—“Accounting that God is able to raise up even from the dead.’ The faith which tests and brings conviction of the things not seen made this reasoning possible, and gave power to act upon it even when Isaac must be slain.
From whence also.—Better, from whence he did in a figure (literally, a parable) receive him. As in a figure the offering was completely carried out (Hebrews 11:17), so also in figure he received his son back from the dead.
By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things to come.(20) Concerning things to come.—It is probable, though not certain, that the word “even” should be inserted before “concerning”; on these words, then, the emphasis will rest. Not having regard to things present only, or things almost at hand, but looking far into the future, through the divine revelation which opened to him the meaning of the promises received by Abraham, he gave to each son the blessing designed by God (Genesis 27:27-29; Genesis 27:39-40). Isaac’s confidence in the divine guidance of his words is especially seen in Hebrews 11:33 of the chapter.
By faith Jacob, when he was a dying, blessed both the sons of Joseph; and worshipped, leaning upon the top of his staff.(21) Both the sons.—Rather, each of the sons. The separate character of the two blessings is thus brought out (Genesis 48:14-19). (See the last Note.) In the case of the two events mentioned in this verse the order of time is reversed, probably that the blessing of Jacob may immediately follow the similar record of Hebrews 11:20.
And worshipped.—The incident referred to will be found in Genesis 47:31. After receiving from Joseph a promise, confirmed by oath, that he shall be buried with his fathers, “Israel bowed himself upon” (or, worshipped towards) “the bed’s head.” In the LXX. and in the Targums the words are understood as denoting an act of worship. The Greek translators have taken the last word of the Hebrew verse to denote “staff” (Genesis 32:10), not “bed,” the words which bear these different meanings differing very slightly in form. The whole clause is given here as it stands in the LXX., the difference between the renderings being immaterial for the purpose which the writer had in view. The quotation of the familiar words serves to recall the scene, and brings before us Israel’s thankful and devout satisfaction when assured that he should rest with his fathers in the land of Canaan; by this, at the point of death, he expressed his faith in the promise by which Abraham and his seed received Canaan as their inheritance.
By faith Joseph, when he died, made mention of the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones.(22) When he died.—Literally, drawing to his end. The word is taken from Genesis 50:26; and the mention of the departure (literally, the Exodus) of the children of Israel is found in Hebrews 11:24-25. This example of faith in the promise and clinging to the hope which it held forth needs no comment. For the fulfilment of Joseph’s dying request see Exodus 13:19, “Moses took the bones of Joseph with him” out of Egypt; and Joshua 24:32, “And the bones of Joseph buried they in Shechem.”
By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper child; and they were not afraid of the king's commandment.(23) Because they saw he was a proper child.—“Proper” has its now obsolete sense of handsome, comely, a meaning not uncommon in Shakespeare. The word used in the Greek translation of Exodus 2:2 is preserved both in Acts 7:20 (see the Note) and in this place. It would seem that the remarkable beauty of the infant was understood by his parents as a divine sign given for the guidance of their conduct. The next clause should probably be closely connected with this—“because they saw . . . and were not afraid of the king’s commandment” (Exodus 1:16). Their reliance on the protection of God enabled them to brave the anger of the king.
By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter;(24) Come to years—i.e., grown up, “when he was full forty years old” (Acts 7:23). The words here used are taken from the Greek translation of Exodus 2:11, where we first read of Moses as openly Associating himself with his oppressed people. When Moses slew the Egyptian who was “smiting a Hebrew, one of his brethren,” he in act “refused to be called a son of Pharaoh’s daughter,” and chose “to suffer Affliction with the people of God.” (See Exodus 2:15.)
Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season;(25) Choosing.—Better, having chosen. His act was an expression of his deliberate choice. He joined his people because it was “the people of God.” To stand aloof for the sake of ease and pleasure would for him have been apostasy from God (“sin,” comp. Hebrews 10:26). The faith of Moses had brought “conviction of the things not seen,” which “are eternal *; hence he looked not at “the things seen” which are “for a season” (2Corinthians 4:18, where the same word is used).
Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompence of the reward.(26) The reproach of Christ.—Better, The reproach of the Christ. Many explanations have been proposed of this remarkable phrase, some of which—as “reproach for Christ,” “reproach similar to that which Christ endured”—cannot possibly give the true meaning. The first point to be noted is that the words are almost exactly a quotation from one of the chief of the Messianic Psalms (Psalm 89:50-51)—“Remember, Lord, the reproach of Thy servants; how I do bear in my bosom the reproach of many peoples: wherewith Thine enemies have reproached, O Lord; wherewith they have reproached the footsteps of Thine Anointed.” Here the writer in effect speaks of himself as bearing “the reproach of the Anointed” of the Lord; pleading in his name and identifying himself with his cause. “The Anointed” is the king who (see the Note on Hebrews 1:5) was the type of the promised Christ. Throughout the whole of their history the people of Israel were the people of the Christ. Their national existence originated in the promise to Abraham, which was a promise of the Christ; and till the fulness of time should come their mission was to prepare the way for Him. The reproach which Moses accepted by joining the people of the promise was, therefore, “the reproach of the Christ,” the type of that “reproach” which in later days His people will share with Him (Hebrews 13:13). He who was to appear in the last days as the Messiah was already in the midst of Israel (John 1:10). (See Psalm 69:9; Colossians 1:24; 1Peter 1:11; and the Note on 2Corinthians 1:5. Philippians 3:7-11 furnishes a noble illustration of this whole record.)
For he had respect unto the recompence of the reward.—Rather, for he looked unto the recompence (Hebrews 10:35). He habitually “looked away” from the treasures in Egypt, and fixed his eye on the heavenly reward.
By faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible.(27) By faith he forsook Egypt.—It is a matter of great difficulty to decide whether these words refer to the flight into Midian (Exodus 2:15), or to the Exodus. The former view, which seems to be taken by all ancient writers and by most in modern times, is supported by the following arguments:—(1) The institution of the Passover is mentioned later in this chapter (Hebrews 11:28); (2) the second departure was made at Pharaoh’s urgent request (Exodus 12:31); (3) “he forsook” is too personal an expression to be used of the general Exodus. On the other side it is urged with great force: (1) that, although the actual departure from Egypt followed the institution of the Passover, the “forsaking” really commenced in the demand of Hebrews 5:1-3, persevered in until the anger of the king was powerfully excited (Hebrews 10:28); (2) that, as might have been certainly foreseen, the wrath of both king and people was aroused as soon as the people had departed (Exodus 14:5); (3) that the flight to Midian was directly caused by fear (Exodus 2:14-15); (4) that the following words, “he endured, &c.,” are much more applicable to the determined persistency of Moses and his repeated disappointments (Exodus 5-12) than to the inaction of his years of exile. On the whole the latter interpretation seems preferable. If the former be adopted, we must distinguish between the apprehension which led him (4) to seek safety in flight and the courage which enabled him to give up Egypt.
He endured.—In the presence of Pharaoh (or in the weariness of exile) he was strong and patient, as seeing the invisible King and Leader of His people.
Through faith he kept the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, lest he that destroyed the firstborn should touch them.(28) Through faith he kept.—Rather, By faith he hath kept (see Hebrews 11:17). The celebration of the Passover and the sprinkling of the blood were acts of obedience, having reference to a danger as yet un seen, but present in God’s word (Exodus 12:12).
By faith they passed through the Red sea as by dry land: which the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned.(29) Which the Egyptians assaying to do.—Literally, Of which the Egyptians making trial were swallowed up (Exodus 14, 15). In the same “trial,” but with the support of the word of God, had consisted Israel’s faith. The word land is not in the ordinary Greek text (and hence stands in italics), but is found in the best MSS. It is with this word that the following clause (“of which . . .”) connects itself.
By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed about seven days.(30) Seven days.—It is the persistence of Israel’s obedience (in the midst, we cannot doubt, of the unmeasured contempt and ridicule of their foes) during the seven days of almost total inaction (Joshua 6) that is here brought into relief.
By faith the harlot Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she had received the spies with peace.(31) That believed not.—Bather, that were disobedient (see Hebrews 3:18; Hebrews 4:6; Hebrews 4:11). To her and to her countrymen alike had come the knowledge of what the Lord had done for Israel (Joshua 2:10). She recognised from these signs, and acknowledged, the supremacy of Jehovah (Hebrews 11:11), and she cast in her lot with His servants; the men of Jericho continued in their disobedience, and perished (Joshua 6:21). Through faith, therefore, a despised heathen woman became united with the people of God. With such an example these more detailed histories may fitly close.
And what shall I more say? for the time would fail me to tell of Gedeon, and of Barak, and of Samson, and of Jephthae; of David also, and Samuel, and of the prophets:(32) The sacred writer has lingered over the life and deeds of the greatest of the patriarchs and of Moses the legislator of the nation: two examples only—differing in kind from those which have preceded, and peculiarly suggestive and important—have been taken from the history of the people after the death of Moses. Enough has now been said to guide all who are willing to search the Scriptures for themselves. With a brief mention of names which would call up before the minds of his readers achievements almost as wonderful as those on which he has been dwelling, he passes from the elders who received witness from God by their faith, and (Hebrews 11:33-38) speaks in general terms, but all the more distinctly, of the triumphs which faith has won.
The time would fail me.—The slight changes of text required by our best evidence give increased vividness: For the time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah. To the exploits of Barak (Judges 4, 5), Gideon (Judges 6-8), Samson (Judges 13-16), Jephthah (Judges 11, 12), there is manifest reference in the words of later verses (Hebrews 11:33-34). There seems to be no design in this arrangement of the names. In the following clause also, “of David and Samuel and the prophets,” there is a similar departure from the order of time.
Who through faith subdued kingdoms, wrought righteousness, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions,(33) Subdued kingdoms.—Better, overcame kingdoms. To all the deliverers of Israel of whom we have read in Hebrews 11:32 (and especially to David, 2 Samuel 8, 10, 11) these words will apply. They also “wrought righteousness,” as each judge or king or prophet “executed judgment and justice unto all his people” (2Samuel 8:15).
Obtained promises.—Do these words mean that these men of faith won promises of future blessing (such as were vouchsafed to David and the prophets), or that promises of deliverance were fulfilled to them? There seems no reason for doubting that the writer’s language may include both thoughts. The words which follow (though illustrated in the history of Samson and of David) clearly point to Daniel (Hebrews 6).
Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in fight, turned to flight the armies of the aliens.(34) The violence.—Rather, the power (Daniel 3.).
Escaped the edge of the sword.—Though it would not be difficult to trace the application of this and the following clauses to the heroes of Israel celebrated in the Old Testament history (the perils of David and Elijah and the “weakness” of Samson and Hezekiah will occur to the mind of all), it seems likely that the writer’s thought is resting mainly on the history of the Maccabæan times. That the following verse relates to narratives contained in the Second Book of Maccabees is generally acknowledged; and no words could more truly characterise the general contents of the First Book than those of the present verse.
Women received their dead raised to life again: and others were tortured, not accepting deliverance; that they might obtain a better resurrection:(35) Raised to life again.—Literally, by a resurrection. (See 1Kings 17:22-23; 2Kings 4:35-37.) At this point the character of the record is changed; hitherto we have heard of the victories of faith in action, now it is of the triumph of faith over suffering that the writer speaks. Those who “escaped the edge of the sword” (Hebrews 11:34) and those who “were slain with the sword” alike exemplified the power of faith.
Others were tortured.—See the account of the aged Eleazar (2 Maccabees 6:30), martyred because he would not pollute himself with swine’s flesh and the “flesh taken from the sacrifice commanded by the king.” The following chapter records the martyrdom of seven brethren, who for their adherence to their law were put to death with cruel tortures. (See especially Hebrews 11:9; Hebrews 11:14; Hebrews 11:23; Hebrews 11:29; Hebrews 11:36.)
Not accepting deliverance.—Literally, not accepting the redemption, i.e., the deliverance offered, which must be purchased at the price of their constancy.
A better resurrection.—Better than that return to the present life which is spoken of in the first words of the verse.
And others had trial of cruel mockings and scourgings, yea, moreover of bonds and imprisonment:(36) The language becomes more general, but still chiefly refers to the same troublous times.
Yea, moreover of bonds.—Lasting and cruel captivity, a worse fate even than “mockings and scourgings.”
They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented;(37) They were stoned.—As Zechariah (2Chronicles 24:20-22), and—according to a Jewish tradition mentioned by Tertullian and others—Jeremiah. (See Matthew 23:35; Matthew 23:37.)
They were sawn asunder.—An ancient tradition, mentioned both by Jewish and by early Christian writers, relates that Isaiah was thus put to death by order of Manasseh. The following words, “they were tempted,” are very remarkable in such a position; and many conjectures have been hazarded on the supposition that a mistake of transcription has occurred. If the text is correct, the writer is speaking of the promises and allurements by which the persecutors sought to overcome the constancy of God’s servants.
They wandered about.—Rather, they went about, as outcasts; compelled to live the life of wanderers and exiles.
Tormented.—Rather, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated (of whom the world was not worthy), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and the holes of the earth. Once more the Maccabæan persecutions seem to be chiefly in view. (See 1 Maccabees 2:28-29; 2 Maccabees 5:27; 2 Maccabees 6:11. Comp. also 1Samuel 22:1; 1Kings 18:4.)
And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise:(39) Having obtained a good report.—Now that the history is concluded the word of Hebrews 11:2 is resumed. That in such a faith as was described in Hebrews 11:1 “the elders” received their witness from God, the records themselves have shown; yet “these all, having had witness borne to them through their faith, received not the promise,” i.e., the promised blessing. There are three passages of the Epistle which must be kept together—Hebrews 6:15, “And so, having patiently waited, he (Abraham) obtained the promise;” Hebrews 10:36, “Ye have need of endurance, that having done the will of God ye may receive the promise;” and the present versa. To the saints of the Old Testament the promised blessing was future; they obtained it, but not within the limits of this present life. To us the promised blessing is present, revealed to us in its true nature, obtained for us once for all; for we know that eternal redemption has been won through Christ’s entering for us once for all into the heavenly sanctuary (Hebrews 9:12), and to us the “perfection” has come, in that through Him we “draw near to God” (Hebrews 7:11; Hebrews 7:19). That (1) the full personal appropriation of the gift is for every one of us still future, and (2) the full revelation belongs to another state of being, is true, but not inconsistent with what has been said.
God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.(40) For us.—Rather, concerning us, that without (or, apart from) us they should not be made perfect. “Some better thing”—better than they had received (Matthew 13:17; 1Peter 1:10-11). The design of God was that they and we may be perfected together; first in the joint reception of mature knowledge and privilege through the High-priestly work of the Lord Jesus (comp. Ephesians 3:10; 1Peter 1:12); and then that we with them may, when the end shall come, “have our perfect consummation and bliss both in body and soul, in the eternal and everlasting glory of God.” See further the Note on Hebrews 12:23.