Matthew 12
ICC New Testament Commentary
At that time Jesus went on the sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungred, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.
C. (6) Hostility of the Pharisees, 12:1-45

12. The editor now wishes to illustrate the grounds of the hostility of the Pharisees to the Messiah and His work. For material for this he goes back to the earlier point at which he left Mk.’s narrative, i.e. 2:23. He borrows Mark 2:23-28 = Matthew 12:1-8, and also the next section, Mark 3:1-6 = Matthew 12:9-14. In vv. 15-21 he summarises Mark 3:7-12, and adds a reference to the Old Testament. As he has already inserted Mark 3:13-19a, this brings him to 3:19b-21. For this he substitutes Matthew 12:22-23, thus completing a series of three incidents illustrative of Pharisaic hostility. For arrangement in threes, see Introduction, p. lxv.

(M) 1. At that time, Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the cornfields. And His disciples were hungry, and began to pluck ears of corn, and to eat.] Mk. has: “And it came to pass that He was going on the Sabbath day through the cornfields; and His disciples began as they went to pluck the ears of corn.”—ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ ἐπορεύθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς] Mk. has καὶ ἐγένετο αὐτὸν—διαπορεύεσθαι. The editor avoids καὶ ἐγένετο as a connecting link except in a special formula; see on 3:13. ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ occurs three times, here, 11:25, and 14:1, in this Gospel; never in Mk. or Lk. We have just had it in 11:5. Formulas have a way of appearing in close connection in this Gospel; cf. εἰς ὅλην τήν γῆν ἐκείνην, 9:26; ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ γῇ ἐκείνῃ, 9:31; the construction ἀναχωρησάντων δὲ αὐτῶν —ἰδού, 2:1, 13, 19. παραγίνε αι Ἰωάνης, 3:1; παραγίνεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς, 3:13; the construction ἀκούσας δὲ—ἀνεχώρησεν, 4:12, 18, 5:1; the construction καὶ ἐμβάντι αὐτῷ—ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ, 8:23, 28; καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν, 15:29; καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκεῖθεν, 15:21; the construction καὶ ἐμβὰς—διεπέρασε, 9:1, 9. Cf. Intro. lxxxvi. The editor avoids Mk.’s pleonastic διαπορεύεσθαι διά by substituting the simple verb. Cf. περιπατῶν παρά, 4:18, for Mk.’s παράγων παρά; and cf. Intro. xxv.—τοῖς σάββασι] from σάββατα, which seems to correspond to the Aramaic שׁבָּתָא, but is declined as though it were a neuter plural.—τὰ σπόριμα] = sown land or crops, seems to occur only here.—οἱ δὲ μαθηταί] for Mk.’s καὶ οἱ μαθηταί, see Introduction, p. xx. ἐπείνασν καὶ is omitted by Mk. For ἐπείνασαν, see on 4:2.—ἤρξαντο τίλλειν] Mk. has ἤρξαντο ὁδὸν ποιεῖν τίλλοντες. Mt. omits the ambiguous ὁδὸν ποιεῖν and substitutes after σταχύας, καὶ ἐσθίειν. Mk. specifies two actions, “making a way” and “plucking.”; Mt. has two, “plucking” and “eating”; Lk. has three, “plucking,” “rubbing with the hands,” and “eating.” The “eating” already involved in Mk.’s “plucking” is probably an explanatory addition of the later Evangelists. The “plucking” was, probably, from a Pharisaic standpoint, regarded as work on the Sabbath. “Reaping” is one of the thirty-nine kinds of work forbidden on the Sabbath in the Talmud, B. Shab. 73b; and Lightfoot, Hor. Heb., quotes Maimonides as saying: “To pluck ears is a kind of reaping.”

(M) 2. And the Pharisees saw it, and said to Him, Behold, Thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do on the Sabbath.] Mk has: “And the Pharisees were saying to Him, See ! Why do they on the Sabbath that which is not lawful?”]—οἱ δὲ] as often for Mk.’s καὶ οἱ.—ἰδόντες εἶπαν] for Mk.’s ἔλεγον. For the form εἶπα, see Blass, p. 45; Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 36.—ἰδοὺ οἱ μαθηταὶ σου] Mk. has simply ἰδέ—ποιοῦσιν ὃ οὑκ ἔξεστιν ποιεῖν ἐν σαββάτῳ] Mk. has: ποιοῦσιν τοῖς σάββασιν ὃ οὐκ ἔξεστιν. σάββατον is the Greek form of the Hebrew שַׁבָּת.

(M) 3. And He said to them, Did you not read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him.] Mk. has “And He saith to them, Did ye never read what David did when he had need and was hungry; he and those who were with him?” ὁ δὲ εἶπεν] as often for Mk.’s καὶ λεγει.—οὐκ] for Mk.’s οὐδέποτε.—ὅτε ἐπείνασεν] Mk. has two clauses: ὅτε χρείαν ἔσχεν καὶ ἐπείασεν. For Mt.’s omission of one of two synonymous clauses, see Introduction, p. xxv.—καὶ οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ] Mk. prefixes αὐτός.

(M) 4. How he entered into the house of God, and ate the bread of the setting forth, which was not lawful for him to eat, nor those who were with him, but for the priests alone?] Mk. has: “How He entered into the house of God in the time of Abiathar the high priest, and ate the bread of the setting forth, which it is not lawful to eat save for priests, and gave also to those who were with him.” In clause a Mk. has ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως. Mt. omits as an erroneous reference (as do D latt. S1 in Mk.), Ahimelech (LXX. Abimelech) being high priest at the time; cf. 1 S 21:1.—τοὺς ἄρτους τῆς προθέσεως] is one of the renderings of the LXX. for the Hebrew לחם הפנים; cf. 2 Chronicles 4:19. Other renderings are ἄρτοι ἐνώπιοι, Exodus 25:29; οἱ ἄρτοι οἱ προκείμενοι, of Exodus 39:18; ἄρτοι τοῦ προσώπου, 1 K 21:6 For its meaning, see Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 157.—ὃ οὐκ ἐξὸν ἦν αὐτῷ φαγεῖν οὐδὲ τοῖς μετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰ μὴ τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν μόνοις] Mk. has: οὓς οὐκ ἐξεστιν φαγεῖν εἰ μὴ τοὺς ἱερεῖς καὶ ἔδωκεν τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν. Mt. assimilates τοῖς σὺν αὐτῷ οὖσιν to οἱ μετʼ αὐτοῦ of v. 3, and substitutes the easier dative for τοὺς ἱερεῖς.

Christ meets the complaint that His disciples work on the Sabbath by pleading necessity, and by quoting an analogous instance sanctioned by Scripture. The charge was based on the Rabbinical exposition of the law of the Sabbath. “Plucking the ears” was not in itself an offence, cf. Deuteronomy 23:25, but it came under the category of work forbidden on the Sabbath by scribal tradition. Against this tradition Christ appealed to Scripture. David ate the shewbread. That was an illegal act. But he was impelled by necessity. In the same way the action of His disciples was sanctioned by their need.

(L) 5. The second point in Christ’s answer in Mk. is the statement that “the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath,” with the inference that “the Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath.” It is clear that this last statement in the form given by Mk. does not very well suit the context. It is the disciples who were blamed, not Christ Himself. Very possibly ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου is a mistranslation for “man.” This would give the required justification of the disciples. The Sabbath was made to subserve man’s need, therefore man is lord of the Sabbath, and may use it as need requires, working upon it if necessary. But Mk.’s καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς may be a hint that he has added here words spoken on the occasion of some other Sabbath dispute, when Christ Himself was attacked, and the ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου would be in place. Mt. omits the words καὶ ἔλεγεν—διὰ τὸ σάββατον, and substitutes a second appeal to the Old Testament. Just as it furnished a precedent for the breaking of religious regulations in case of necessity, so it also sanctioned the overruling of general laws (in this case the prohibition of work on the Sabbath) in particular cases. The editor then adds an appeal to the general tenor of the Old Testament witness, as illustrated in Hosea 6:6, and ends with Mark 2:28. The argument in these verses is not easy to follow. The action of the disciples is in no sense parallel to that of the priests in the temple; nor could the fact that the priests obeyed the injunctions of the law, by working on the Sabbath, justify the disciples for disobeying the scribal expositions of the law which prohibited work on the Sabbath. The appeal to Hosea 6:6 is more suitable in such a context as 9:13, where the editor has again inserted it, than it is here.

It seems probable, therefore, that the editor here, as elsewhere, adds to a particular incident sayings spoken on other similar occasions. He is also, probably, influenced here by the difficulty of the present text of Mk vv. 27-28. “The Sabbath was made for man—so that the son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath,” seems to have no bearing upon the disciples and their plucking the ears of corn. If ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου is a mistranslation for “man,” the saying becomes pertinent, “Man is lord of the Sabbath.” That justifies the action of the disciples. But “the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath” seems to be no true inference from the preceding clause, nor to have any bearing upon the action complained of. The editor, therefore, omits “the Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath,” and, losing sight of the incident of the disciples and the ears, adds a saying in which Christ on some other occasion justified His own action in working on the Sabbath. The priests in the temple work on the Sabbath. That is to say, the sanctity of the temple overrides Sabbath regulations. But the Messiah is greater than the temple. Much more, therefore, can He dispense Sabbath rules. For the Son of Man ( = the Messiah) is, in virtue of His personality, Lord of the Sabbath.

(L) 5. Or did you not read in the law, that on the Sabbath the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are without guilt?]ἐν τῷ νόμῳ] Cf. Numbers 28:9, Numbers 28:10.—βεβηλοῦσιν] i.e. by performing the actions necessary to the offering of the sacrifices.

(L) 6. But I say to you, That more than the temple is here.] The “more than the temple” is the Son of Man = the Messiah. If the temple was not subservient to Sabbath rules, how much less the Messiah!

(L) 7. But if you had known what is “Mercy I wish, and not sacrifice,” ye would not have condemned the guiltless.] See on 9:13. The words are of the nature of a parenthesis. The γάρ of the next verse continues the thought of v. 6.

(M) 8. For the Lord of the Sabbath is the Son of Man.] Mk. has: ὥστε κύριός ἐστιν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ τοῦ σαββάτου. Mt.’s γάρ is necessary to his argument. The Messiah is greater than the temple, for He is Lord of the Sabbath, i.e. = to God who ordained it.

1-8. Mt. and Lk. agree against Mk. in one or two striking details. Both omit ὁδὸν ποιεῖν from Mk 23, and specify the “eating.” Both have εἶπαν for ἔλεγον in Mk 24, and εἶπεν for λέγει in Mk 25. Both insert μόνους (-οις) in Mk 26, and both omit χρείαν ἔσχεν from Mk 25; ἐπὶ Ἀβιάθαρ ἀρχιερέως from Mk 26, and τὸ σάββατον—τὸ σάββατον from Mk 27. It does not, however, seemnecessary to suppose that they had a second source other than Mk. See on 8:4.

(M) 9. And having departed thence, He went into their synagogue.] Mk. has: “And He entered again into a synagogue.”—καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν for Mk.’s καὶ—πάλιν. πάλιν as a connecting link in descriptive narrative is characteristic of Mk., occurring 26 times. Mt. generally avoids it. For ἐκεῖθεν, see on 4:21. καὶ μεταβὰς ἐκεῖθεν occurs again in 15:29. μεταβαίνειν 5 times in Mt., never in Mk.—ἦλθεν εἰς] avoids the redundancy of Mk.’s εἰσῆλθεν—εἰς. See on 12:1.—εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν αὐτῶν] Mk. has simply εἰς συναγωγήν. Lk. also has the article.

(M) 10. And, behold, a man having a withered hand. And they questioned Him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath? that they might accuse Him.] “Mk. has: “And there was there a man having the hand withered. And they were observing Him, if He would heal him on the Sabbath, that they might accuse Him.”—καὶ ἰδού] See on 1:20. Mk. has καὶ ἦν ἐκεῖ.—χεῖρα ἔχων ξηράν] Mk. has ἐξηραμμένην ἔχων τὴν χεῖρα. Lk. also has ξηρά.—καὶ ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν λέγοντες] Mk. has καὶ παρετήρουν αὐτόν.—εἰ ἔξεστιν—θεραπεύειν] Mk. has εἰ—θεραπεύσει αὐτόν. For εἰ before a direct question, cf. Blass, p. 260.

Mk. has here: “And He saith to the man having the withered (ξηράν) hand, Rise into the midst. And He saith to them, Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill? And they were silent. And looking round at them with anger, being grieved at the hardness of their hearts.” Mt. omits all this. He elsewhere omits clauses which describe Christ’s human emotions. See Introduction, p. xxxi. Here he substitutes instead an example of the doing good of which Mk. speaks in v. 4.

That he may introduce vv. 11, 12 the editor changes Mk.’s “they were observing Him, if,” into a direct challenge, “they asked Him if.”

(L) 11. And He said to them, What man of you shall there be, who shall have one sheep, and if this fall on the Sabbath into a pit, will he not take hold of it and lift it out?]

(L) 12. How much therefore is a man better than a sheep? So that it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath.] Lk. has similar sayings differently worded in another miracle, 14:1-6. There is no sufficient reason for thinking that the two Evangelists drew from a common source.

11. πρόβατον ἕν] See on 8:19, and Blass, p. 144. S1 S2 ff1 k omit ἕν.

12. πόσῳ οὖν διαφέρει] Cf. 10:31 πολλῶν στρουθίων διαφέρετε, 6:26 οὐχ ὑμεῖς μᾶλλον διαφέρετε αὐτῶν.

(M) 13. Then He saith to the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, as the other.] Mk. has: “He saith to the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth, and his hand was restored.” For τότε, see on 2:7.—ἀπεκατεστάθη] For the double augment, see Blass, p. 39. Omit ὑγιής, S1 S2 latt.

(M) 14. And the Pharisees went out, and took counsel against Him, how they might destroy Him.] Mk. has: “And the Pharisees straightway, with the Herodians, went out and gave counsel against Him, how they might destroy Him.”—ἐξελθόντες δέ] as often for Mk.’s καὶ ἐξελθόντες. After Φαρισαῖοι, Mk. has εὐθὺς μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν. For the omission of εὐθύς, see on 3:16. The editor omits the Herodians here, but retains them in 22:16 = Mark 12:13.—συμβούλιον ἔλαβον] Mk. has ἐδίδουν or ἐποίουν. συμβούλιον λαμβάνειν occurs 5 times in Mt., here and in 22:15, 27:1, 7, 28:12. συμβούλιον occurs in Plutarch, Rom_14, Lucull. 26; and in Dittenberger, Syll. 316. 11 (second cent. b.c.), 328. 7. 8, 334. 7., 29, 39, 55, 57 (73 b.c.); and twice in Egyptian Papyri of the second century. See Deissm. Bib. Stud. p. 238.

(M) 15, 16. And Jesus perceived it, and departed thence: and there followed Him many, and He healed them all; and He charged them that they should not make Him known.] The editor summarises Mark 3:7-12, which he might have omitted as not congruous to this chapter of controversy. But Mark 3:7-12 suggested to him a contrast between the Lord’s quiet work of healing and His avoidance of publicity, and the hostile clamour of the Pharisees. He adds the quotation from Isaiah to emphasise the contrast.—ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς] as often for Mk.’s καὶ ὁ Ἰησοῦς. γνούς is not in Mk. ἐκεῖθεν added by Mt.; see on 4:21.—ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ πολλοί] Mk. has πολὺ πλῆθος—ἠκολούθησεν.—πάντας] Mk. has πολλούς. For a similar change, see on 8:16. Lk. also has πάντας.—ἐπετίμησεν] Mk. has πολλὰ ἐπετίμα. Mk.’s adverbial πολλά (13 times) is generally omitted by Mt. He retains it twice, 13:3, 16:21; and has it once besides, 27:19. For the substitution of the aorist for the imperfect, see Introduction, p. xx.

The editor here adds a fulfilment of prophecy.

(O) 17-21. That it might be fulfilled which was spoken through Isaiah the prophet, saying, Behold My Son,whom I adopted; My Beloved, in whom My soul was well pleased: I will put My spirit upon Him,and He shall announce judgement to the Gentiles. He shall not strive, nor cry out; nor shall any one hear His voice in the streets. A bruised reed He shall not break, and smoking flax He shall not quench, until He bring forth judgement to victory. And in His name shall Gentiles hope.]

ὅπως πληρωθῇ, κ.τ.λ.] For the formula, see on 1:22. The quotation is from Isaiah 42:1-4. The only trace of the LXX. seems to be in the last clause, where the Hebrew has “His law” for “His name.” The editor may be translating from the Hebrew, but more probably is using an existing Greek version which is already presupposed in Mark 1:11. The passage had probably been adapted in Christian circles in order to bring out the conception that the Messiah, the Son of God, accomplished the career that had been foretold of the idealised nation. We should expect to find υἱός here or παῖς in Mark 1:11 = Matthew 3:17. But υἱός as more applicable to the Messiah may have been substituted for παῖς either by the author of the Greek second Gospel, or at some stage between his time and the first appearance of the quotation in this Greek form. παῖς in Mt. is either a return to the original form of the quotation in Greek, or a reminiscence of the LXX.—ὂν ᾑρέτισα] αἱρετίζειν is a late word common in the LXX. It is used as = equivalent to “adopt” in 1 Chronicles 28:6 ὅτι ᾑρέτικα ἐν αὐτῷ εἶναί μου υἱόν; Malachi 3:17 ὃν τρόπον αἱρετίζει ἄνθρωπος τὸν υἱόν; Kaibel, Epigrammata, 252: αἱρετίσας δὲ πατὴρ στοργαῖ φύσιν ἐπροτέρησεν. The aorist here and in εὐδόκησεν may simply be due to imitation of the Hebrew tenses, but in the mind of the Christian translator probably imply the eternal pre-temporal act of God in the election of the Messiah. ὁ ἀγαπητός μου = the Messiah, see on 3:17.—εἰς ὃν εὐδόκησεν ἡ ψυχή μου] in 3:17 ἐν ᾧ εὐδόκησα. For the good pleasure of God in the Messiah as shown in election and adoption to Messiahship and Sonship, cf. Ephesians 1:4-6, and see Bacon, Am. Journ. Theol. ix. 458 ff.:—ἀπαγγελεῖ] Heb. is יוציא, LXX. ἐξοίσει. ἀπαγγέλλειν, a very common LXX. word, seems to be a translation according to the sense.—ἐρίσει] The Heb. is יצעק, LXX. κεκράξεται.—κραυγάσει] Heb. ישא, LXX. ἀνήσει (cf. נשא = ἀνίημι, Genesis 18:24, Joshua 24:19, Isaiah 1:14, Isaiah 2:9, Isaiah 46:4).—κραυγάζειν] only here in Mt., is used once in Acts 22:23, and 4 times in Jn. of a multitude of people, and once John 11:43 of Christ at the tomb of Lazarus. By earlier writers it is used of discordant forms of utterance—of a dog, Plat. Rep. x. 607; of a drunken man, Demosth. Con. 1258; of a raven, Epict. Diss. iii. I. 37; of shouting in a theatre, ib. iii. 4. 4.—κατεάξει] For the augmented fut., cf. Blass, p. 52; Moulton, Class. Rev. 1901, p. 36.—εἰς νῖκος] Heb. לאמת, LXX. εἰς ἀλήθειαν, but cf. Habakkuk 1:4 לא יצא לנצח משפט. After κρίσιν, Isaiah 42:4a is omitted, the translator’s eye passing from משפט to the second occurrence of the same word.

22. The editor here omits Mark 3:19-21. He elsewhere omits Mk.’s references to a house, see on 15:15; and also elesewhere omits the descriptions of the thronging of the multitude; cf. the omissions of Mark 1:33 from Matthew 8:16, Mark 1:45 of at Matthew 8:4, Mark 2:2 from Matthew 9:1, Mark 3:9 from Matthew 12:15. And he has probably felt objection to Mark 3:21, especially ἔλεγον γὰρ ὅτι ἐξέστη. The copyists of Mk. have felt the same difficulty. D has ἐξέσταται αὐτούς; a b d ff i q exsentiat eos. But a reminiscence of this verse betrays itself in the ἐξίσταντο of Matthew 12:23. There follows in Mk. the statement that “the scribes … said that he hath Beezeboul,” and this is followed by a short rebutting discourse of Christ. Mt. has here a short introductory miracle followed by a much longer discourse, in which are verses parallel to the discourse of Mk. Thus:

Matthew 12:22-23. Introductory miracle.

24-26 = Mark 3:22-26.


29 = 3:27.


31, 32b = 3:28-30.


Here follows the statement that some of the scribes asked for a sign, v. 38, and a discourse in answer, vv. 39-45. The question of relationship is complicated by the parallels in Lk. Lk. omits Mark 3:22-30 in its order. It should come at Luke 6:19 or 8:4. But later in his Gospel he has a discourse which is very similar to that in Mt. Thus:

Matthew 12:22-23 = Luke 11:14.

24-26 = Mark 3:22-26 = 15, 17-18.

Lk. has here combined the request for a sign which in Mt. comes later with the charge of demoniac agency.

Matthew 12:38 = Luke 11:16.

27-28 = 19-20.

29 = Mark 3:27 = 21-22.

30 = 23.

43-45 = 24-26.

Lk vv.27-28 have no parallel in Mt.

Mt vv.31-37 have no parallel in this discourse in Lk.

Matthew 12:39-42 = Luke 11:29-32.

It will be seen that both Mt. and Lk. prefix an introductory miracle. Both have parallels to Mk 23-26, but in this section Mt. and Lk. have verbal agreements against Mk. E.g.:

εἰδὼς δὲ τὰς ἐνθυμήσεις αὐτῶν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Mat_25 = αὐτὸς δὲ εἰδὼς αὐτῶν τὰ διανοήματα εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Luk_17.

πᾶσα βασιλεία μερισθεῖσα, Mat_25 = πᾶσα βασιλεία—διαμερισθεῖσα, Luk_17. Mk. has καὶ ἐὰν βασιλεία—μερισθῇ.

ἐρημοῦται, Mat_25, Luk_17. Mk. has δύναται σταθῆναι ἡ βασιλεία ἐκείνη.

πῶς—σταθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία αὐτοῦ, Mat_26, Luk_18. Mk. has οὐ δύναται στῆναι ἀλλὰ τέλος ἔχει.

Both have parallels to Mk 27, but here Mt. agrees closely with Mk., whilst Lk. considerably diverges. Mt. embodies Mk 28-30. Lk. omits. Further, in Mt. the whole discourse falls into two portions, one an answer to the charge of demoniac agency, the second an answer to a request for a sign. In Lk. the charge and the request are combined, but the discourse is divided by vv. 27-28, which have no parallel in Mt. And, lastly, Mt. has a section, 31-37, which has no parallel in the discourse in Lk. It is not easy to explain adequately this complex relationship. The fact that Lk. omits Mk.’s paragraph at the place where it would naturally occur in his Gospel, and gives instead a longer discourse later in his Gospel, would naturally suggest the explanation that he had before him a second source containing this longer discourse at a later period in Christ’s life, and that he abandoned Mk. to follow this source. Cf. his omission of Mark 1:16-20 at Luke 4:15, because he proposes to insert a little later, 5:1-11, a similar narrative from another source. Cf. his omission at 8:56 of Mark 6:1-6, because he has inserted a similar account in 4:16-30. It seems, therefore, necessary to suppose that Lk. had a second narrative before him containing matter parailel to Mark 3:22-30. That being so, it is natural to suppose that Mt. also had a discourse longer than Mark 3:22-30, and containing many features parallel to Lk.Their divergence in many points makes it unlikely that they were copying from the same document. More probably they had before them different sources containing discourses in many respects parallel to one another. To some extent their agreement may be due to Lk.’s reminiscence of Mt. Mt.’s source is probably the Logia.

(E) 22. Then there was brought to Him a demoniac, blind, and dumb: and He healed him, so that the dumb spake and saw.] Lk. has: “And He was casting out a dumb devil. And it came to pass when the devil was gone forth the dumb spake.” Mt. has already inserted in 9:32-33 a similarly worded miracle: “Behold, they brought to Him a dumb demoniac. And when the devil was cast forth, the dumb spake.” It is striking that Luke 11:14 is not, as we should expect, so nearly agreed with Matthew 12:22 as with Matthew 9:32-33. It must remain doubtful whether this miracle was in the sources used by Mt. and Lk. It is quite possible that in 9:32-34 Mt., wishing to add another miracle, described as shortly as possible the healing of a deaf demoniac (see on 9:32), the fact of such a healing being current in Christian tradition. At 12:21 he wants a suitable introduction to the following discourse, and rewrites shortly a similar account. But it is curious that he should not have specially mentioned, as in 9:33, the “casting out” of the devil in order to prepare for the ἐκβάλλει of 12:24. Lk., when inserting in 11:14ff. the discourse which follows, has felt the same need of an introductory miracle. His choice of a deaf demoniac may be due to reminiscence of the two passages in Mt., or may be accidental, and due simply to the fact that both Evangelists inserted in this same connection the story of a deaf demoniac, known to them as an incident current in Christian tradition, of which no details had been preserved. Given the fact of the healing of a dumb demoniac, the agreement in language between Matthew 9:32-33 and Luke 11:14 is not very remarkable. It would be difficult to describe the bare fact of such a healing without some verbal agreement.

τότε προσηνέχθη αὐτῷ] For τότε, see on 2:7. For προσφέρειν as characteristic of Mt., see Introduction, p. lxxxvi. προσηνέχθη is the reading of א C D al latt. B S1 S2 have προσήνεγκαν, as in 9:32. For the passive, cf. 18:24, 19:13.

(E) 23. And all the multitudes were astonished, and said, Is this indeed the Son of David?] ἐξίσταντο only here in this Gospel. It is a reminiscence of Mark 3:21. For “Son of David” as a title of the Messiah, see Dalm. Words, 319 ff.

(M) 24. But the Pharisees heard it, and said, This man doth not cast out devils, except by Beelzeboul, chief of the devils.] Mk. has: “And the scribes who had come down from. Jerusalem were saying that He hath Beelzeboul, and that by the chief of the devils He casts out devils.” Mt. and Lk. independently, or Lk. by reminiscence of Mt., fuse together the two clauses of Mk 22, and wrongly make Beelzeboul equivalent to the chief of the devils and Satan. In 10:25 βεελζεβούλ is a name of reproach. Here in Mk. it seems to be the name of a demon by whom Christ was regarded as possessed. But it is not equivalent to Satan, the ἄρχων τῶν δαιμονίων from whom Mk. distinguishes Beelzeboul. For Beelzeboul,1 see on 10:25.

(M) 25. And knowing their thoughts, He said to them, Every kingdom divided against itself is made desolate; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand.] Mk. has: “And having called them, He was saying to them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan? And if a kingdom be divided against (ἐπί) itself, that kingdom cannot stand. And if a house be divided against itself, that house shall not be able to stand.” Lk. agrees closely with Mt. in omitting the summoning of the disciples, in substituting the knowledge of the thoughts of the Pharisees, and in combining Mk.’s two analogies into one clause. “But He (αὐτός), knowing their thoughts (διανοήματα), said to them, Every kingdom divided (διαμερισθεῖσα) against itself (ἐφʼ ἑαυτήν as in Mk., Mt. has καθʼ ἑαυτῆς) is made desolate, and house falls on house,” or “a house (divided) against a house falls.”—οἶκος] Mt. and Mk. have οἰκία. Wellhausen argues that “house” in Aramaic, and so here, means “a political territory,” as in “house of Lysanias.” This would give an appropriate meaning in Mt. No kingdom torn by internal dissension can escape devastation. And no city or State so divided can long maintain its independent existence. Lk.’s source seems to have differed here from Mt.’s.

(M) 26. And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how therefore shall his kingdom stand?] Mk. has: “And if Satan rise up against himself and be divided, he cannot stand, but hath an end.” Lk. agrees closely with Mt.: “And if Satan be divided (διεμερίσθη) against himself, how shall his kingdom stand?” Lk. adds here: “because you say that by Beelzeboul I cast out devils”; cf. Mk v. 30.

(L) 27-28. And if I by Beelzeboul cast out devils, your sons by whom do they cast (them) out? therefore they shall be your judges. But if I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then the kingdom of God came upon you.] These verses are not in Mk. Lk. has them in verbal agreement with Mt., except that he has δακτύλῳ for πνεύματι. Christ, after urging the absurdity of the charge brought against Him (25-26), now throws back the accusation upon the Jews. They, too, practised exorcism. Were they also the agents of Beelzeboul?—οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν] means “people of your own race and religion,” i.e. Jews. It is here an Oriental circumlocution for “you.” For an example of Jewish exorcism, cf. Jos. Ant. viii. 46, 47 (quoted on 8:29), and Acts 19:13.—διὰ τοῦτο] occurs 11 times in Mt., 3 in Mk., 4 in Lk.—κριταὶ ὑμῶν] “shall convict you of hypocrisy in accusing Me of employing diabolical arts whilst you yourselves practice exorcism.”—πνεύματι θεοῦ] Lk. has the striking δακτύλῳ θεοῦ; cf. Exodus 8:19 (15) where it is applied to a miraculous event, and Deuteronomy 9:10.—ἔφθασεν] φθάνειν occurs here in the Synoptic Gospels. with prepositions it means to “arrive at,” “reach to,” “come upon”; cf. Jdg 20:34 οὐκ ἔγνωσαν ὅτι φθάνει ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἡ κακία. The aorist is difficult, and we should expect the perfect. The same unexpected aor. occurs in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 ἔφθασε δὲ ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀργή. “If I by the Spirit of God cast out devils, then when I began my work, or when I came, the kingdom of God came to and amongst you, though you were not aware of it.” βας. τοῦ θεοῦ occurs 4 times in Mt, here and in 19:24, 21:31, 43. The kingdom is here regarded as something present. But only by anticipation. Where the Messiah was, there must be the kingdom in some sense. But in a fuller sense it was still future, to be inaugurated when He came on the clouds of heaven. ἡ βασιλεία τοῦ θεοῦ here is certainly due to the source used by the editor, in this case probably the Logia, which therefore contained sayings about “the kingdom of God” and “the kingdom of the heavens.” The reason why the editor did not here substitute the latter for the former no doubt is that he always uses ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν in an eschatological sense, which would here be out of place; cf. Introduction, p. lxvii f.

(M) 29. Or how can any one enter into the house of “the strong man,” and spoil his goods? unless first he bind “the strong man,” and then he will spoil his house.] Mk. has: “But no one can, having entered into,” etc. Lk. has a different version of the saying.—ἢ πῶς] In Mk. the saying is loosely appended to the preceding with ἀλλά. The saying about the strong man and his goods had probably become proverbial; cf. Ps.-Song of Solomon 5:4 οὐ γὰρ λήψεται σκῦλα ἄνθρωπος παρὰ ἀνδρὸς δυνατοῦ; Isaiah 49:24 μὴ λήμψεταί τις παρὰ γίγαντος σκῦλα.

So far from acting as a subordinate of Beelzeboul, Christ had invaded his territory, and by ejecting devils from the possessed, was spoiling his goods. This implied a previous victory over him.

(L) 30. He that is not with Me is against Me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.] So Lk v. 23.

In this war against Satan’s strongholds there are only two sides: for Christ or against Him, gathering with Him or scattering with Satan.

(M) 31. Therefore I say to you, Every sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven to men: but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven.] Mk. has: “Verily I say to you that all things shall be forgiven to the sons of men,1 the sins and the blasphemies where with soever they shall blaspheme. But whosoever shall blaspheme against the Holy Spirit hath not forgiveness for ever, but is guilty of an eternal sin. Because they were saying that He hath an unclean spirit.” Lk. has no parallel in this discourse, but in 12:10 has “He who blasphemed against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven.”

In Mt. the meaning seems to be: “You have taken sides against Me in the war against Satan. In so doing you have committed an unpardonable sin, because in charging Me with being an agent of Satan you have hardened yourselves against a revelation of God’s Spirit working in Me.”

(M) 32. And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age nor in the coming.] This verse seems to repeat the thought of the last, the difference being that as a contrast to speaking against or blasphemy against the Spirit, we have here speaking against the Son of Man in particular, instead of all sin and blasphemy in general. The two verses seem to be different recensions of the same saying. Mt. has probably conflated Mk. and his other source, or Mk. = the other source and another form of the saying known to him. Lk. in 12:10 has: καὶ πᾶς ὃς ἐρεῖ λόγον εἰς τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἀφεθήσεται αὐτῷ τῷ δὲ εἰς τὸ ̔́ Αγιον πνεῦμα βγασφημήσαντι οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται. Lk. appears to borrow the first clause from Mt 32, the second from Mt 31 = Mk 29. He may have done so from memory, or may have had the saying before him in this form. If Mt 32 and Mt 31 = Mk 28-29 be different recensions of one saying, it is probable that Ms.’s striking τοῖς υἱοῖς τῶν ἀνθρώπων and Mt.’s κατὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου go back to the same orginal Aramaic phrase. Of the two, Mk.’s phrase is probably the more accurate translation. “Anything shall be forgiven to men save blasphemy against the Holy Spirit,” gives a clear and intelligible meaning. On the other hand, “Opposition to the Son of Man is pardonable, opposition to the Holy Spirit is unpardonable,” is difficult to explain. How could the Pharisees be supposed to be able to distinguish between the Son of Man ( = Christ?) acting as such, and the Son of Man driving out devils by the power of the Spirit. We have here a fairly clear instance where an original Aramaic phrase meaning “sons of men” = “men” has been mistakenly represented by ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. Mark 2:28 is probably another instance. The general drift of vv. 31, 32 seems to be: “You accuse Me of Satanic methods in casting out devils. In reality I cast them out by the power of God’s Spirit. In substituting Satan for the Holy Spirit you are guilty of blasphemy. And this is an unpardonable sin. It is the lie in the soul.”—οὔτε ἐν τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι οὔτε ἐν τῷ μέλλοντι] Mark 10:30 has: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένω. So Lk.; but Mt. omits. Lk. also has: τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου, 16:8, 20:34, and τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου, 20:35. These phrases are connected with the distinction which is common in apocalyptic literature of the first cent. a.d. between the present and the future age. See Dalm. Words, pp. 147-156; Volz, Jüd. Eschat. p. 57; and cf. 2 Es 7:50 “the Most High hath not made one world, but two”; 7:47 “the world to come”; Apoc. Bar 15:7., 8, 44:15 “the world to come.” The distinction is also found in Rabbinical literature; cf. Aboth 2:8. Hillel said: “He who acquires for himself the words of the law, acquires for himself the life of the age which is coming.” Dalman says of this, “if genuine.” Ber. R. 44 (Wünsche, p. 209): According to Jochanan ben Zaccai, c. 80 a.d., God revealed to Abraham “this age, but not that age.” According to Akiba, “He revealed to him both ages.” “The currency of these expressions ‘this age,’ the future age,” says Dalman, “is at all events established by the end of the first Christian century.” Mt. has also 5 times the expression συντέλεια τοῦ αἰῶνος. See on V. 39.—οὐκ ἀφεθήσεται] B has οὐ μὴ ἀφεθῇ. For this construction, see on 5:18.

33-35. The editor here inserts a paragraph which is similar to one which he has already recorded in the Sermon on the Mount, 7:17-20. Lk. in his Sermon, 6:43-45, also has a similar sections, which, however, is more closely in agreement with Mat_12 than with Mat_7; that is to say, Luke 6:43 and 44b = Matthew 7:18, Matthew 7:16, whilst Luke 6:44a, Luke 6:45 = Matthew 12:33c, 34b, 35. Lk. is here perhaps conflating the words of his source for the Sermon with reminiscences of Mat_12.

(L) 33. Either make the tree good, and its fruit good; or make the tree rotten, and its fruit rotten: for by the fruit the tree is known.] Cf. 7:17, 18, Luke 6:43. The meaning here is “Be consistent. Either allow My acts of casting out devils to be good in result, and attribute the power to do such good acts to the Holy Spirit; or condemn them as evil in result, and attribute them to Satanic agency.”

(L) 34. Ye offspring of vipers, how can you speak good things, being evil?] This has no parallel in Lk. The meaning is: “The reason why you utter judgements which directly gainsay plain facts is to be found in your evil nature.”

(L) 34. For out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.]

(L) 35. The good man from the good treasure brings forth good things: and the evil man from the evil treasure brings forth evil things.] Cf. Luke 6:45 “The good man from the good treasure of (his) heart brings forth (προφέπει) the good. And the evil man from the evil brings forth the evil. For out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh.”

The meaning is: “Your malicious judgements come from the treasure-house of your malicious nature.”

36-37. These verses have no parallel in Lk.

(L) But I say to you, that every idle utterance that men shall speak, they shall give account concerning it in the day of judgement. For from thy words shalt thou be acquitted, and from thy words shalt thou be condemned.]

36. πᾶν ῥῆμα ἀργόν] The Pharisees might urge that their saying of v. 24 was after all only a pleasantry, and did not express their real beliefs. Christ warns them that such idle utterances, because they come from the heart (v. 34), give expression to the inward nature, and will be called into judgement no less than the reasoned statement or the outward action. The last verse, with its change to the singular and its substitution of λόγος for ῥῆμα, sounds like a quotation or a proverbial saying. Clause (a) is perhaps a reminiscence of Psalm 50:6 ὅπως ἂν δικαιωθῇς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου. For ὃ ἐάν, see on 11:27.

(L) 38. Then answered Him certain of the scribes and Pharisees, saying, Teacher, we wish to see a sign from Thee.] In Luke 11:16 this request is combined with the accusation at the head of the discourse. “But others tempting (Him), were seeking a sign from heaven from Him.”

τότε] see on 2:7.

(L) 39. And He answered and said to them, An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign; and a sign shall not be given to it, save the sign of Jonah the prophet.] Lk. has: “And when the multitudes were crowding together, He began to say, This generation is an evil generation: it seeks a sign, and a sign shall not be given to it, save the sign of Jonah.”—μοιχαλίς] means apostate, disobedient, and unfaithful to God.

(E?L) 40. For as Jonah was in the belly of the monster three days and three nights; so shall the Son of Man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.] Lk. has: “For as Jonah was a sign to the Ninevites, so shall be also the Son of Man to this generation.”

It is probable that Mt. (or the writer of his source) has paraphrased the saying as recorded by Lk., in order to explain the parallelism between Jonah as a sign and the Son of Man as a sign. “As Jonah was a sign.” But how was he a sign? Certainly not simply because he preached. His message of warning could in no true sense be called a sign. He was a sign because of his remarkable experience recorded in Jon 1-2. “So shall the Son of Man be a sign,” in virtue of His remarkable life’s history from beginning to end. The writer of the saying as recorded in Mt. has wished to make this parallelism clear. He has done so by illustrating it from one particular event in the life history of Jonah and of the Son of Man, in connection with which there was, as it seemed to him, a striking coincidence. The Son of Man ( = Christ) foretold, as tradition recorded, that He would rise again after three days; cf. Mark 8:31, Mark 9:31, Mark 10:34, Matthew 27:63. (This was traditionally interpreted as equivalent to “on the third day,” cf. Matthew 16:21, Matthew 17:23, Matthew 20:19, Luke 9:22, Luke 9:18:33, Luke 9:24:7, Luke 9:46, Acts 10:40). It might, therefore, be said that He lay in the grave for three days. Mt. turned to the Book of Jonah, and found in 2:1 the words: καὶ ἦν Ἰωνᾶς ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας. Here was material for a comparison. Jonah’s wonderful story of guidance and preservation culminated in his sojourn in the belly of the sea monster followed by his miraculous deliverance. This, as illustrating his whole unique experience, made him a sign to the Ninevites. He preached to them as one miraculously accredited. The life history of the Son of Man culminated in His sojourn in the grave, followed by His miraculous resurrection. This, as illustrating His whole life of wonder and marvel, constituted Him a sign to the men of that generation. Mt. has, of course, rather forced his analogy.1 Putting aside the fact that according to Christian tradition Christ lay in the grave only one whole day and parts of two others, he has tried to increase the parallelism by adding τρεῖς νύκτας, when at the most there were only two.

The words ἦν Ἰωνᾶς—νύκτας are borrowed from Jonah 2:1.—τῇ καρδίᾳ τῆς γῆς] cf. Deuteronomy 4:11 Heb. “the heart of heaven,” and cor maris, 4 Es ( = 2 Es R. V.) 13:25, 51.

(L) 41. The men of Nineveh shall rise up at the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the message of Jonah; and, behold, more than Jonah is here.] Lk. transposes this and the next verse, probably simply in order to secure a chronological sequence. He has this verse in verbal agreement with Mt.

ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει] shall stand or rise up at the judgement. Except in this and the next verse, Mt. uses ἡμέρα κρίσεως in this sense; cf. 10:15, 11:22, 24, 12:36. For ἡ κρίσις = the last judgement, cf. Luke 10:14. The idea is that at the final judgement the men of Nineveh will indict the men of this generation for not having repented at the preaching of Christ, who had been a greater sign to them than Jonah had been to the Ninevites. Wellhausen urges that in Aramaic “stand or rise up in judgement with” means “to accuse.” That is true; but even so the implied period of accusation must have been the final judgement day. The Greek translator, who rendered the Aramaic original by ἀναστήσονται ἐν τῇ κρίσει μετά, only made his words express what he supposed to be implied in the original.—πλεῖον Ἰωνᾶ] cf. 12:6 τοῦ ἱεροῦ μεῖζον.

(L) 42. The queen of the South shall rise up at the judgement with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, more than Solomon is here.] So Lk. with τῶν ἀνδρῶν after μετά. ἐγερθήσεται is synonymous with ἀναστήσεται of v. 41. Both represent the same Aramaic word.—νότου] In 1 K 10:1 שְׁבָא = LXX. Σαβά. Jos. Ant. viii. 165 calls her queen of Egypt and Ethiopia. But Sheba was in southern Arabia. Wellhausen remarks that this is the earliest instance of the name Jemen ( = “south” = νότος) for South-West Arabia.

(L) 43-45 are placed by Lk. (11:24-26) earlier in the discourse. There they seem to illustrate the futility of the methods of the Jewish exorcists (v. 19). These seem to do the same work as Christ, but really they act against Him (v. 20); for the evil spirit whom they drive out returns, making the sufferer worse than before. In Mt. the verses seem rather to describe the condition of the Jewish nation in Christ’s time. They had formerly repented at the summons of God, and their evil spirit had been driven out. But it had returned with seven others. And now the condition of the nation was such that even the preaching of Christ had no effect. Or the passage may have been added here by the editor, with immediate reference to the preceding verses, as bearing upon the subject of exorcism with which the discourse started. It is possible that Lk. may have tried to improve the connection by placing the verses within the body of the discourse.

(L) 43. But when the unclean spirit is gone forth from the man, he passes through waterless places, seeking rest, and finds none.] So Lk. with μὴ εὑρίσκον for οὐχ εὑρίσκει.—ἀνύδρων τόπων] Demons were thought to dwell in deserted places. Cf. Isaiah 13:21, Isaiah 34:14, Bar 4:35, Revelation 18:2, Mark 5:10. For the waterless place, cf. the incantation given in Thompson, Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, i. pp. 61, 167:

“Neither with sea water, nor with sweet water,

Nor with bad water, nor with Tigris water,

Nor with Euphrates water, nor with pond water,

Nor with river water, shalt thou be covered.”

And for desert places as the abode of demons, cf. the same work:

p. 123: “O evil spirit—to the desert.

O evil demon—to the desert.

O evil ghost—to the desert.

O evil devil—to the desert.

p. 139: O evil spirit, get thee forth to distant places.

O evil demon, hie thee unto the ruins.

. . . . . . . .

A ruined desolate house is thy home.”

(L) 44. Then he saith, I will return to my house whence I came out; and having come, he finds it vacant, swept, and adorned.] So Lk. with ὑποστρέψω εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου for εἰς τὸν οἶκόν μου ἐπιστρέψω; but א* A D al S1 S2 omit σχολάζοντα in Lk.—σχολάζοντα] Rare in this sense; cf. Plut. Cai Grœc. 12; and of uncultivated land, Plut. Timol. ch. 22 end.—σαρόω] A late form of σαίρω, Artem. ii. 33.

(L) 45. Then he goeth, and taketh with himself seven other spirits worse than himself, and entering in they dwell there; and the last state of that man becomes worse than the first.] So Lk. without μεθʼ ἑαυτοῦ, and with ἑπτά after ἑαυτοῦ.—ἑπτά] For the seven evil spirits of Babylonian demonology, cf. Thompson, pp. xlii ff.

So shall it be to this evil generation.] These words are not found in Lk.

C. (7) His relations seek Him.

46. The editor now goes back to Mark 3:31-35. In Mk. Christ is in a house (3:19b), where the preceding discourse was presumably uttered. But in Mt. the last place mentioned is the synagogue of 12:9. In 12:15 He leaves the synagogue, and in 12:22 a blind and deaf demoniac is brought to Him; but no detail of place is given.

(M) While He was still speaking to the multitudes, behold, His mother and brethren had taken their stand without, seeking to speak to Him.] Mk. has: “And His mother and His brethren come, and, having taken their stand outside, sent to Him, calling Him.” The outside here means outside the house in which He was (3:19). In Mt. the outside must be interpreted as on the outskirts of the crowd. The editor is obliged to rewrite Mk.’s opening words, ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος] Cf. the insertion of a similar formula, ταῦτα αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος, as a connecting link, in 9:18.—τοῖς ὄσλοις] cf. v. 23.—ἰδού] See on 1:20.—ζητοῦντες αὐτῷ λαλῆσαι] Mk.’s ἀπέστειλαν πρὸς αὐτὸν καλοῦντες αὐτόν is unsuitable here, where Christ is separated from His relatives only by the circle of people round Him. Mt. anticipates the ζητοῦσίν σε of Mk v. 32 which he omits.

(M) 48. And He answered and said to him who told Him, Who is My mother? and who are My brethren?] The editor summarises Mk vv. 32, 33 “And the crowd sat about Him; and they say to Him, Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren without seek Thee. And He answered them, and saith, Who is My mother and brethren?”

(M) 49. And He stretched out His hands towards His disciples, and said, Behold My mother and My brethren!] Mk.has: “And He looked round at those sitting in a circle about Him, and saith, Behold My mother and My brethren!” It is in Mt.’s manner to make the reference apply specially to the disciples.—ἰδού] for Mk.’s ἴδε. See on 1:20.

(M) 50. For whosoever shall do the will of My Father who is in the heavens, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother.] Mk. has: “Whosoever shall do the will of God, he is My brother, and sister, and mother.” For τοῦ πατρός μου τοῦ ἐν οὐρανοῖς, see on 5:16. Cf. Aboth 5:22 “Be bold as a leopard, and swift as an eagle, and fleet as a hart, and strong as a lion, to do the will of thy Father which is in heaven.” 2:4 “Do His will as if it were thy will, that He may do thy will as if it were His will. Annul thy will before His will, that He may annul the will of others before thy will.” B. Berakhoth 16b “Our will is to do Thy will.” See also on 6:12.

47. אa C D E al latt. insert here: “And one said to Him, Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren are standing without, seeking to speak to Thee.” Mk. has: “And there sat about Him a multitude; and they say to Him, Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren outside are seeking Thee.” The verse in Mt. is rightly omitted by א* B L Γ S1 S2 ff1 k. Mt. has purposely omitted the corresponding clause in Mk., and has only taken from it the ζητοῦσίν σε = ζητοῦντες αὐτῷ λαλῆσαι, Mt 46. The interpolator has written the words to assimilate to Mk. and Lk., and to prepare the way for v. 48. If the verse were genuine, Mt. and Lk. would agree against Mk. in ἑστήκασιν, as they do in the next verse in εἶπεν for λέγει.

M the Second Gospel.

B. Babylonian Talmud.

Hor. Heb. Hora Hebraiœ (Lightfoot).

Class. Rev. Classical Review.

latt. Manuscripts of the Old Latin Version.

S Syriac version: Sinaitic MS.

LXX. The Septuagint Version.

Deissm. Deissmann.

L the Matthæan Logia.

S Syriac version: Curetonian.

O quotations from the Old Testament borrowed from a collection of Messianic prophecies. See pp.61 f.

Demosth. Demosthenes.

Epict. Epictetus.

E editorial passages.

al i.e. with other uncial MSS.

Dalm. Dalman.

1 C D al have Βεελζεβούλ, and so Eph. Syr., the Armenian and the Arabic Diatessaron. א B have Βεεζεβούλ, as in 10:25. S1 S2 have Beelzebub, as in 10:25.

Jos. Josephus.

1 This Aramaic “sons of men” = “men” occurs only here in the Synoptic Gospels. Mt. avoids it.

1 For an early attempt to account for the “three days” and “three nights,” see the Syriac Didascalia (ed. Lagarde), p. 88, where the “three days” are reckoned as Friday 6 a.m. to noon, Friday 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., and Saturday; the “three nights” as Friday 12Ti_3 p.m. (darkness = night), Friday night, and Saturday night.

Plut. Plutarch.

But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath day.
But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him;
How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?
Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?
But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple.
But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.
For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath day.
And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue:
And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath days? that they might accuse him.
And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out?
How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath days.
Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.
Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against him, how they might destroy him.
But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence: and great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all;
And charged them that they should not make him known:
That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,
Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.
He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets.
A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory.
And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.
Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw.
And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David?
But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils.
And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand:
And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?
And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges.
But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God is come unto you.
Or else how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house.
He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad.
Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men.
And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.
Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit.
O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.
A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things.
But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.
For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.
Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee.
But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:
For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.
The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.
When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none.
Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished.
Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.
While he yet talked to the people, behold, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to speak with him.
Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee.
But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren?
And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!
For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.
ICC New Testament commentary on selected books

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Matthew 11
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