1 Chronicles 2
Matthew Poole's Commentary
These are the sons of Israel; Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun,
The sons of Israel; of Judah by Tamar: the children of Jesse, 1 Chronicles 2:1-17. Of Caleb the son of Hezron; of him by the daughter of Machir, 1 Chronicles 2:18-21. Of Jerahmeel, 1 Chronicles 2:25-33. Of Sheshan, 1 Chronicles 2:34-41. Another branch of Caleb’s posterity, 1 Chronicles 2:42-49. Of Caleb the son of Hur, 1 Chronicles 2:50-55.

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Dan, Joseph, and Benjamin, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.
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The sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, and Shelah: which three were born unto him of the daughter of Shua the Canaanitess. And Er, the firstborn of Judah, was evil in the sight of the LORD; and he slew him.
He puts

Judah first, because the best part of the right of the first-born, to wit, the dominion, was conferred upon him, Genesis 49:8, and because the Messiah was to come out of his loins.

And Tamar his daughter in law bare him Pharez and Zerah. All the sons of Judah were five.
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The sons of Pharez; Hezron, and Hamul.
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And the sons of Zerah; Zimri, and Ethan, and Heman, and Calcol, and Dara: five of them in all.
If these be the same who are mentioned as the sons of Mahol, 1 Kings 4:31, either the same man had two names, Zerah and Mahol, as was usual among the Hebrews; or one of these was their immediate father, and the other their grandfather.

And the sons of Carmi; Achar, the troubler of Israel, who transgressed in the thing accursed.
Carmi is here mentioned, because he was the son of Zimri, who is also called Zabdi, Joshua 7:1.

Achar; called Achan, Joshua 7:1, and here Achar, with a little variation for greater significancy; for Achar signifies a troubler.

And the sons of Ethan; Azariah.
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The sons also of Hezron, that were born unto him; Jerahmeel, and Ram, and Chelubai.
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And Ram begat Amminadab; and Amminadab begat Nahshon, prince of the children of Judah;
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And Nahshon begat Salma, and Salma begat Boaz,
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And Boaz begat Obed, and Obed begat Jesse,
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And Jesse begat his firstborn Eliab, and Abinadab the second, and Shimma the third,
Eliab, called also Elihu. 1 Chronicles 27:18 unless that was another person, and the word brother to be taken largely for a kinsman, as is frequently used.

Nethaneel the fourth, Raddai the fifth,
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Ozem the sixth, David the seventh:
For though he had eight sons, 1 Samuel 16:10, one of them either died presently after that time, or is neglected for some reason now unknown, as others are. See Poole "Matthew 1:8", See Poole "Matthew 1:9".

Whose sisters were Zeruiah, and Abigail. And the sons of Zeruiah; Abishai, and Joab, and Asahel, three.
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And Abigail bare Amasa: and the father of Amasa was Jether the Ishmeelite.
The Ishmeelite, by birth or habitation, but by profession an Israelite, 2 Samuel 17:25, See Poole "2 Samuel 17:25".

And Caleb the son of Hezron begat children of Azubah his wife, and of Jerioth: her sons are these; Jesher, and Shobab, and Ardon.
Not that Caleb, Numbers 13:6, for he was the son of Jephunneh, of whom he speaks, 1 Chronicles 4:15; but another Caleb.

Her sons, i.e. the sons, either,

1. Of Jerioth, she being last mentioned; or rather,

2. Of Azubah, who is by way of distinction called his wife, when Jerioth probably was only his concubine, and, as it may seem, barren; and therefore upon Azubah’s death he married another wife, 1 Chronicles 2:19. And those other sons of this Caleb, mentioned below, 1 Chronicles 2:42, are his sons by some other wife distinct from all these.

And when Azubah was dead, Caleb took unto him Ephrath, which bare him Hur.
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And Hur begat Uri, and Uri begat Bezaleel.
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And afterward Hezron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Gilead, whom he married when he was threescore years old; and she bare him Segub.
Went in, i.e. lay with her, as that phrase is commonly used, as Genesis 4:1 6:4.

The father of Gilead; of a man so called. Or if Gilead be the name of that known country, father is put for head or governor, as it is used 1 Samuel 24:11 2 Kings 5:13 16:7 Isaiah 22:21; or for protector or curator, as father is used Job 29:16 Jeremiah 2:27 Lamentations 5:3; this man being a man of noted valour, and the great champion in those parts.

Whom, he married, Heb. and he took her, to wit, to wife. Or, after he had taken her; for so the particle vau is used, as hath been formerly noted.

When he was threescore years old, Heb. and he was, to wit, when he went in unto her, or when he married her.

And Segub begat Jair, who had three and twenty cities in the land of Gilead.
Which he had, though he was of the tribe of Judah, as here we see, because he married a daughter of Manasseh, Numbers 26:29, whence he is called a son of Manasseh, Numbers 32:41 Deu 3:14; and because, being a man of great courage, he joined himself with that half tribe in subduing Gilead, wherein he acted so valiantly and successfully, that he had twenty-three cities or great towns given to him to possess or dispose of; or rather, to rule over them, and have some advantage from them; as a king is said to have his kingdom, although he hath not the propriety of all the lands and houses in it.

And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even threescore cities. All these belonged to the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.
And he took, or, for he had taken. So this is the reason why he had so great a territory and jurisdiction given to him.

Geshur and Aram; two cities or great towns so called.

With the towns of Jair, i.e. with those twenty-three cities which he is said to have, 1 Chronicles 2:22.

From them, i.e. from the former inhabitants, which is easily understood.

With Kenath; which was taken by Nobah, one of Jair’s commanders, sent by him to take it, as may be gathered from Numbers 32:41,42.

To the sons of Machir; partly to his own sons, and partly to his son-in-law Jair, who by reason of that dear affection which was betwixt them and his forsaking his own tribe and kindred to fight for them, and to dwell with them, is here reckoned as his own son.

And after that Hezron was dead in Calebephratah, then Abiah Hezron's wife bare him Ashur the father of Tekoa.
Caleb-ephratah; a place then so called by a conjunction of the names of the man and his wife; afterwards supposed to be called Beth-lehem Ephratah. Others translate the words thus, When Caleb took Ephratah. So it is an ellipsis of the verb, which is here to be understood out of 1 Chronicles 2:19, where it is expressed.

Abiah bare him Ashur, after the father’s death.

The father of Tekoa; a known place, 2 Samuel 14:2,4 Jer 6:1 Amos 1:1; whose father he is called, because he was either the progenitor of the people inhabiting there, or their prince and ruler, or the builder of the city.

And the sons of Jerahmeel the firstborn of Hezron were, Ram the firstborn, and Bunah, and Oren, and Ozem, and Ahijah.
Or, of (the prefix, mere being oft understood)

Ahijah; his wife so called, as may seem probable from the next verse, where he mentions another wife.

Jerahmeel had also another wife, whose name was Atarah; she was the mother of Onam.
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And the sons of Ram the firstborn of Jerahmeel were, Maaz, and Jamin, and Eker.
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And the sons of Onam were, Shammai, and Jada. And the sons of Shammai; Nadab, and Abishur.
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And the name of the wife of Abishur was Abihail, and she bare him Ahban, and Molid.
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And the sons of Nadab; Seled, and Appaim: but Seled died without children.
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And the sons of Appaim; Ishi. And the sons of Ishi; Sheshan. And the children of Sheshan; Ahlai.
The sons of Appaim; an expression oft used, both afterwards in this verse, and elsewhere, and in profane authors too, where there is but one son. It is an enallage of the number, which is frequent in the Hebrew.

And the sons of Jada the brother of Shammai; Jether, and Jonathan: and Jether died without children.
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And the sons of Jonathan; Peleth, and Zaza. These were the sons of Jerahmeel.
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Now Sheshan had no sons, but daughters. And Sheshan had a servant, an Egyptian, whose name was Jarha.
Sheshan had no sons, to wit, living when he died, his son Ahlai, 1 Chronicles 2:31, dying before him; unless Ahlai was the name of a daughter.

And Sheshan gave his daughter to Jarha his servant to wife; and she bare him Attai.
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And Attai begat Nathan, and Nathan begat Zabad,
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And Zabad begat Ephlal, and Ephlal begat Obed,
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And Obed begat Jehu, and Jehu begat Azariah,
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And Azariah begat Helez, and Helez begat Eleasah,
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And Eleasah begat Sisamai, and Sisamai begat Shallum,
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And Shallum begat Jekamiah, and Jekamiah begat Elishama.
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Now the sons of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were, Mesha his firstborn, which was the father of Ziph; and the sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron.
The sons of Caleb, to wit, of that Caleb mentioned 1 Chronicles 2:18, as appears by comparing that verse with 1 Chronicles 2:21. And these are his sons by another and his third wife. See Poole "1 Chronicles 2:18".

Ziph; the name either of a man, or of a place, of which see Joshua 15:24,55; and then father is to be understood here, as 1 Chronicles 2:23,24.

The father of Hebron; not the place so called, but a man, as is evident, because his sons here follow.

And the sons of Hebron; Korah, and Tappuah, and Rekem, and Shema.
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And Shema begat Raham, the father of Jorkoam: and Rekem begat Shammai.
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And the son of Shammai was Maon: and Maon was the father of Bethzur.
A place in Judah, Joshua 15:58, See Poole on "1 Chronicles 2:23".

And Ephah, Caleb's concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez: and Haran begat Gazez.
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And the sons of Jahdai; Regem, and Jotham, and Geshan, and Pelet, and Ephah, and Shaaph.
The sons of Jahdai, the son of Gazez last mentioned; which is implied, because he follows next after him in the genealogy. Or, the sons of Moza; whose name might be changed into Jahdai for some reason now unknown.

Maachah, Caleb's concubine, bare Sheber, and Tirhanah.
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She bare also Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah, and the father of Gibea: and the daughter of Caleb was Achsah.
Madmannah: this and divers other following names are the names of places in Judah, and

father is meant as 1 Chronicles 2:23,24.

These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah; Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim,
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Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hareph the father of Bethgader.
Salma the father of Beth-lehem, to wit, in part; for Boaz descended from another Salmon, who was the son of Nahshon, 1 Chronicles 2:11.

Hareph the father of Beth-gader, called also Penuel the father of Gedor, 1 Chronicles 4:4.

And Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim had sons; Haroeh, and half of the Manahethites.
Haroeh; which may signify an overseer, a prophet, or teacher, or ruler; but here is a proper name, as appears from 1 Chronicles 4:2, where he is called Reaiah, with no great variation in the Hebrew.

And the families of Kirjathjearim; the Ithrites, and the Puhites, and the Shumathites, and the Mishraites; of them came the Zareathites, and the Eshtaulites.
The families of Kirjath-jearim; or, in Kirjath-jearim; all which descended from Shobal, 1 Chronicles 2:50.

Of them, i.e. of the family of the Mishraites, last mentioned.

The Eshtaulites; the inhabitants of two places called Zoreah and Eshtaol, Joshua 15:33.

The sons of Salma; Bethlehem, and the Netophathites, Ataroth, the house of Joab, and half of the Manahethites, the Zorites.
The sons of Salma; of that Salma mentioned 1 Chronicles 2:51.

Beth-lehem, i.e. the inhabitants of Beth-lehem.

Ataroth; the name of a person or people.

The house of Joab; the progenitors of Joab’s family.

Half of the Manahethites; the other half being mentioned 1 Chronicles 2:52.

Zorites, for, to wit, the Zorites.

And the families of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and Suchathites. These are the Kenites that came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab.
The scribes; either civil, who were public notaries, who wrote and signed legal instruments; or ecclesiastical. And these were either Levites, or Simeonites, or rather Kenites, and are here mentioned not as if they were of the tribe of Judah, but because they dwelt among them, and probably were allied to them by marriages, and so in a manner incorporated with them.

Which dwelt, or rather, dwelt; Heb. were dwellers. For the other translation, which dwelt, may seem to insinuate that these were descendants of Judah, which they were not; but this translation only signifies their cohabitation with them, for which cause they are here named with them.

At Jabez; a place in Judah, so named probably from that famous Jabez of that tribe, 1 Chronicles 4:9.

The Kenites that came of Hemath; who dwelt in Judah, Judges 1:16. Thus they are distinguished from the other branch of the Kenites, who dwelt in the tribe of Manasseh, Judges 4:11.

Matthew Poole's Commentary

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