Romans 4:3
For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(3) The Apostle gives a proof of this from Scripture. Abraham was not justified by works, and therefore had nothing to boast of in God’s sight. He was justified by faith. His righteousness was not real, but imputed. His faith was treated as if it had been equivalent to a righteousness of works. It met with the same acceptance in the sight of God that a righteousness of works would have done. But—the argument goes on—faith carries with it no such idea of merit or debt as works. It is met by a pure act of grace on the part of God.

Abraham believed God.—The quotation is taken from Genesis 15:6, where it appears as a comment upon Abraham’s belief in the promise that he should have a numerous posterity. The same passage is elaborately commented upon by Philo and others, so that it would seem to have been a common topic in the Jewish schools. It should be noticed that the word “faith” is not used in quite the same sense in the original and in the application. In Abraham’s case it was trust in the fulfilment of the divine promise, in St. Paul’s sense it is rather enthusiastic adhesion to a person. This is part of the general enlargement and deepening of the Old Testament terminology by St. Paul. A writer of less profundity (though marked by striking and elevated qualities), the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, applies the word more strictly. (See Hebrews 11:8 et seq.) In James 2:23 the word has the still thinner meaning of a merely intellectual assent. St Paul quotes the same passage in the same sense as here in Galatians 3:6. (See Excursus B: On the Meaning of the word Faith.)

It was counted unto him.—It should be observed that the same words are translated by the Authorised version here, “it was counted unto him;” in Romans 4:9, “faith was reckoned to Abraham;” in Romans 4:22, “it was imputed unto him;” in Galatians 3:6, “it was accounted to him;” in James 2:23, “it was imputed to him.” A defect in the translation, which, however, hardly obscures the true meaning.

The sense of imputation is not to be got rid of. It is distinctly a forensic act. The righteousness attributed to Abraham is not an actual righteousness, but something else that is considered and treated as if it were equivalent to such righteousness. It is so treated by God acting as the judge of men. (See Excursus E: On the Doctrine of Justification by Faith and Imputed Righteousness.)

Romans 4:3. For what saith the Scripture? — What is Moses’s account of this matter? Abraham believed God — Namely, that promise of God, recorded Genesis 15:5, that he should have a seed numerous as the stars. As also the promise concerning Christ, mentioned Genesis 12:3, through whom all nations should be blessed. “The apostle mentions only this one instance of Abraham’s faith, because Moses had said of it in particular, that it was counted to him for righteousness. But we must not, on that account, think it the only act of faith that was so counted to him. He had an habitual disposition to believe and obey God, founded on just conceptions of his being and attributes. And he began to exercise it when God first called him to leave his native country. For by faith he went out, not knowing whither he went, Hebrews 11:8. The same faith he exercised through the whole course of his life; acting on every occasion as one will do whose mind is filled with a present sense of Deity. Of this the instance mentioned by the apostle is a great example. For, in the eightieth year of his age, when Sarah was seventy years old, he believed what God told him concerning the numerousness of his seed, though it was at that time contrary to the ordinary course of nature: nay, he continued to believe it from that time forth, for the space of twenty years, during which no child was given him: see on Romans 4:17. At length, in the hundredth year of his age, the son so long promised was born. But mark what happened! When this son, to whom all the promises were limited, became fourteen years old, God commanded Abraham to offer him up as a burnt-offering; and he, without hesitation, obeyed; firmly believing that, after he was burnt to ashes on the altar, God would raise him from the dead, Hebrews 11:19. By this and other instances, Abraham became so remarkable for his faith, that God, by a covenant, constituted him the father of all believers.” And it was counted to him for righteousness — So our translators have very properly rendered the Greek phrase here, and Galatians 3:6, for the original word, ελογισθη, signifies to state, and sum up an account; also, to put a value upon a thing, Romans 8:18. The word count includes both meanings. The sense is, God accepted Abraham as if he had been altogether righteous: or, this his faith was accounted by God his gospel righteousness, as being the performance of the condition the gospel requires, in order to justification. See on Romans 3:28. “But neither here, nor Galatians 3:6, is it said that Christ’s righteousness was counted to Abraham. In both passages, the expression is, Abraham believed God, and it, namely, his believing God, was counted to him for righteousness; and Romans 4:9, of this chapter, we say that faith was counted to him for righteousness: so also Genesis 15:6. Further, as it is nowhere said in Scripture that Christ’s righteousness was imputed to Abraham, so neither is it said anywhere that Christ’s righteousness is imputed to believers. In short, the uniform doctrine of the Scripture is, that the believer’s faith is counted to him for righteousness, by the mere grace or favour of God, through Jesus Christ; that is, on account of what Christ hath done to procure that favour for them. This is very different from the doctrine of those who hold that by having faith imputed, or accounted for righteousness, the believer becomes perfectly righteous; whether they mean thereby that faith is itself a perfect righteousness, or that it is the instrument of conveying to the believer the perfect righteousness of another. With respect to the first, it is not true that faith is a perfect righteousness; for if it were, justification would not be a free gift, but a debt. And with respect to the second supposition, although the perfect righteousness of another were conveyed to a sinner by faith, it would not make him perfectly righteous; because it is beyond the power of Omnipotence itself, by any means whatever, to make a person not to have sinned, who actually hath sinned. And yet, unless this is done, no believer can be perfectly righteous. On account of the perfect righteousness of another, God indeed may treat one as if he were perfectly righteous. But that is all. Nor does the Scripture carry the matter further.” — Macknight.

4:1-12 To meet the views of the Jews, the apostle first refers to the example of Abraham, in whom the Jews gloried as their most renowned forefather. However exalted in various respects, he had nothing to boast in the presence of God, being saved by grace, through faith, even as others. Without noticing the years which passed before his call, and the failures at times in his obedience, and even in his faith, it was expressly stated in Scripture that he believed God, and it was counted to him for righteousness, Ge 15:6. From this example it is observed, that if any man could work the full measure required by the law, the reward must be reckoned as a debt, which evidently was not the case even of Abraham, seeing faith was reckoned to him for righteousness. When believers are justified by faith, their faith being counted for righteousness, their faith does not justify them as a part, small or great, of their righteousness; but as the appointed means of uniting them to Him who has chosen as the name whereby he shall be called, the Lord our Righteousness. Pardoned people are the only blessed people. It clearly appears from the Scripture, that Abraham was justified several years before his circumcision. It is, therefore, plain that this rite was not necessary in order to justification. It was a sign of the original corruption of human nature. And it was such a sign as was also an outward seal, appointed not only to confirm God's promises to him and to his seed, and their obligation to be the Lord's, but likewise to assure him of his being already a real partaker of the righteousness of faith. Thus Abraham was the spiritual forefather of all believers, who walked after the example of his obedient faith. The seal of the Holy Spirit in our sanctification, making us new creatures, is the inward evidence of the righteousness of faith.For what saith the Scripture? - The inspired account of Abraham's justification. This account was final, and was to settle the question. This account is found in Genesis 15:6.

Abraham believed God - In the Hebrew, "Abraham believed Yahweh." The sense is substantially the same, as the argument turns on the act of believing. The faith which Abraham exercised was, that his posterity should be like the stars of heaven in number. This promise was made to him when he had no child, and of course when he had no prospect of such a posterity. See the strength and nature of this faith further illustrated in Romans 4:16-21. The reason why it was counted to him for righteousness was, that it was such a strong, direct, and unwavering act of confidence in the promise of God.

And it - The word "it" here evidently refers to the act of believing It does not refer to the righteousness of another - of God, or of the Messiah; but the discussion is solely of the strong act of Abraham's faith. which in some sense was counted to him for righteousness. In what sense this was, is explained directly after. All that is material to remark here is, that the act of Abraham, the strong confidence of his mind in the promises of God, his unwavering assurance that what God had promised he would perform, was reckoned for righteousness. The same thing is more fully expressed in Romans 4:18-22. When therefore it is said that the righteousness of Christ is accounted or imputed to us; when it is said that his merits are transferred and reckoned as ours; whatever may be the truth of the doctrine, it cannot be defended by "this" passage of Scripture.

Faith is uniformly an act of the mind. It is not a created essence which is placed within the mind. It is not a substance created independently of the soul, and placed within it by almighty power. It is not a principle, for the expression a principle of faith, is as unmeaningful as a principle of joy, or a principle of sorrow, or a principle of remorse. God promises; the man believes; and this is the whole of it.

(A principle is the "element or original cause," out of which certain consequences arise, and to which they may be traced. And if faith be the root of all acceptable obedience, then certainly, in this sense, it is a principle. But whatever faith be, it is not here asserted that it is imputed for, or instead of, righteousness. See the note above.)

While the word "faith" is sometimes used to denote religious doctrine, or the system that is to be believed (Acts 6:7; Acts 15:9; Romans 1:5; Romans 10:8; Romans 16:26; Ephesians 3:17; Ephesians 4:5; 1 Timothy 2:7, etc.); yet, when it is used to denote that which is required of people, it always denotes an acting of the mind exercised in relation to some object, or some promise, or threatening, or declaration of some other being; see the note at Mark 16:16.

Was counted - ἐλογίσθη elogigisthē. The same word in Romans 4:22, is is rendered "it was imputed." The word occurs frequently in the Scriptures. In the Old Testament, the verb חשׁב chaashab, which which is translated by the word λογίζομαι logizomai, means literally, "to think, to intend," or "purpose; to imagine, invent," or "devise; to reckon," or "account; to esteem; to impute," that is, to impute to a man what belongs to himself, or what "ought" to be imputed to him. It occurs only in the following places: Psalm 32:2; Psalm 35:4; Isaiah 10:7; Job 19:11; Job 33:10; Genesis 16:6; Genesis 38:15; 1 Samuel 1:13; Psalm 52:4; Jeremiah 18:18; Zechariah 7:10; Job 6:26; Job 19:16; Isaiah 13:17; 1 Kings 10:21; Numbers 18:27, Numbers 18:30; Psalm 88:4; Isaiah 40:17; Lamentations 4:2; Isaiah 40:15; Genesis 31:16. I have examined all the passages, and as the result of my examination have come to the conclusion, that there is not one in which the word is used in the sense of reckoning or imputing to a man what does not strictly belong to him; or of charging on him what ought not to be charged on him as a matter of personal right. The word is never used to denote imputing in the sense of transferring, or of charging that on one which does not properly belong to him. The same is the case in the New Testament. The word occurs about forty times (see "Schmidius' Concord)," and, in a similar signification. No doctrine of transferring, or of setting over to a man what does not properly belong to him, be it sin or holiness, can be derived, therefore, from this word. Whatever is meant by it here, it evidently is declared that the act of believing is what is intended, both by Moses and by Paul.

For righteousness - In order to justification; or to regard and treat him in connection with this as a righteous man; as one who was admitted to the favor and friendship of God. In reference to this we may remark,

(1) That it is evidently not intended that the act of believing, on the part of Abraham, was the meritorious ground of acceptance; for then it would have been a work. Faith was as much his own act, as any act of obedience to the Law.

(2) the design of the apostle was to show that by the Law, or by works, man could not be justified; Romans 3:28; Romans 4:2.

(3) faith was not what the Law required. It demanded complete and perfect obedience; and if a man was justified by faith, it was in some other way than by the Law.

(4) as the Law did not demand this; and as faith was something different from the demand of the Law; so if a man were justified by that, it was on a principle altogether different from justification by works. It was not by personal merit. It was not by complying with the Law. It was in a mode entirely different.

(5) in being justified by faith, it is meant, therefore, that we are treated as righteous; that we are forgiven; that we are admitted to the favor of God, and treated as his friends.

(6) in this act, faith, is a mere instrument, an antecedent, a "sine qua non," what God has been pleased to appoint as a condition on which men may be treated as righteous. It expresses a state of mind which is demonstrative of love to God; of affection for his cause and character; of reconciliation and friendship; and is therefore that state to which he has been graciously pleased to promise pardon and acceptance.

continued...

3. For what saith the, Scripture? Abraham believed God, and it—his faith.

was counted to him for righteousness—(Ge 15:6). Romish expositors and Arminian Protestants make this to mean that God accepted Abraham's act of believing as a substitute for complete obedience. But this is at variance with the whole spirit and letter of the apostle's teaching. Throughout this whole argument, faith is set in direct opposition to works, in the matter of justification—and even in Ro 4:4, 5. The meaning, therefore, cannot possibly be that the mere act of believing—which is as much a work as any other piece of commanded duty (Joh 6:29; 1Jo 3:23)—was counted to Abraham for all obedience. The meaning plainly is that Abraham believed in the promises which embraced Christ (Ge 12:3; 15:5, &c.), as we believe in Christ Himself; and in both cases, faith is merely the instrument that puts us in possession of the blessing gratuitously bestowed.

The scripture referred to is in Genesis 15:6. The apostle a little varies the words; in Genesis it is he believed in God, but here he believed God: again, in Genesis it is expressed actively, he counted it to him for righteousness; but here passively, it was counted to him for righteousness. The answer is, That the apostle in both followed the Septuagint, which was then more in use than the Hebrew text; and both are capable of an easy reconciliation, the difference being more in sound than in sense.

Abraham believed God; i.e. the promises of God: that he would be his shield and exceeding great reward, Genesis 15:1; that he would give him an heir of his body, Genesis 15:4; that he would multiply his seed, Genesis 15:5, whereby he understood not only his fleshly seed, but also the Messiah, the Saviour of the world, which was come of his loins; He took on him the seed of Abraham, Hebrews 2:16. And besides these promises in Genesis 15:1-21, he believed that promise which was made him, Genesis 12:3, That in him and his seed all families of the earth should be blessed. That in these promises the Messiah is understood, is evident from Galatians 3:8,16; and that Abraham had an eye to him is evident, without exception, from John 8:56.

It was counted unto him for righteousness; i.e. he was justified thereby: to have faith imputed for righteousness, and to be justified by faith, is the same thing. Faith is not our righteousness materially, but objectively and organically, as it apprehends and implies the righteousness of Christ, which is the matter of our justification. Our adversaries the papists oppose the imputation of Christ’s righteousness to us; they cavil at the very word, and call it putative righteousness: and yet the apostle useth the word ten times in this chapter, and in the same sense that word ten times in this chapter, and in the same sense that we take it. But how shall we reconcile our apostle with St. James, about the manner of Abraham’s justification: he says expressly, Jam 2:21, that Abraham our father was justified by works, when he offered his son Isaac; and thence he infers, Romans 4:24, that by works a man is justified, and not by faith only. They are easily reconciled, forasmuch as the one discourseth of the cause of our justification before God; the other, of the signs of justification before men. The one speaks of the imputation of righteousness; the other, of the declaration of righteousness. The one speaks of the office of faith; the other, of the quality of faith. The one speaks of the justification of the person; the other, of the faith of that person. The one speaks of Abraham to be justified; the other, of Abraham already justified.

For what saith the Scripture?.... This answers to "what is that which is written" (c)? or what does the Scripture say? which is a way of speaking used by the Jews, when anything is proposed, which seems contrary to Scripture, as here justification by works does. A testimony from Scripture is here produced, proving that Abraham was justified by faith, and not by works: the place referred to is Genesis 15:6;

Abraham believed God; the object of his faith and trust were not his riches, nor his righteousness, but Jehovah, the Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, styled in Genesis 15:1, "the Word of the Lord", the essential Word of God, and called his "shield", and "exceeding great reward"; characters which are very applicable to Christ: and this faith of his in the Lord was not a mere assent to the promise of God, but a fiducial act of faith in him; and was not merely concerned with temporal, but with spiritual things, and particularly about Christ the promised seed:

and it was counted to him for righteousness, the meaning of which is not, that Abraham imputed righteousness to God, or celebrated his righteousness and faithfulness, as some; or that the world reckoned Abraham a righteous person, as others; but that God reckoned him righteous, or imputed it to him for righteousness: and the question is, what the it is which was counted to him for righteousness? and that this is to be understood, , "concerning faith", as R. Solomon Jarchi says, is out of question; for this is expressly said by the apostle, Romans 4:9. The only one is, whether it means the grace of faith by which he believed; or the object of faith on which he believed, and with which his faith was conversant: not the former, for that is not righteousness, nor accounted so; but is distinguished from it, and is that by which a person receives and lays hold on righteousness; besides, whatever may be alleged in favour of the imputation of Abraham's faith to himself for righteousness, it can never be thought to be imputed to others on that account; whereas the very selfsame it is imputed to others also; see Romans 4:24; it remains then that it was the promised seed, the Messiah, and his righteousness, which Abraham, by faith, looked unto, and believed in, that was made unto him righteousness by imputation. Now since so great and good a man as Abraham was not justified by works, but by faith in the righteousness of the Messiah, it follows, that none of his sons, nor any other person whatever, ought to seek for, or expect to be justified in any other way.

(c) T. Bab. Beracot, fol. 5. 1. & 15. 2. & passim.

{3} For what saith the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.

(3) A confirmation of the proposition: Abraham was justified by imputation of faith, and therefore freely, without any regard being give to his works.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Romans 4:3. I am right in saying: οὐ πρὸς τὸν Θεόν, for Scripture expressly derives the justification of Abraham from his faith, not from his works, and indeed as something received through imputation; so that he consequently possesses, not the previously supposed righteousness of works, but the righteousness of faith as a favour of God, and has ground for boasting of his righteousness in reference to God. That righteousness by works he would have earned himself. Comp Romans 4:4. The emphasis lies on ἘΠΊΣΤΕΥΣΕ and ἘΛΟΓΊΣΘΗ, not on Τῷ ΘΕῷ (Mehring). See Romans 4:4 f. The passage quoted is Genesis 15:6, according to the LXX., which renders the active וְיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ by the passive Κ. ἘΛΟΓΊΣΘΗ. In the Hebrew what is spoken of is the faith which Abraham placed in the divine promise of a numerous posterity, and which God put to his account as righteousness, צְדָקָה, i.e. as full compliance with the divine will in act and life; comp on Galatians 3:6. Paul however has not made an unwarrantable use of the passage for his purpose (Rückert), but has really understood δικαιοσύνη in the dogmatic sense, which he was justified in doing since the imputation of faith as צְדָקָה was essentially the same judicial act which takes place at the justification of Christians. This divine act began with Abraham, the father of the faithful, and was not essentially different in the case of later believers. Even in the πιστεύειν τῷ Θεῷ on the part of Abraham Paul has rightly discerned nothing substantially different from the Christian ΠΊΣΤΙς (compare Delitzsch on Gen. l.c[974]), since Abraham’s faith had reference to the divine promise, and indeed to the promise which he, the man trusted by God and enlightened by God, recognised as that which embraced in it the future Messiah (John 8:56). Tholuck, because the promise was a promise of grace, comes merely to the unsatisfactory view of “a virtual parallel also with the object of the justifying faith of Christians.” Still less (in opposition to Neander and others) can the explanation of the subjective nature of faith in general, without the addition of its specific object (Christ), suffice for the conception of Abraham as the father of all believing in Christ; since in that case there would only have been present in him a pre-formation of faith as respects its psychological quality generally, and not also in respect of its subject-matter, which is nevertheless the specific and distinguishing point in the case of justifying faith.

We may add that our passage, since it expresses not a (mediate) issuing of righteousness from faith, but the imputation of the latter, serves as a proof of justification being an actus forensis; and what the Catholic expositors (including even Reithmayr and Maier) advance to the contrary is a pure subjective addition to the text.[975] It is well said by Erasmus: that is imputed, “quod re persolutum non est, sed tamen ex imputantis benignitate pro soluto habetur.” Comp also Philippi in loc[977], and Hoelemann, de justitiae ex fide ambabus in V. T. sedibus, 1867, p. 8 ff.

Instead of the καί in the LXX., Paul, in order to put the ἐπίστ. with all weight in the foreground, has used δέ, which does not otherwise belong to the connection of our passage.

εἰς δίκ.] Comp Romans 2:26.

On the passive ἐλογίσθη see Bernhardy, p. 341; Kühner, II. 1, p. 105.

[974] .c. loco citato or laudato.

[975] Not even with the exception of Döllinger (Christenth. u. K. p. 188, ed. 2), who says that God accounts the principle of the new free obedience (the faith) as already the whole service to be rendered, as the finished righteousness. Comp. however on Romans 1:17, note.

[977] n loc. refers to the note of the commentator or editor named on the particular passage.

3. what saith the scripture?] See on Romans 1:17.

Abraham believed, &c.] Lit. But Abraham believed, &c. The particle is, perhaps, significant; emphasizing the verb. The Gr. is verbatim from LXX. of Genesis 15:6, save that “but” is “and” in LXX. See by all means Genesis 15:5-6, as a leading illustration of what faith is in St Paul’s sense; personal trust in God; acceptance of His word absolutely, because it is His. (See further on Romans 4:22 below.)

it was counted] The same Gr. verb is rendered in this chapter “reckoned,” Romans 4:4; Romans 4:9-10; “counted,” Romans 4:5; “imputed,” Romans 4:11; Romans 4:22-24 : see too Romans 4:6; Romans 4:8. (In 2 Timothy 4:16 it is “laid to charge.”) Its plain meaning is (like that of the Lat. imputare) to put down on an account (whether as debt or credit the context decides). The reason why of the “imputation” does not lie in the word itself, which may equally be used where merit and grace, wages and gift, are in question.

for righteousness] i.e. “as if it were righteousness” (in respect of results) Same construction as Romans 2:26, a passage which illustrates this. There the (supposed) Gentile who keeps the law, is treated as if he were circumcised, though he is not. Here Abraham, because he believes, is treated as having personal (justifying) righteousness, though he has it not. In other words, he is justified on a ground which is not his own works. It is specially needful to notice (what this particular passage brings out) that faith is in no sense regarded as, in itself, righteousness. (See below, on Romans 4:25.) The statement is that, “by grace,” the same result, viz. acceptance before God, follows faith that would follow the possession of merit. Faith is the condition, but not the ground, of this acceptance. The ground is the Propitiation.

[In Psalm 106:31 we have the very words used of Phinehas which are here used of Abraham. But comparing the Psalm with Numbers 25:11-13 we see the difference of application. In Phinehas, an act of holy zeal was honoured by a special temporal favour, the permanence of the priesthood in his family. It was no question of acceptance in respect of salvation; a matter which lies on a totally different level from that of temporal rewards. On that lower level, the act of Phinehas was one of merit, and was “reckoned” as such to him and his house. In Abraham’s case we have two notes of difference from that of Phinehas: (1) faith in God, not an act of zeal, is the occasion; (2) the “imputation” is mentioned absolutely and with peculiar solemnity, unconnected with any temporal results. And thus it is taken by St Paul here, as his whole reasoning shews, as a Divine intimation of the true conditions of the acceptance of man by God “without works.”]

On James 2:14, &c., see Appendix C.

Romans 4:3. Γὰρ, for) This word is to be referred to but not.—ἡ γραφή, the Scripture) The word Scripture is elegantly used. Moses does not speak in this passage, comp. ch. Romans 10:5.—ἐπίστευσε δὲ Ἀβραὰμ, κ.τ.λ.), Genesis 15:6, lxx., καὶ ἐπίστευσεν Ἄβραμ, κ.τ.λ. believed in the promise of a numerous seed, and especially of the seed Christ, the seed of the woman, in whom all the promises are yea and amen, and on whose account a numerous seed had been desired.—ἐλογίσθη) λογιζεσθαι, to number, to estimate, to consider, to reckon, signifies here the act of a gracious will. It is repeated in this passage with great effect: ἐλογίσθη, the passive, as λογίζεται, Romans 4:4-5, is reckoned. Heb.; He reckoned it to him, namely, the fact [of his believing] or his faith; for this is to be supplied from the verb immediately preceding, believed.—εἰς) So ch. Romans 2:26 [counted for]; Acts 19:27, notes.

Verse 3. - For what saith the Scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned Unto him for righteousness. This notable text (Genesis 15:6), declaring the ground of Abraham's acceptance, is similarly quoted in the cognate passage, Galatians 3:6. It has a peculiar cogency in the general argument from being in connection with, and with reference to, one of the Divine promises to Abraham of an unnumbered seed; so that it may be understood with an extended application to those who were to inherit the blessing, as well as to the "father of the faithful," and so declaring the principle of justification for all the "children of the promise." Further, it would be peculiarly telling as addressed to the Jews, who made such a point of their descent from Abraham as the root of all their position of privilege (cf. Psalm 105:6; Isaiah 41:8; Isaiah 51:2; Matthew 3:9; Luke 3:8; John 8:39). The two significant expressions in it are ἐπίστευσε (denoting faith, not works) and ἐλογίσθη εἰς The whole phrase, the apostle proceeds to say, implies that the reward spoken of was not earned, but granted. Romans 4:3The Scripture (ἡ γραφὴ)

The scripture passage. See on John 2:22; and footnote on John 5:47.

It was counted for righteousness (ἐλογίσθη εἰς δικαιοσύνην)

For the phrase λογίζεσθαι εἰς to reckon unto, compare Romans 2:26; Romans 9:8, where εἰς is rendered for. The verb is also used with ὡς as. So Romans 8:36; 1 Corinthians 4:1. So in Sept., εἰς, Psalm 56:1-13 :31; Isaiah 29:17; Isaiah 32:15; Isaiah 40:17 : ὡς. Genesis 31:15; Job 41:20; Psalm 44:22; Isaiah 5:28; Isaiah 29:16. The phrases ἐλογίσθη εἰς and ἐλ. ὡς are thus shown to be substantially equivalent. See further on Romans 4:5.

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