Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges
And it came to pass on the eighth day, that Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the elders of Israel;(1) The first sacrifices of Aaron (1–14)
On the eighth day (the consecration of Aaron and his sons being complete) Aaron begins to offer sacrifice for himself and for the people, and his sons assist.
The sacrifices are:
Sin-Offering. A bull calf
Burnt-Offering. A ram
Peace-Offering. A ram
Meal-Offering. A ram for the people
A calf and a lamb
An ox and a ram and a meal-offering mingled with oil.
An ox and a ram and a meal-offering mingled with oil.
A complete sequence of sacrifice is prescribed, and the whole offering is moderate in amount compared with those prescribed for the great festivals in Numbers 28, 29.
1. elders] perhaps a late correction (Dillm.). Cp. ‘children’ in Leviticus 9:3, where Sam. and LXX. again introduce ‘elders.’
And he said unto Aaron, Take thee a young calf for a sin offering, and a ram for a burnt offering, without blemish, and offer them before the LORD.2. a bull calf] Only here is a calf appointed for a Sin-Offering. According to Jewish tradition, expressed in Targ. Jon., it was to remind Aaron of his sin in making the golden calf at Horeb (Exodus 32).
And unto the children of Israel thou shalt speak, saying, Take ye a kid of the goats for a sin offering; and a calf and a lamb, both of the first year, without blemish, for a burnt offering;3. And unto the children] LXX. and Sam. have ‘elders’ as in Leviticus 9:1.
Also a bullock and a ram for peace offerings, to sacrifice before the LORD; and a meat offering mingled with oil: for to day the LORD will appear unto you.
And they brought that which Moses commanded before the tabernacle of the congregation: and all the congregation drew near and stood before the LORD.
And Moses said, This is the thing which the LORD commanded that ye should do: and the glory of the LORD shall appear unto you.6. This is the thing] as in Leviticus 8:5. To bring the sacrifices prescribed in Leviticus 9:2-4 is the thing which the Lord commanded.
And Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the altar, and offer thy sin offering, and thy burnt offering, and make an atonement for thyself, and for the people: and offer the offering of the people, and make an atonement for them; as the LORD commanded.7. and for the people] LXX. has ‘and for thy house’ as in Leviticus 16:11; Leviticus 16:17. This seems right, as atonement for the people comes in the next clause.
Aaron therefore went unto the altar, and slew the calf of the sin offering, which was for himself.8–11. The Sin-Offering is offered with the same ritual as in Leviticus 8:14-17. The blood is not brought into the holy place, but what is not burnt on the altar is consumed without the camp.
And the sons of Aaron brought the blood unto him: and he dipped his finger in the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar, and poured out the blood at the bottom of the altar:
But the fat, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver of the sin offering, he burnt upon the altar; as the LORD commanded Moses.
And the flesh and the hide he burnt with fire without the camp.
And he slew the burnt offering; and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled round about upon the altar.12. delivered] presented A.V. a different Heb. verb here and in Leviticus 9:13; Leviticus 9:18 from that in Leviticus 8:18; Leviticus 8:22.
sprinkled] threw as in Leviticus 8:19. So in Leviticus 9:18.
12–14. The Burnt-Offering is offered as in Leviticus 8:18-21.
And they presented the burnt offering unto him, with the pieces thereof, and the head: and he burnt them upon the altar.
And he did wash the inwards and the legs, and burnt them upon the burnt offering on the altar.
And he brought the people's offering, and took the goat, which was the sin offering for the people, and slew it, and offered it for sin, as the first.(2) The offerings for the people (15–21)
15. The Sin-Offering for the people is offered ‘as the first’ i.e. in the same way as Aaron’s Sin-Offering; the blood is not brought into the tabernacle, and the sacrifice is wholly consumed. This treatment gives rise to the question of Leviticus 10:16.
And he brought the burnt offering, and offered it according to the manner.16. The Burnt-Offering offered ‘according to the ordinance’ as prescribed in ch. 1, or as in Leviticus 9:12-14. Cp. Leviticus 9:10.
And he brought the meat offering, and took an handful thereof, and burnt it upon the altar, beside the burnt sacrifice of the morning.17. The Meal-Offering. The Heb. for taking a handful from the Meal-Offering in this verse is different from that in Leviticus 2:2.
besides the burnt offering of the morning] The same words in Numbers 28:23 refer to the continual Burnt-Offering enjoined in Exodus 29:38-42 and Numbers 28:3-8. Are the Burnt-Offerings which have been already offered, or any of them, regarded as ‘the burnt offering of the morning’? or are these last words (so Dillm.) the gloss of a later scribe?
He slew also the bullock and the ram for a sacrifice of peace offerings, which was for the people: and Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, which he sprinkled upon the altar round about,18–21. The sacrifice of Peace-Offerings. The fat parts of both animals are burnt by Aaron on the altar; the breasts and the right thigh (?of both animals) are ‘waved before the Lord.’
The right thigh was burnt in the ceremony of consecration (Leviticus 8:28); now Aaron, officiating as priest, retains both breast and thigh for himself.
And the fat of the bullock and of the ram, the rump, and that which covereth the inwards, and the kidneys, and the caul above the liver:
And they put the fat upon the breasts, and he burnt the fat upon the altar:
And the breasts and the right shoulder Aaron waved for a wave offering before the LORD; as Moses commanded.
And Aaron lifted up his hand toward the people, and blessed them, and came down from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt offering, and peace offerings.22. Aaron now lifts up his hands and blesses the people, exercising another of his priestly functions.
And Moses and Aaron went into the tabernacle of the congregation, and came out, and blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people.23. And Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting] The meaning of this action is not explained and the clause has been interpreted in various ways. If it be regarded as introducing Aaron to the tent of meeting, and to the duties which he had to perform there, the reason why Aaron has not hitherto brought any of the blood into the Holy place is apparent.
And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat: which when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces.24. A second blessing follows after Moses and Aaron come out from the temple. God’s approval is signified, for His servant has returned from His presence with gifts of grace for His people. It is further signified by the appearance of the glory of the Lord (cp. Leviticus 9:4; Leviticus 9:6), and the fire from before the Lord which consumes the Burnt-Offering and the fat. Similar manifestations of approval are recorded in Jdg 6:21; 1 Kings 18:38; 1 Chronicles 21:26. In 2 Chronicles 7:1 the fire comes down from heaven.
24 a is perhaps an interpolation. In Leviticus 9:13; Leviticus 9:16 (cp. Leviticus 8:20) the ‘fat’ is not mentioned in connexion with the Burnt-Offerings, while it is stated (Leviticus 9:13) that Aaron burnt the pieces one by one. Moreover, the sacrifice was already ended (Leviticus 9:22), so that there is difficulty in supposing the fat and burnt-offering to be still upon the altar.
Perhaps the LXX.’s ‘offered’ and ‘put’ for ‘burnt’ in Leviticus 9:13; Leviticus 9:17; Leviticus 9:20 may be influenced by this consideration. This is, however, a somewhat precarious deduction.