Esther 3:2
New International Version
All the royal officials at the king's gate knelt down and paid honor to Haman, for the king had commanded this concerning him. But Mordecai would not kneel down or pay him honor.

New Living Translation
All the king’s officials would bow down before Haman to show him respect whenever he passed by, for so the king had commanded. But Mordecai refused to bow down or show him respect.

English Standard Version
And all the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman, for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai did not bow down or pay homage.

Berean Study Bible
All the royal servants at the King’s Gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman, because the king had commanded this for him. But Mordecai would not bow down or pay homage.

New American Standard Bible
All the king's servants who were at the king's gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman; for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai neither bowed down nor paid homage.

New King James Version
And all the king’s servants who were within the king’s gate bowed and paid homage to Haman, for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai would not bow or pay homage.

King James Bible
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.

Christian Standard Bible
The entire royal staff at the King's Gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman, because the king had commanded this to be done for him. But Mordecai would not bow down or pay homage.

Contemporary English Version
and the king had given orders for his officials at the royal gate to honor Haman by kneeling down to him. All of them obeyed except Mordecai.

Good News Translation
The king ordered all the officials in his service to show their respect for Haman by kneeling and bowing to him. They all did so, except for Mordecai, who refused to do it.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
The entire royal staff at the King's Gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman, because the king had commanded this to be done for him. But Mordecai would not bow down or pay homage.

International Standard Version
All the king's ministers who were in the king's gate would kneel and bow down to Haman, because the king had commanded that Haman be honored in this way. Mordecai, however, would not kneel and would not bow down.

NET Bible
As a result, all the king's servants who were at the king's gate were bowing and paying homage to Haman, for the king had so commanded. However, Mordecai did not bow, nor did he pay him homage.

New Heart English Bible
All the king's servants who were in the King's Gate bowed down, and paid homage to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai did not bow down or pay him homage.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
All the king's advisers were at the king's gate, kneeling and bowing to Haman with their faces touching the ground, because the king had commanded it. But Mordecai would not kneel and bow to him.

JPS Tanakh 1917
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed down, and prostrated themselves before Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor prostrated himself before him.

New American Standard 1977
And all the king’s servants who were at the king’s gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman; for so the king had commanded concerning him. But Mordecai neither bowed down nor paid homage.

Jubilee Bible 2000
And all the king's slaves that were in the king's gate, knelt down and worshipped Haman, for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai did not kneel or worship before him.

King James 2000 Bible
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and paid homage to Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor paid him homage.

American King James Version
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.

American Standard Version
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed down, and did reverence to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor did him reverence.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
And all in the palace did him obeisance, for so the king had given orders to do: but Mardochaeus did not do him obeisance.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And all the king's servants, that were at the doors of the palace, bent their knees, and worshipped Aman: for so the emperor had commanded them, only Mardochai did not bend his knee, nor worship him.

Darby Bible Translation
And all the king's servants that were in the king's gate bowed and did Haman reverence, for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did [him] reverence.

English Revised Version
And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed down, and did reverence to Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not down, nor did him reverence.

Webster's Bible Translation
And all the king's servants that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.

World English Bible
All the king's servants who were in the king's gate bowed down, and paid homage to Haman; for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai didn't bow down or pay him homage.

Young's Literal Translation
and all servants of the king, who are in the gate of the king, are bowing and doing obeisance to Haman, for so hath the king commanded for him; and Mordecai doth not bow nor do obeisance.
Study Bible
Haman Plots Against the Jews
1After these events, King Xerxes honored Haman son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, elevating him to a position above all the princes who were with him. 2All the royal servants at the King’s Gate bowed down and paid homage to Haman, because the king had commanded this for him. But Mordecai would not bow down or pay homage. 3Then the royal servants at the King’s Gate asked Mordecai, “Why do you disobey the command of the king?”…
Cross References
Esther 2:5
Now there was at the citadel of Susa a Jewish man from the tribe of Benjamin named Mordecai son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish.

Esther 2:19
When the virgins were assembled a second time, Mordecai was sitting at the King's Gate.

Esther 3:3
Then the royal servants at the King's Gate asked Mordecai, "Why do you disobey the command of the king?"

Esther 5:9
That day Haman went out full of joy and glad of heart. At the King's Gate, however, he saw Mordecai, who did not rise or tremble in fear at his presence. And Haman was filled with rage toward Mordecai.

Treasury of Scripture

And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him. But Mordecai bowed not, nor did him reverence.

the king's servants.

Esther 2:19,21
And when the virgins were gathered together the second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate…

bowed.

Genesis 41:43
And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had; and they cried before him, Bow the knee: and he made him ruler over all the land of Egypt.

Philippians 2:10
That at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth;

bowed not.

Esther 3:1,5
After these things did king Ahasuerus promote Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, and advanced him, and set his seat above all the princes that were with him…

Exodus 17:14,16
And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven…

Deuteronomy 25:19
Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget it.







Lexicon
All
וְכָל־ (wə·ḵāl)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 3605: The whole, all, any, every

the royal
הַמֶּ֜לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

servants
עַבְדֵ֨י (‘aḇ·ḏê)
Noun - masculine plural construct
Strong's Hebrew 5650: Slave, servant

at the King’s
הַמֶּ֗לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

Gate
בְּשַׁ֣עַר (bə·ša·‘ar)
Preposition-b | Noun - masculine singular construct
Strong's Hebrew 8179: An opening, door, gate

bowed down
כֹּרְעִ֤ים (kō·rə·‘îm)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 3766: To bend the knee, to sink, to prostrate

and paid homage
וּמִֽשְׁתַּחֲוִים֙ (ū·miš·ta·ḥă·wîm)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Hitpael - Participle - masculine plural
Strong's Hebrew 7812: To depress, prostrate

to Haman,
לְהָמָ֔ן (lə·hā·mān)
Preposition-l | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2001: Haman -- to rage, be turbulent

because
כִּי־ (kî-)
Conjunction
Strong's Hebrew 3588: A relative conjunction

the king
הַמֶּ֑לֶךְ (ham·me·leḵ)
Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4428: A king

had commanded
צִוָּה־ (ṣiw·wāh-)
Verb - Piel - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6680: To lay charge (upon), give charge (to), command, order

this
כֵ֖ן (ḵên)
Adverb
Strong's Hebrew 3651: So -- thus

for him.
ל֣וֹ (lōw)
Preposition | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew

But Mordecai
וּמָ֨רְדֳּכַ֔י (ū·mā·rə·do·ḵay)
Conjunctive waw | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4782: Mordecai -- a companion of Zerubbabel, also a cousin of Esther

would not
לֹ֥א (lō)
Adverb - Negative particle
Strong's Hebrew 3808: Not, no

bow down
יִכְרַ֖ע (yiḵ·ra‘)
Verb - Qal - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3766: To bend the knee, to sink, to prostrate

or pay homage.
יִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֶֽה׃ (yiš·ta·ḥă·weh)
Verb - Hitpael - Imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7812: To depress, prostrate
(2) Bowed not.--Perhaps, rather, did not prostrate himself, for such was the ordinary Eastern practice (see Herod. iii. 86, vii. 7, 34, 136, viii. 118). The objection on Mordecai's part was evidently mainly on religious grounds, as giving to a man Divine honours (Josephus l.c.), for it elicits from him the fact that he was a Jew (Esther 3:4), to whom such an act of obeisance would be abhorrent. Whether Mordecai also rebelled against the ignominious character of the obeisance, we cannot say.

Verse 2. - All the king's servants. Literally, "the king's slaves" - the lower officers of the court, porters and others, of about the same rank as Mordecai. Bowed and reverenced Haman. i.e. prostrated themselves before him in the usual Oriental fashion. For the king had so commanded. No reason is assigned for this order, which was certainly unusual, since the prostration of an inferior before a superior was a general rule (Herod., 1:134). Perhaps Haman had been elevated from a very low position, and the king therefore thought a special order requisite. Mordecai bowed not. Greeks occasionally refused to prostrate themselves before the Great King himself, saying that it was not their custom to worship men (Herod., 7:136; Plut., 'Vit. Artax.,' § 22; Arrian., 'Exp. Alex.,' 4:10-12, etc.). Mordecai seems to have had the same feeling. Prostration was, he thought, an act of worship, and it was not proper to worship any one excepting God (see Revelation 22:9). 3:1-6 Mordecai refused to reverence Haman. The religion of a Jew forbade him to give honours to any mortal man which savoured of idolatry, especially to so wicked a man as Haman. By nature all are idolaters; self is our favourite idol, we are pleased to be treated as if every thing were at our disposal. Though religion by no means destroys good manners, but teaches us to render honour to whom honour is due, yet by a citizen of Zion, not only in his heart, but in his eyes, such a vile person as Haman was, is contemned, Ps 15:4. The true believer cannot obey edicts, or conform to fashions, which break the law of God. He must obey God rather than man, and leave the consequences to him. Haman was full of wrath. His device was inspired by that wicked spirit, who has been a murderer from the beginning; whose enmity to Christ and his church, governs all his children.
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