Hosea 13:1
New International Version
When Ephraim spoke, people trembled; he was exalted in Israel. But he became guilty of Baal worship and died.

New Living Translation
When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, the people shook with fear, for that tribe was important in Israel. But the people of Ephraim sinned by worshiping Baal and thus sealed their destruction.

English Standard Version
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel, but he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

Berean Study Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel. But he incurred guilt through Baal, and he died.

New American Standard Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died.

New King James Version
When Ephraim spoke, trembling, He exalted himself in Israel; But when he offended through Baal worship, he died.

King James Bible
When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Christian Standard Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel. But he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

Contemporary English Version
When your leaders spoke, everyone in Israel trembled and showed great respect. But you sinned by worshiping Baal, and you were destroyed.

Good News Translation
In the past, when the tribe of Ephraim spoke, the other tribes of Israel were afraid; they looked up to Ephraim. But the people sinned by worshiping Baal, and for this they will die.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel. But he incurred guilt through Baal and died.

International Standard Version
"When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; and it was exalted within Israel. But when they offended God by Baal, they died,

NET Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was terror; he was exalted in Israel, but he became guilty by worshiping Baal and died.

New Heart English Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, but when he became guilty in Baal, he died.

GOD'S WORD® Translation
When the tribe of Ephraim spoke, people trembled. The people of Ephraim were important in Israel. Then they became guilty of worshiping Baal, so they must die.

JPS Tanakh 1917
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling, He exalted himself in Israel; But when he became guilty through Baal, he died.

New American Standard 1977
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died.

Jubilee Bible 2000
When Ephraim spoke everyone feared, he was exalted in Israel; but he was found guilty in Baal and died.

King James 2000 Bible
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended through Baal worship, he died.

American King James Version
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

American Standard Version
When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Brenton Septuagint Translation
According to the word of Ephraim he adopted ordinances for himself in Israel; and he established them for Baal, and died.

Douay-Rheims Bible
When Ephraim spoke, a horror seized Israel: and he sinned in Baal and died.

Darby Bible Translation
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel: but he trespassed through Baal, and he died.

English Revised Version
When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he exalted himself in Israel: but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Webster's Bible Translation
When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

World English Bible
When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, but when he became guilty in Baal, he died.

Young's Literal Translation
When Ephraim speaketh tremblingly, He hath been lifted up in Israel, When he becometh guilty in Baal he dieth.
Study Bible
Ephraim's Glory Vanishes
1When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling; he was exalted in Israel. But he incurred guilt through Baal, and he died. 2Now they sin more and more and make for themselves cast images, idols skillfully made from their silver, all of them the work of craftsmen. People say of them, “They offer human sacrifice and kiss the calves!”…
Cross References
Judges 8:1
Then the men of Ephraim said to Gideon, "Why have you done this to us? Why did you fail to call us when you went to fight against Midian?" And they contended with him violently.

Judges 12:1
Then the men of Ephraim assembled and crossed the Jordan to Zaphon. They said to Jephthah, "Why have you crossed over to fight the Ammonites without calling us to go with you? We will burn your house down with you inside!"

Job 29:21
Men listened to me with expectation, waiting silently for my counsel.

Job 29:22
After my words, they spoke no more; my speech settled on them like dew.

Hosea 2:8
For she does not acknowledge that it was I who gave her grain, new wine and oil, who lavished her with silver and gold--which was crafted for Baal.

Hosea 8:4
They set up kings, but not by Me. they make princes, but without My approval. With their silver and gold they make themselves idols, to their own destruction.

Hosea 11:2
But the more I called them, the farther they departed from Me. They sacrificed to the Baals and burned incense to carved images.

Treasury of Scripture

When Ephraim spoke trembling, he exalted himself in Israel; but when he offended in Baal, he died.

Ephraim.

1 Samuel 15:17
And Samuel said, When thou wast little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the LORD anointed thee king over Israel?

Proverbs 18:12
Before destruction the heart of man is haughty, and before honour is humility.

Isaiah 66:2
For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

exalted.

Numbers 2:18-21
On the west side shall be the standard of the camp of Ephraim according to their armies: and the captain of the sons of Ephraim shall be Elishama the son of Ammihud…

Numbers 10:22
And the standard of the camp of the children of Ephraim set forward according to their armies: and over his host was Elishama the son of Ammihud.

Numbers 13:8,16
Of the tribe of Ephraim, Oshea the son of Nun…

offended.

Hosea 11:2
As they called them, so they went from them: they sacrificed unto Baalim, and burned incense to graven images.

1 Kings 16:29-33
And in the thirty and eighth year of Asa king of Judah began Ahab the son of Omri to reign over Israel: and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria twenty and two years…

1 Kings 18:18,19
And he answered, I have not troubled Israel; but thou, and thy father's house, in that ye have forsaken the commandments of the LORD, and thou hast followed Baalim…

died.

Genesis 2:17
But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

Romans 5:12
Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

2 Corinthians 5:14
For the love of Christ constraineth us; because we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all dead:







Lexicon
When Ephraim
אֶפְרַ֙יִם֙ (’ep̄·ra·yim)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 669: Ephraim -- a son of Joseph, also his descendants and their territory

spoke,
כְּדַבֵּ֤ר (kə·ḏab·bêr)
Preposition-k | Verb - Piel - Infinitive construct
Strong's Hebrew 1696: To arrange, to speak, to subdue

there was trembling;
רְתֵ֔ת (rə·ṯêṯ)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 7578: A trembling

he
ה֖וּא (hū)
Pronoun - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1931: He, self, the same, this, that, as, are

was exalted
נָשָׂ֥א (nā·śā)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5375: To lift, carry, take

in Israel.
בְּיִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל (bə·yiś·rā·’êl)
Preposition-b | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 3478: Israel -- 'God strives', another name of Jacob and his desc

But he incurred guilt
וַיֶּאְשַׁ֥ם (way·ye’·šam)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 816: To be guilty, to be punished, perish

through Baal,
בַּבַּ֖עַל (bab·ba·‘al)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 1168: Baal -- a heathen god

and he died.
וַיָּמֹֽת׃ (way·yā·mōṯ)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4191: To die, to kill
XIII.

(1) There is a difference of opinion as to the construction and rendering of this verse. We adopt the interpretation, When Ephraim uttered terror, he rebelled in Israel; then he committed sin through Baal, and died. This points to the revolt of the Ten Tribes, and the consequent abandonment of the pure traditions of Jehovah worship for those of Baal. This idea and that of the previous verse (Hosea 12:14) may have been brought into prominence by the recent untoward antagonism aroused by the Syro-Ephraimitish war against Judah.

Verse 1. - When Ephraim spake trembling, he exalted himself in Israel. This rendering of the Authorized Version

(1) is supported by the Syriac, which is: "When Ephraim spake trembling, then he was, and was great in Israel." Rashi has a similar rendering of the word retheth, which is an ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, and causes the diversity of translation in this clause; but his exposition of the whole sentence is vague and unsatisfactory. Referring it to Jeroboam of the tribe of Ephraim, he explains as follows: "When Jeroboam, zealous for God, spoke against Solomon hard words, and with terror, Solomon was a great king." Pococke's exposition is in harmony with the Authorized Version, and is the following: "When Ephraim spake with fear and trembling (like his forefather Jacob, in his humble supplication to God), he exalted himself in Israel." But

(2) the rendering adopted by most moderns, is decidedly preferable, as agreeing better with the context, and much more in bar-runny with tribal characteristics of Ephraim, as intimated in this very book, and exhibited elsewhere. The translation we thus prefer is: "When Ephraim spake, there was trembling; he, even he, exalted himself in Israel." Such was the fear inspired, and the deference paid to the authority of that powerful tribe. The word reheth, though not found elsewhere, has a cognate root in Aramaic, with the meaning here assigned to it; for רתת is to fear, shudder, tremble; there is also, in Jeremiah 49:24, the word רֶטֶט, equivalent to "fear," similar in both sense and sound. The Chaldee supports this rendering; its paraphrase is: "When one of the house of Ephraim spake, trembling seized the peoples." Also Aben Ezra and Kimchi. The former's brief comment is: "Before his speaking the peoples were afraid; and the word רתת has no analogue except in the Aramaic." Kimchi's explanation is, "From the beginning, before Ephraim sinned, the fear of him was great over the peoples who surrounded him; for when he spake, fear and trembling were wont to seize him who heard him; and he was great and strong among the tribes of Israel, as it was said of him, ' And his seed shall be a multitude of nations.'"

(3) The LXX. renders reheth by δικαιώματα, thus:" According to the word of Ephraim, be adopted ordinances for himself in Israel," that is, when Ephraim spoke, the rest of the Israelites assented to his ordinances and rights, reverencing his authority, so that the general sense differs little from the Chaldee.

(4) Rosenmüller constructs and explains differently; his exposition runs somehow thus: "When Ephraim spake, instituting that horrible worship of the calves, he himself bore the sin of that horrible dictum, i.e. was guilty of, and bore its punishment." This explanation of נשא is farfetched and unnatural. We have no hesitation in preferring "lifted up," i.e. his head, or exalted himself, for, though it is usually the Hithp. that is employed in this sense, examples also occur in which Qal is so used, for example Psalm 89:10 and Nahum 1:5. Kimchi supplies rosho. We adhere, therefore, to the rendering and exposition of

(2). But when he offended in Baal, he died. This was not merely the calf-worship which, for political reasons, Jeroboam instituted and his successors retained, but the worship of Baal for which, no doubt, the calf-worship had prepared the way, and which had been introduced by Ahab at the instigation of his Sidonian queen. And though the people were partially and temporarily reformed through the efforts of Elijah the prophet and by the royal authority of Jehu, son of Nimshi, the evil was not eradicated, but frequently broke out again. The exaltation of Ephraim was not so much his distinction among his brethren as the governmental predominance at which that tribe ever aimed. That elevation, however, was soon followed by religious declension, culminating in the idolatry of Baal, which soon sealed the doom of the northern kingdom, thenceforth given up to destruction. The sentence of death was pronounced, and the actual dying commenced with the introduction of idolatrous worship. Thus, correctly, Kimchi: "He lifted up his head in Israel. And after he offended in Baal he died, as if he said, he was beaten before his enemies, as if he were dead, the power of his hand had departed." 13:1-8 While Ephraim kept up a holy fear of God, and worshipped Him in that fear, so long he was very considerable. When Ephraim forsook God, and followed idolatry, he sunk. Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves, in token of their adoration of them, affection for them, and obedience to them; but the Lord will not give his glory to another, and therefore all that worship images shall be confounded. No solid, lasting comfort, is to be expected any where but in God. God not only took care of the Israelites in the wilderness, he put them in possession of Canaan, a good land; but worldly prosperity, when it feeds men's pride, makes them forgetful of God. Therefore the Lord would meet them in just vengeance, as the most terrible beast that inhabited their forests. Abused goodness calls for greater severity.
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