Isaiah 22:16
New International Version
What are you doing here and who gave you permission to cut out a grave for yourself here, hewing your grave on the height and chiseling your resting place in the rock?

New Living Translation
“Who do you think you are, and what are you doing here, building a beautiful tomb for yourself— a monument high up in the rock?

English Standard Version
What have you to do here, and whom have you here, that you have cut out here a tomb for yourself, you who cut out a tomb on the height and carve a dwelling for yourself in the rock?

Berean Study Bible
What are you doing here, and who authorized you to carve out a tomb for yourself here—to chisel your tomb in the height and cut your resting place in the rock?

King James Bible
What hast thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, and that graveth an habitation for himself in a rock?

New King James Version
‘What have you here, and whom have you here, That you have hewn a sepulcher here, As he who hews himself a sepulcher on high, Who carves a tomb for himself in a rock?

New American Standard Bible
‘What right do you have here, And whom do you have here, That you have cut out a tomb for yourself here, You who cut out a tomb on the height, You who carve a resting place for yourself in the rock?

NASB 1995
‘What right do you have here, And whom do you have here, That you have hewn a tomb for yourself here, You who hew a tomb on the height, You who carve a resting place for yourself in the rock?

NASB 1977
‘What right do you have here, And whom do you have here, That you have hewn a tomb for yourself here, You who hew a tomb on the height, You who carve a resting place for yourself in the rock?

Amplified Bible
‘What business do you have here? And whom do you have here, That you have hewn out a tomb here for yourself, You who hew a sepulcher on the height, You who carve a resting place for yourself in the rock?

Christian Standard Bible
What are you doing here? Who authorized you to carve out a tomb for yourself here, carving your tomb on the height and cutting a resting place for yourself out of rock?

Holman Christian Standard Bible
What are you doing here? Who authorized you to carve out a tomb for yourself here, carving your tomb on the height and cutting a crypt for yourself out of rock?

American Standard Version
What doest thou here? and whom has thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out here a sepulchre? hewing him out a sepulchre on high, graving a habitation for himself in the rock!

Aramaic Bible in Plain English
‘What are you doing here, and what do you have here, that you have cut out a tomb for yourself here? He cuts out his grave in a high place, also he fashions his dwelling in stone

Brenton Septuagint Translation
and what hast thou to do here, that thou hast here hewn thyself a sepulchre, and madest thyself a sepulchre on high, and hast graven for thyself a dwelling in the rock?

Contemporary English Version
Shebna, what gives you the right to have a tomb carved out of rock in this burial place of royalty? None of your relatives are buried here.

Douay-Rheims Bible
What dost thou here, or as if thou wert somebody here? for thou hast hewed thee out a sepulchre here, thou hast hewed out a monument carefully in a high place, a dwelling for thyself in a rock.

English Revised Version
What doest thou here? and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewed thee out here a sepulchre? hewing him out a sepulchre on high, graving an habitation for himself in the rock!

Good News Translation
"Who do you think you are? What right do you have to carve a tomb for yourself out of the rocky hillside?

GOD'S WORD® Translation
"What are you doing here? What right do you have to dig a tomb for yourself? What right do you have to cut it out in a prominent place? What right do you have to carve out a resting place for yourself in the rock?

International Standard Version
What are you doing here, and who are your relatives here that you could carve out a grave for yourself here—cutting out a tomb at the choicest location, chiseling out a resting place for yourself out of solid rock?

JPS Tanakh 1917
What hast thou here, and whom hast thou here, That thou hast hewed thee out here a sepulchre, Thou that hewest thee out a sepulchre on high, And gravest a habitation for thyself in the rock?

Literal Standard Version
What are you [doing] here? And who has [allowed] you here? That you have hewn out a tomb for yourself here? Hewing his tomb on high, Carving a dwelling for himself in a rock.

NET Bible
What right do you have to be here? What relatives do you have buried here? Why do you chisel out a tomb for yourself here? He chisels out his burial site in an elevated place, he carves out his tomb on a cliff.

New Heart English Bible
What are you doing here, and whom have you here, that you have dug out a tomb here?' Cutting himself out a tomb on high, chiseling a habitation for himself in the rock."

World English Bible
'What are you doing here? Who has you here, that you have dug out a tomb here?' Cutting himself out a tomb on high, chiseling a habitation for himself in the rock!"

Young's Literal Translation
What -- to thee here? And who -- to thee here? That thou hast hewn out to thee here -- a sepulchre? Hewing on high his sepulchre, Graving in a rock a dwelling for himself.

Additional Translations ...
Context
A Message for Shebna
15This is what the Lord GOD of Hosts says: “Go, say to Shebna, the steward in charge of the palace: 16What are you doing here, and who authorized you to carve out a tomb for yourself here— to chisel your tomb in the height and cut your resting place in the rock? 17Look, O mighty man! The LORD is about to shake you violently. He will take hold of you,…

Cross References
Matthew 27:60
and placed it in his own new tomb that he had cut into the rock. Then he rolled a great stone across the entrance to the tomb and went away.

Genesis 50:5
my father made me swear an oath when he said, 'I am about to die. You must bury me in the tomb that I dug for myself in the land of Canaan.' Now let me go and bury my father, and then return."

2 Samuel 18:18
During his lifetime, Absalom had set up for himself a pillar in the King's Valley, for he had said, "I have no son to preserve the memory of my name." So he gave the pillar his name, and to this day it is called Absalom's Monument.

2 Chronicles 16:14
And he was buried in the tomb that he had cut out for himself in the City of David. They laid him on a bier that was full of spices and various blended perfumes; then they made a great fire in his honor.

Isaiah 14:19
But you are cast out of your grave like a rejected branch, covered by those slain with the sword, and dumped into a rocky pit like a carcass trampled underfoot.

Isaiah 22:17
Look, O mighty man! The LORD is about to shake you violently. He will take hold of you,


Treasury of Scripture

What have you here? and whom have you here, that you have hewed you out a sepulcher here, as he that hews him out a sepulcher on high, and that engraves an habitation for himself in a rock?

what hast

Isaiah 52:5
Now therefore, what have I here, saith the LORD, that my people is taken away for nought? they that rule over them make them to howl, saith the LORD; and my name continually every day is blasphemed.

Micah 2:10
Arise ye, and depart; for this is not your rest: because it is polluted, it shall destroy you, even with a sore destruction.

hewed.

Isaiah 14:18
All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.

2 Samuel 18:18
Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which is in the king's dale: for he said, I have no son to keep my name in remembrance: and he called the pillar after his own name: and it is called unto this day, Absalom's place.

2 Chronicles 16:14
And they buried him in his own sepulchres, which he had made for himself in the city of David, and laid him in the bed which was filled with sweet odours and divers kinds of spices prepared by the apothecaries' art: and they made a very great burning for him.

as he.









(16) What hast thou here? . . .--The prophet's indignation is roused by Shebna's last act of arrogance. He had no "sepulchre of his fathers" to deck with fresh stateliness, and, like the kings and great ones of the earth (the kings of Sidon, the Pharaohs of Egypt, the kings of Assyria), had built one for himself, hollowed out of the wells (probably on one of the hills of Jerusalem), to be his own everlasting "habitation," his domus ?terna. So in Ecclesiastes 12:5, the grave is the "long home" of man. Rock-hewn sepulchres of this type are found on the slopes of all the hills in the neighbourhood of the holy city.

Verse 16. - What hast thou here? i.e. what business, or what right? It seems, certainly, to be implied that Shebna was wholly unconnected with Jerusalem. Whom hast thou here? i.e. what relations? what family? To be justified in hewing out a large tomb, Shebna should have had a numerous family for whom graves would be needed. Otherwise, his excavation of a grand sepulcher was merely selfish and ostentatious. As he that heweth him out a sepulcher on high. Jewish tombs of any pretension were generally excavations in the solid rock, on the side of some hill or mountain, and had often a very elevated position. Tombs exist on the slopes of all the hills about Jerusalem, but are most numerous on the eastern side of the temple mount, which slopes steeply to the Kedron valley. A square-topped doorway leads into a chamber, generally square, from which recesses, six or seven feet long, two broad, and three high, are carried into the rock horizontally, either on a level with the floor, or with a platform, or shelf, halfway up one of the walls. These recesses have been called loculi. After a body had been placed in one, it was commonly closed by a stone, which fitted into the end, and thus shut off the body from the chamber. Chambers had sometimes twelve such loculi. An habitation (comp. Ecclesiastes 12:5). We must not suppose, however, that the Jews, like the Egyptians and Etruscans, regarded the soul as inhabiting the tomb. The soul descended into sheol; the grave was the "habitation" of the body only.

Parallel Commentaries ...


Hebrew
What
מַה־ (mah-)
Interrogative
Strong's 4100: What?, what!, indefinitely what

are you doing here,
פֹה֙ (p̄ōh)
Adverb
Strong's 6311: This place, here

and who
וּמִ֣י (ū·mî)
Conjunctive waw | Interrogative
Strong's 4310: Who?, whoever, in oblique construction with prefix, suffix

authorized you
לְךָ֣ (lə·ḵā)
Preposition | second person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew

to carve out
חָצַ֧בְתָּ (ḥā·ṣaḇ·tā)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - second person masculine singular
Strong's 2672: To cut, carve, to hew, split, square, quarry, engrave

a tomb
קָ֑בֶר (qā·ḇer)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 6913: A grave, sepulcher

for yourself
פֹ֔ה (p̄ōh)
Adverb
Strong's 6311: This place, here

here,
פֹּ֖ה (pōh)
Adverb
Strong's 6311: This place, here

to chisel
חֹצְבִ֤י (ḥō·ṣə·ḇî)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular construct
Strong's 2672: To cut, carve, to hew, split, square, quarry, engrave

your tomb
קִבְר֔וֹ (qiḇ·rōw)
Noun - masculine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's 6913: A grave, sepulcher

in the height
מָרוֹם֙ (mā·rō·wm)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4791: Altitude

and cut
חֹקְקִ֥י (ḥō·qə·qî)
Verb - Qal - Participle - masculine singular construct
Strong's 2710: To hack, engrave, to enact, prescribe

your resting place
מִשְׁכָּ֥ן (miš·kān)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 4908: A residence, the Tabernacle

in the rock?
בַסֶּ֖לַע (ḇas·se·la‘)
Preposition-b, Article | Noun - masculine singular
Strong's 5553: A craggy rock


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OT Prophets: Isaiah 22:16 What are you doing here? Who has (Isa Isi Is)
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